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University OF 


' BY 

Columbia College 


October 21st, 1890 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Toronto 








YEARS 18G5, '66. 







Officers of the American Institute, 1866. _ v 

Faculty of the Institute v 

Letter of Corresponding Secretary to the Speaker of the 

House of Assembly _ vi 

Report of the Trustees of the American Institute, March 

27, 1866. _ _ 1 

Proceedings of the Institute. .._ _ 2-74 

Annual Report of the Board of Trustees 2 

Obituaries — James J. Mapes, Thomas B. Stillman and 

Benedict Lewis, Jr _ 5 

Report of the Committee on Finance, January 31, 1866 .. 7 

Report of the Committee on Horticulture, Jan. 31, 1866.. 9 
Premiums awarded at the Exhibition of Strawberries, June 

13 and 14, 1865 11 

Remarks on the Strawberry, by Prof. G. W. Huntsman, 

June 13, 1865 14 

Report of the Committee on the Library, February 1, 1866 21 

Report of the Committee on Agriculture, February 1, 1866 22 

Report of the Committee on Commerce, Februaiy 1, 1866 24 
Report of the Committee on Manufactures, Science and 

Art, February 1, 1866 26 

Report on the Condell Limbs 28 

Report of the Board of Managers of the Thirty-sixth An- 
nual Fair, January 30, 1866 30 

Premiums awarded at the Thirty-sixth Annual Fair 36 

Trial of Mowers, July 22, 1865 47 

Address delivered at the opening of the 36th Annual Fair, 

by Maj. Gen. Daniel E. Sickles, Sept. 12, 1865 _.. 52 

Address delivered at the closing of the 36th Annual Fair, 

October 18, 1865, by Prof. John W. Draper, LL. D 61 

Address of the Hon. Horace Greeley on taking the chair 

as President of the American Institute, Feb. 20, 1866 ._ 68 
Proceedings of the Farmers' Club, together with the Rules 
and Regulations adopted by the Committee on Agricul- 
ture.. _.. 75-421 

Proceedings of the Polytechnic Association ._ 422-699 


Trustees and Committees. 

18 6 6. 

President-^UOn ACE GREELEY. 

Vice-Presidents — Dudley S. Gregory, William Walkbr, William Hibbard. 

Recording Secretary — Jireh Bull. 

Corresponding Secretary — Samuel D. Tillman. 

Treasurer — Sylvester R. Comstock. 

Managers of Fairs and Exhibitions — James R. Smith, William Ebbitt, Thomas F. Devoe, 
William H. Butler, George Timpson, James Knight, George Peyton, George R. Jackson, J. 
Owen Ronse, J. Groshon Herriot, George M. Woodward, Thomas C. Smith, R. G. Hatfield, 
D. G. Starkey, Lloyd Aspinwall, William H. Hicks, C. Wager Hull, Nathan C. Ely, Isaac 
M. Ward, Charles A. Whitney, William W. Marston, James Hogg, Isaac Buchanan, William 

Committee on Finance— Thomas M. Adriance, Nathan C. Ely, Cyrus W. Loutrel, Thomas 
Williams, jr., Charles Chamberlain. 

Committe on the Library — William Hibbard, James K. Campbell, Jacob L. Baldwin, 
Dubois D. Parmelee, Jireh Bull. 

Committee on Repository — John B. Rich, James Bogardus, William H. Butler, Thomas 
D. Stetson. 

Committee on Manufactures. Science and Art — John D. Ward, Joseph Dixon, Samuel D. 
Tillman, Charles A. Joy, Edward Ruggles. 

Committee on Agriculture — John G. Bergen, Isaac P. Trimble, George Bartlett, T. Quinn, 
James Hogg. 

Committee on Horticulture — William S. Carpenter, Benjamin C. Townsend, John Hen- 
derson, P. T. Quinn. 

Committee on the Admission of Members — Charles E. Burd, John W. Chambers, John F. 
Cory, J. D. Drake. 

Committee on Commerce — Warren Rowell, Luther B. Wyman, John P. Veeder, Edward 
D. Bassford, Rush Patterson. 

Committee on Correspondence — John H. White, Joseph Hcxie, Henry L. Stewart, John 
W. Avery, George F. Barnard. 

Librarian and Clerk — John W. Chambers. 

Messenger — Richard H. Dalton. 


Samuel Dyer Tillman, M. A., Professor of Mechanical Philosophy and Technology. 
Julius G. Pohle, M. D., Professor of Analytical Chemistry. 
Robert P. Stevens, M. D., Professor of Geology and Mineralogy. 


Passed April 21, 1866. 
The People oj the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows : 

Section 1. William B. Astor. Cornelius Vanderbilt, Alexander T. Stewart, Denning Duer, 
Abiel A. Low, George Law, S. F. B. Morse, Erastua Corning, Gerrit Smith, Ezra Cornell, 
John Maoee, Dean Richmond, Edwin D. Morgan, and Edwin A. Stevens arc hereby consti- 
tuted a Board of Regents of the American Institute of the city of New York, and they and 
their successors shall have power to fill any vacancy in their own number * 

Sec. 2. The Board of Trustees of the American Institute, the Mayor of the city of New 
York, the Governor of the State of New York, and the Secretary of the Interior of the United 
States Government, shall be ex-officio members of the said Buard of Regents. 

Sec. 3. All donations, bequests and devises hereafter made or given to the American Insti- 
tute, shall be taken and held by the said Board of Regents in trust for the said Institute. 

Sec. 4. The said Board of Regents shall have power to purchase or receive by gift, grant 
or devise, real and personal estate to the amount of one million of dollars, and to sell or dis- 
pose of the same, as they may think proper, in the erection of buildings, the construction of 
laboratories, machinery and museums of art, for use of the said Institute; and they may ap- 
propriate a portion of the annual income to establish and maintain professorships and lectures 
in the said city of New York on Natural History, Physics and Chemistry, and their applica- 
tion to the useful arts ; and also to print and circulate throughout the United States docu- 
ments relating to Agriculture, INLanufactures and Commerce; and to use any other means to 
make the said Institute national in its influence and character. 

Sec. 5. The said Board of Regents shall have no control over the property now belonging to 
the Institute, and shall not interfere with its operations as at present conducted, except so 
far as power may be delegated to them by the regular action of the said corporation. 

Office of the Secretary of State, ) 
State of New York. ) 

I have compared the preceding with the original law on file in this oflBce, and do hereby 
certify that the same is a correct transcript therefrom, and of the whole of said original law. 
Given under my hand and seal of office, at the city of Albany, this ninth (9) day of 
[l. s.] May, in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-six. 

Deputy Secretary of State. 

* Several yacanciea in the class of permanent Regents will be filled before the close of the 

hit of ^t\a Jorh, 

ISTo. 198. 


A.pril 9, 1860, 


American Institute, ) 

New Yoek, llarch 27th, 1866. J 

To the Honorable Lyman Teemain, 

Speaker of the Assembly of the State of Nefw York: 

Sir — I herewith transmit the Annual Report of the American 
Institute of the city of New York for the years 1865-6. 
With great respect, I have the honor to be 
Your obedient servant, 


Corr. Secretary, 


To the Honor able the Legislature of the State of New York. 

The iinclersignecl respectfully submit to the Legislature as a report 
of the Transactions of the American Institute of the City of New 
York, during the 3^ears 1865-6, the annexed documents, containing 

1. A review of the operations and condition of the Institute pre- 
sented at the annual meeting in February, 1866. 

2. An exhibit of the receipts and expenditures during the last fiscal 

3. An account of the exhibition of strawberries, hot-house grapes 
and flowers, held at the rooms of the Institute in June, 1865, includ- 
ing a list of premiums awarded and remarks on the strawberry. 

4. A statement of additions made to the Library. 

5. Papers presented at meetings of the Institute on subjects con- 
nected with Commerce, Agriculture, Manufactures, Arts and the 

6. A detailed account of the management of the thirty-sixth An- 
nual Fair, held in the Fall of 1865, including a list of the Premiums 

7. Addresses at the opening and closing of the Fair. 

8. Remarks of the President elect on taking: the Chair. 

9. The proceedings of the Farmers' Club, embracing communica- 
tions from correspondents in various parts of the Union. 

10. The deliberations of the Polytechnic Association, on subjects 
relating -chiefly to Mechanism, Chemistry and Mineralog}', including 
illustrations and explanations of new discoveries and inventions. 



New Yokk, March 27, 1866. 

[Am. Inst.] 



Ill reviewing the operations of the American Institute for the past 
year, the Board of Trustees submits the following report: 

In March last the Institute rescinded the resolution previously 
passed, conferring upon the Board authorit}^ to sell the property in 
Broadway and Leonard street. Although renew^ed offers have been 
made to purchase the same, it has not been deemed expedient to ask 
for a renewal of that authority. It is a question, however, for the 
Institute to determine, whether its interest does not require that ad- 
vantage should be taken of the present apparently inflated prices of 
real estate, by eftecting a sale thei'eof. The reA enue derived from 
its rent during the 3^eai", deducting taxes, insurance, &c., is not far 
from fifty-eight hundred dollars, and will not vary essentially from 
that sum for the year to come. 

The attention of the Board has been directed to a provision in the 
law pertaining to Columbia College, providing perpetually for two 
free scholarships in that Institution, upon the nomination of the 
American Institute. This subject Avas referred to the Board of Trus- 
tees with certain discretionary powers. In its consideration, it was 
determined to confine their action in regard to candidates, to fami- 
lies of the members of the Institute, and to give public notice that 
the Board was prepared to receive applications for the situation. 
The notice failed to produce any applicants. It seems quite desira- 
ble that renewed efforts should be made by the Institute to secure 
the advantages so honorably and gratuitously proposed by the Char- 
ter of that distinguished and venerable Institution. 

The Trustees have not failed to observe the increased activity of 
its various branches during the year; reports of their proceedings 
will be made to the Institute. It is gratifying to learn that by the 
operations of the Farmers' Club, more than seven thousand persons- 
from various and distant parts of our country, have placed themselves 
in correspondence with the Institute, and the great interest manifes- 
ted by them in their proceedings shows conclusively the extensive 
influence wdiich the Institute is poAverfully exerting. 

Durim? no former year have the discussions of the Polytechnic 
Association attracted audiences so large, or created an interest so 
great. The subjects discussed have possessed greater practical merit, 
many of which have been favorably noticed by publications in this 
and foreign countries. It is worthy of remark that the presiding 


officer of this Association, since his first appointment, now more than 
three years ago, has not been absent at any of its meetings. 

The Horticultural Association has offered great entertainment to 
its members and others, by the inauguration of a course of lectures 
pertaining to this branch of the Institute, which have been delivered 
by eminent lecturers. The Lil)rary Committee has increased its ex- 
penditures, rnd has added many useful volumes to its attractive 

The Board of ^Managers early in the year determined to hold a 
public exhibition during the autumn. Their preparations were upon 
a scale commensurate with its object. The articles of which it was 
composed attracted deservedly unusual attention, and challenged a 
comparison with any collection heretofore brought together for pub- 
lic exhibition in this country. The receipts were large, but owing 
to the unprecedented expenses attending the exhibition, the amount 
paid into the treasury by the managers fell short of their expectation. 
Yet it is a matter for congratulation that no pecuniary loss to the 
Institute has resulted by reason of the exhibition. 

The Board of Trustees refer with much pleasure and satisfaction 
to the financial condition of the Institute as detailed in the report of 
the Finance Committee. Althouo-h the Institute, at its meetina' in Ausr- 
ust last, authorized the Trustees to borrow money upon the credit of 
the Institute, it was found not only unnecessary to use that authority, 
but that the accumulations in the Treasury have warranted the Trus- 
tees to'reduce their indebtedness, secured bv mort£:i^o:e, in the sum 
of three thousand dollars. 

The Board of Trustees deem it their duty to call the attention of 
the members of the Institute to the volume of Transactions for the 
year 1864-5, which has just been issued from the press. It is not only 
considerably larger than any which has preceded it, but it can be 
confidently affirmed that no book of equal dimensions b}^ this or any 
other similar association, contains a greater amount of valuable and 
useful information. The list of membership has been increased since 
the last annual report b^- the addition of: 

Life and annual members __ 183 

Corresponding members. ._ 22 

Honorary members ^_ 4 

Making a total of 209 

It is pleasant and gratifying thus to review the operations of the 
past year, especially to those who have long toiled for the success 
and prosperity of this organization; but our present duty will not 
be complete if we fail to call to our recollections those long identified 


with US in this department of philanthropy, who have been quite re- 
cently removed from us. One, formerly a member of this Board and 
treasurer of the Institute; another, whose voice has often been heard 
in the counsels of the Institute, who wrote the last report of the Agri- 
cultural Committee; and yet another, Avhose modest and unpretend- 
ing manners rendered his opinions and advice none the less accepta- 
ble, have finished their earthly labors. The names of Lewis, Mapes 
and Stillman adorn the pages of the volume of Transactions, and it 
is fit their memories should be cherished by those who survive. 

. RespectfuUv submitted. 








New York, February Ist, 1866, 



A special meeting of the American Institute was held at its rooms 
on Monday, January 22, 1866. 

Vice-President Edward Walker presiding. 

The Chairman, on calling the meeting to order, remarked that 
since the last meeting three prominent members of the Institute had 
deceased, viz: Prof. James J. Mapes, Thomas B. Stillman and Bene- 
dict Lewis, Jr., gentlemen who for many years had held important 
positions in this Institute, and as a mark of appreciation of their ser- 
vices, and of the deep sense of the loss sustained by the Institute, 
this meeting had been called to take some action on the su])ject. 


Prof. S. D. Tillman offered the following preamble and resolu- 
tions, which, on motion of Mr. Sylvester R. Comstock, were unani- 
mously adopted: 

Whereas, Since our last meetins; three members, lono^ identified 
with the prosperity of the American Institute, have by the divine 
mandate suddenly closed their earthly career, a just appreciation of 
their services and worth now prompts the Institute to express the 
sense of its loss, and to offer a fitting tribute to their memory; 

Resoli'ed, That in the death of James J. Mapes, Professor of 
Natural Philosophy and applied Chemistry in the American Institute 
for the last twenty-five years, and an eflicient laborer in its agricul- 
tural branch, this institution has been bereft of the valuable assist- 
ance of one possessing unusual natural endowments, who by the pro- 
ductions of his pen, by numerous and important experiments on soils 
continued through a long series of years, and by the invention of 
fiirming implements, greatly advanced the interests of agriculture 
and horticulture, and justly earned the title of benefiictor of his 

Resolved, That we deplore the loss of Thomas B. Stillm.vx, for- 
merly a Vice-President of this Institute, and long identified with its 
mechanical branch. His position as a distinguisiied engineer and 
able mechanician, and his strict probity, eminently fitted him for the 
trust committed to him by the General Government, and his death 
must be regarded as a public calamity. 


Resolved, That the untimely demise of Benedict Lewis, Jr., for- 
merly the Treasurer of the American Institute, and justl}^ eminent 
for his financial ability, has excited among his recent associates emo- 
tions of profound sorroAv and regret. 

Resolved, That we deeply sympathize with the afflicted families 
of the deceased, and condole witn each over the inscrutable dispen- 
sation of Providence which has suddenly severed the dearest domes- 
tic ties. 

Resolved, That the foregoing preamble and resolutions be entered 
upon the minutes of the Institute, and a copy of the same be trans- 
mitted to the ftimilies of the deceased. 


Actiiig Recording Secretary. 



Receipts and Expenditures of tlie American Institute of the City 
of New York, for the year ending January 31, 1866: 
Balance in the treasurj^ Jan. 31, 1865 $969 65 


Rent of premises Broadway and Leon- 
ard street $8,000 00 

Admission fees from members, $760 00 

Annual dues do 948 00 

Dues from life members . ^ _ . _ 680 00 

• 2,388 CO 

Treasurer of the State, appropriation 

for 1864 950 00 

Sale of old paper, &c 24 92 

Managers of the 36th Annual Fair 1,397 91 

12,760 83 

$13,730 48 


Taxes on real estate $2,199 05 

Repj^rs do 76 42 

Insurance on real estate and library 113 75 

On account of principal of bond, $20,000. . 3,000 00 

Interest do . do do .. 1,200 00 

Books, periodicals and binding 227 67 

Balance due on horticultural exhibition 32 50 

Exhibition of strawberries 225 93 

Advertising, printing and newspapers 107 00 

Blank books and stationery 80 08 

Gas 1 95 40 

Rent of rooms in Cooper Union 1 ,450 00 

Appropriation to corresponding secretary. , 1 ,000 00 

Agent's expenses at Al bany 15 00 

Reporter 16 00 

Sundry current ex])enses of the year 323 04 

Sjdar}^ of clerk and librarian 2, 000 00 

Messenger 292 50 

12,454 34 

Balance in the treasury . . .. $1,276 14 

New York, January 31, 1866. Finance Committee. 


Amount of Property held by the American Institute, 

Jan. 31, 1866. 
Real estate — No. 351 Bror.dway, and Xo. 89i Leonard 

street, cost _' _.. $45,800 00 

Less mortaage _ 17 , 000 00 

$28,800 00 

Library and fixtures 14, 177 23 

Office furniture and fixtures, iron safes, models of fruit, 

etc ' , .. 934 00 

Property used at the fairs 350 00 

$44,261 23 
Cash in treasury January 31, 1866 _ 1,276 14 

Total $45,537 37 


The Committee on Horticulture of the American Institute besf 
leave to report: 

The American Institute having made an appropriation for an exhi- 
bition of Strawberries, Roses, &c., to be held in the rooms of the 
American Institute, under the direction of your Committee, the fol- 
lowing circular and list of prizes were prepared and extensively 
circulated among Strawberry growers, Horticulturists and others: 

" The Committee on Horticulture beg leave to announce that a 
grand Straw^berry Exhibition will be held at the rooms (»f the In- 
stitute, Cooper Union Building, in the city of New^ York, on Tuesday 
and Wednesday, June loth and 14th, 1865, when the following liberal 
prizes will be aw^arded: 


For the best collection of named kinds, not less than 25, 

one pint of each _.. _ $50 00 

Second best _ 25 CO 

For the best seedling, never before exhibited, embracing 
size, flavor and productiveness, and equal to the best now 

growai, the plant to be exhibited Avith the fruit 25 00 

For the best ornamental arrangement of Strawberries in 
dishes for the table, two quarts, and not less than six 

varieties _ 10 00 

(The selection of the dish will be left to the exhibitor. 
The style of dish and arrangement of fruit will con- 
stitute the leading features of this prize; and they 
must be in good taste.) 

For the best plant, in pot, of any variety in fruit. _ 10 00 

(This plant must be in good conditio^, and not droop- 
ing or wilted from being lifted.) 

For the best six named varieties for the amateur 10 00 

For the best two quarts of one variety for market 5 00 

the amateur, __. 5 00 

For the three heaviest berries ._ 5 00 

For the best quart of the Agriculturist 3 00 

Austin 3 00 

Boston Pine (or Bartlett) 3 00 

Burr s Ncav Pine 3 00 

Buff*alo _ 3 00 

Brooklyn Scarlet 3 00 


For the best quart of the Bonte de St Julieii $3 00 

BictoiiPnie . __- 3 00 

Deptford White 3 00 

French's Seedlmg... 3 00 

FiHrnore 3 00 

Golden Seeded. 3 00 

Green Prolific.... 3 00 

" Hovey's Seedling 3 00 

Hooker's Seedling. 3 00 

Hautbois 3 00 

Jenny Lind . 3 00 

Kitley'sGoliah.. _ 3 00 

" La Constante >. .. 3 00 

i' Longworth's Prolific 3 00 

" Lennino's White 3 00 

Ladies'^Pine. _ 3 00 

■" Ladies' Finger 3 00 

*' McAvoy's Superior 3 00 

Mead's Seedling. 3 00 

" ^ Eussell's Prolific. 3 00 

Triomphe de Gaud 3 00 

Trollope's Victoria... 3 00 

" Vicomtesse Hericart de Thury 3 00 

Victory 3 00 

Wilson's Albany 3 00 

*' White Pineapple 3 00 

" any other variety equal to the above 3 00 

For the best basket or box for marketing strawberries 3 00 


For the best collection of well grown plants, in pots, six 

varieties " . - $25 00 

For the second best 15 00 

For the best specimen plant 5 00 

For the second best specimen plant 3 00 

For the best white corollaed variety 2 00 

For the best double corollaed variety 2 00 


For the best collection of Cut Roses $15 00 

For the second best. - 10 00 

For the best twelve blooms, named 5 00 

For the second best 3 00 

Rules and Hegulations. 
The fri'rit must be on the tables by 4 o'clock on Tuesday afternoon, 
June loth. Each kind must be correctlj^ named. It is expected that 
the exhibitor Avill shoAv the exact quantity specified, neither more nor 
less. A deficiency wdll disqualify for a prize. 


The judges will meet on Tuesday, June 13, at a quarter past 4 
o'clock p. M., to make their examinations.* Xo persons will be allowed 
in the room during the examination of the judges. The exhibitor's 
name must not appear till after the examination. The prizes will be 
attached to each lot as soon as the judges have finished their labors. 

The exhibition will open to the public at 7 o'clock p. m., on Tues- 
day, and remain open till 7 p. m., on Wednesda3\ 

The prize fruit will be at the disposal of the Committee at the 
close of the exhibition. 

Dishes will be provided bj' the Committee, except the dishes for 
the ornamental display of Strawberries, which must be provided by 
the exhibitor. 

A lecture by Prof. Huntsman, on "The Strawberry," will be de- 
livei'ed on Tuesday evening, at half past 8 o'clock. 

The judges on strawberries will be Messrs. Peter B. Mead, Isaac 
Buchanan. R. G. Pardee, Charles Downin^r and Prof. Huntsman. 

The judges on flowers will be Messrs. John Henderson, AVilliam 
J. Davidson and William Baker. 

The judges are authorized to award discretionary prizes for really 
meritorious articles not provided for above. 

Fruit from a distance may be addressed, pre-paid, to the care of 
Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretary of the Horticultural Association 
of the American Institute, Xo. 22 Cooper Union Building, and will 
be properly placed on the tables." 

The time fixed for the exhibition was a week too late, in conse- 
quence of the earl}' season. Strawberries in this location were ripe, 
and passed their perfection, before the exhibition opened. Xotwith- 
standing, the show was very fine. 

The following premiums Avere awarded: 


E. Marshall, Poughkeepsie, X. Y., for the best collection of 
named varieties of strawberries $50 

Wm.^R. Prince, Flushing, L. I., for the second best collection 
of named varieties of strawberries 25 

J. ^y. Faulkner, Stamford, Conn., for the three heaviest straw- 
berries 5 

Orange Judd, Flushing, L. I., for the best quart of the "Agri- 
culturist " .. .r__ 3 

Thomas Cavenach. Brooklyn, L. I., for the best quart of " Bonte 
de St. Julian '" 3 

Thomas Cavenach, Brooklyn, L. I., for the best quart of "Dept- 
ford AYhite " _ . 3 

Francis Brill, Xewark, X. J., for the best quart of " Fillmore " 3 


J. H. Parsell, Irvington, N. J., for the best quart of " Green 
Prolific" - ---- $3 

Wm. L. Ferris, Throg's Neck, N. Y., for the best quart of 
" Hovey's Seedling " 3 

Wm. L. Ferris, Throg's Neck, N. Y., for the best quart of 
"Hooker's Seedling" — 3 

Wm. R. Prince, Flushing, L. L, for the best " Hautbois " 3 

Francis Brill, Newark, N. J., for the best quart of " La Con- 
stant "■ 3 

E. Williams, Montclair, N. J., for the best quart of "Ladies' 
Finger " __ 3 

Francis Brill, Newark, N. J., for the best quart of "^McAvoy's 
Superior " ^ — 3 

L. M. Vincent, Pouohkeepsie, N. Y., for the best quart of " Rus- 
sell's Prolific"-.^ - - 3 

Geo. Henr}', Hudson City, N. J., for the best quart of " Tri- 
omphe de Gand " _ _ 3 

0. J. Tilson, New Paltz, Ulster Co. N. Y., for the best quart of 
"Wilson's Albany "__. _. 3 

J. W. Faulkner, Stamford, Conn., for the best quart of " Rip- 
j)owani '• — — 3 


Wm. A. Burgess, Glen Cove, L. L, for the best collection of 
cut roses $15 

The Judofcs recommend that honorable mention be made of the 
folio wino-: 

A. G. Burgess, East New York, for a new seedling rose, "Poca- 

Isaac Buchanan, No. 9 East 17th street, for a fine collection of 

Andrew Bridgeman, No. 878 Broadway, for fine specimens of orna- 
mental foliage plants. 


John Ellis, Fox Meadow Gardens, Westchester County, N. Y., 
for a splendid exhibition of hot-house grapes $30 

Prof. Nyce, Cleveland, Ohio, for native grapes and apples pre- 
served in his new fruit house Diploma. 

The receipts and expenditures have been as follows: 


From sales of tickets at the door _ |53 95 

From American Institute, on account of appropriation 

of $350, passed May 6, 1865 _ 225 93 

$279 S^ 



Printing, advertising, and bill posting $36 18 

Cartage, tables, postages, &c ^ 25 10 

Expenses Strawberry Re-union 45 60 

$106 88 

Premiums in cash as per list. .- 173 00 

$279 88 


Committee on HovtiGulture, 


BERRIES, JUNE 13, 1865. 

The strawberry may be divided into six species; some bctanists 

make more, and some make less. 

There are three species indigenous to Europe: 

1. Fragaria Vesca — Embracing two varieties, the Wood and the 
Alpine: fruit small, seedy, dry, of a sweet but not high flavor. Each 
variety produces both red and white fruit. The Wood produces but 
one crop during the summer; the Alpine is ever-bearing, continuing 
in fruit until frost; sexual character always perfect. 

2. Fragaria CoUina — The green strawberry which is found grow- 
ing wild in Switzerland and Germany. Plants of very feeble growth, 
but making numerous runners; fruit quite small, imperfect in form, 
of a o-reenish color mixed with ])rown; flavor sweet and aromatic; 
cultivated as a curiosity; sexual character perfect. 

3. Fragaria FJatior — Called the Hautbois. The plants are vigor- 
ous, bearing their blossoms and fruit above the leaves, hence its name. 
Fruit laro-er than the previous named species, but small compared 
with the Pine strawberry; flavor sweet and musk}^, much relished bj 
some; some varieties are very productive; sexual character, herma- 
phrodite and pistillate, occasionally staminate; that is, plants raised 
from the seed will be of three different kinds in regard to sex; some 
perfect, some having only pistils, and sometimes plants are produced 
having only stamens. 

These three species do not mix with each other, that is, the pollen 
of one will not fructify another. The first two, when propagated b}'- 
seed, produce plants and fruit without any variation, hence they have 
not been improved l)y raising seedlings, nor have they been much 
improved by culture. The Hautbois has some capacity of being 
improved by raising new seedlings, as it sports a little; we have, 
consequently, some varieties bearing fruit a little larger than the Avild 


These European species will not combine with any of the Ameri- 
can species. " Peabody's seedling," called a Hautbois, is a misnomer. 
It is a Pine strawberr}^ Boy den's " Green Prolific" is also a mis- 
nomer. It does not belong to the class of green strawberries, but 
was produced by combining the Pine with the Iowa. 

There are commonly reckoned three species belonging to America, 
one in North and two in South America, 


AVe have in North America, Fragaria Virginiana^ usually called 
the Scarlet strawberry, found irrowins: Avild in our w^oocls and fields. 
Phuits hardy and vigorous; fruit small, of a red color, and of a high 
sprightly flavor. 

There are some varieties of this which are frequently regarded as 
distinct species; they may or they may not be such. The most inicr- 
estino- of these is a varietv found orowini*; on the prairie of Iowa, 
hence called the Iowa strawberr}'. It is characterized by the large 
size of its fruit, and by the vigor of the plant; it is more acid than 
the smaller A^arieties. A kind has also been found in Illinois, having 
some peculiarities. The fruit is smaller than the lUlnoiensis and 
very acid. The phints growing wild in Xorth America arc of two 
kinds as regards sex. Some plants are hermaphrodite, wdiile others 
are furnished Avith pistils onl}*: these do not change their character 
by being cultivated, and, Avhen raised from seed, both of these kinds 
of plants are produced. This fact has been denied by some botanists 
but there can be no doubt of its truth at present. 

In South America Ave find two species, the Grandiflora or Pine, and 
the Chili. The Chili is found in Chili and Peru. Plants larire and 
hairy; the fruit is also very large. This species is of difiicult culti- 
vation in our climate. The plants are A'ery tender. In England it 
succeeds better than here, but is not regarded as productive. 

The Grandiflora or Pine, is supposed by some to be indigenous to 
Surinam, others regar»l it as a sub-species of the Chili. Plants vigor- 
ous and blossoms very large, from Avhich circumstance it takes its 
name. The fruit is large, beautiful, and of a sAA^eet, delicious flavor. 
The best of all straAvberries. Nearly all the fine varieties cultivated 
in Europe have sprung from this species. Many of them haA-e been 
found a little tender in the Northern States. The Triomphe de Gaud 
and a few others haA^-e been successfully cultivated. Plants of this 
species, raised from seed, are generally hermaphrodite, a fcAv pistillate 
plants, however, have been produced. 

The Lucida Perfecta, raised in Belgium, is pistillate. I have two- 
pistillate plants from seed. The three American species com])ine 
with each other freely, and it is from recent combinations of these 
that Ave have been able to make such valuable acquisitions to our stock 
of fine strawberries. Mr. Prince assumed, some time asfo, that the 
South American species Avould not combine Avith those of North 
America. In this he Avas mistaken. I have combined them repeatedly. 
I wdll take this occasion to say that I am much indebted to Mr. Prince 
for the facilities Avhich he has afforded me in studvino- the character 
of the different species and varieties of sh-aAvberries, in permitting 
me, at all times, to examine the plants in his extensive, and I may 


say, iinequaled collection. He has spared no pains nor expense in 
obtainino: all the novelties to be found either in the United States or 
in Europe. 

In the year 1629 the Scarlet strawberry was taken from this coun- 
try to England, and in 1727 the Chili and Pine \vere introduced. 
No improvements appear to have been made in these species until 
the beginning of the present century. I have already mentioned 
that the species found in Europe are not susceptible of much im- 
provement, either from culture or b}^ raising new varieties from seed. 
Many seedlings of the Scarlet variety are named, but none of much 
value — the fruit being generally of medium size and medium quality. 
The only large fruit raised from the Scarlet, was the Mcthven Scar- 
let, which was of inferior quality, being hollow and possessing but 
little flavor. Within the last thirty j^ears, and especially within the 
last ten, great improvements have been made by raising seedlings 
from the Pine in Enfrland and in Bela'ium. It mio-ht have been an- 
ticipated that the Pine would yield better results than the Scarlet, 
inasmuch as the Pine in its natural state far exceeds the Scarlet in 
size and excellence. The first decidedly valuable acquisition was 
the Keene's seedling, discovered accidentally and still held in high 
esteem. The next was the British Queen and some other seedlings, 
raised b}^ Mr. Myatt, of England. These were highly prized for 
their laro^e size and delicious flavor. In the mild climate of Eno-land 
these varieties succeed well, but in our more rugged and variable 
one they have not succeeded at all. Among the many new seedlings 
raised in England, we may notice the " Swainstone," Avhich in point 
of flavor has no superior, though the Filbert Pine, a more recent 
production, nearly equals it. Almost all the seedlings produced in 
England from the Pine have proved failures in this country. The 
Jucunda seems to be an exception to this rule. It is quite hardy, 
vigorous and productive; the fruit is large, regular and beautiful, 
though not high flavored. Recently a few novelties have been pro- 
duced in England and France by combining the Pine and Chili. 
These hybrids, as might be expected, are generally more tender than 
the Pine varieties. Of them I will mention only two varieties : 
•' Madame Vilmorin," raised in England, by combining the British 
Queen with the Chili; the fruit is large, or very large, and of exqui- 
site flavor, but the plants are too tender to be preserved .Avithout 
extraordinary care. '' Napoleon III," raised in France, produces a 
moderate crop of large, beautiful berries, of delicious flavor. The 
plants are rustic and not very tender, they may be preserved by a 
little care. They resemble in habit the Austin seedling, but the 
fruit is not to be compared with that of the Austin in excellence. 

Some fine varieties of the Pine have been raised in Belgium, these, 


it is thought, are better suited to our climate than those raised iu 
Enofhuid. Tlie La Constant has succeeded well in some soils, Avhile 
in others it has burned badly. I tried it in a light soil, where it did 
not succeed. The fruit, though large and regular in size and beauti- 
ful in appearance, is sometimes a little water3\ The Triomphe de 
Gand has become a great favorite with many. As a plant it is un- 
exceptionable; the fruit also is large and beautiful, but a little flat, 
it wants sprightliness; still it is a fine variety for general culture. 

In the United States, until lately, the culture of the straAvberry 
has been confined mainly to the Scarlet variety. The early Scarlet 
and the Crimson Cone have supplied the New York market. These 
are small but of good quality. Many new^ varieties have been pro- 
duced by raising seedlings from the Scarlet; some of these possess 
many good points, such as "Mac Avoy Seedling," 'Brooklyn Scar- 
let," " Scarlet Magnate," (fee. Since the discovery of the low^a va- 
riety, some valuable seedlings from it have also been obtained, viz: 
" Longworth's Prolific," " Russell's Prolific," " Green Prolific," 
"Austin," and some others. These varieties are characterized by 
great vigor of growth, productiveness, and large fruit, but all are 
more or less acid. 

Previous to the successful experiment of Mr. Hovey in the pro- 
duction of " Hovey's Seedling," no systematic effort appears to have 
been made, in this country, to obtain improved varieties of straw- 
berries by crossing the different species. Mr. Hovey was singularly 
fortunate in the selection which he made of the kinds for his experi- 
ment. He combined the Keen's Seedling, a Pine strawberry, Avith 
the Methven Scarlet. The Keen's Seedling was a remarkably fine 
Pine straw^berry; plant vigorous and productive — fruit large, beau- 
tiful, and of the finest flavor. The "Methven" was the larirest 
fruiting variety then knoAvn of the North American species; the fruit 
though very large w^as of quite medium quality. The offspring of 
this union, "Hovey's Seedling," while it possesses the hardiness and 
vigor of the " Methven," retains much of the size, beauty and excel- 
lence of the "Keen's Seedling," being inferior only in its flavor. It 
seems a little strange that the plan of crossing these species Avas not 
pursued by Mr. Hovey and others, but until Avithin a very short 
time no attempts, or at least no successful ones, have been made. 

A few hybrids of remarkable qualities have been latel}^ produced 
by combining the Pines Avith the loAva. Of this class are " Hunts- 
man's Emily," "Mead's Ncav Seedling," and the " Agriculturist." 
The latter is one of the most remarkable strawberries yet produced, 
as regards size and productiveness; in quality it is, in my opinion, 
only second rate. If the " Agriculturist " should be crossed Avith the 

[Am. Ixst.] B 


Pine, it might, with some loss of productiveness and vigor, be im- 
proved in flavor. I have made a few experiments of combining the 
Chili with the Iowa, and with marked success. I have two hybrid 
Chili, thus obtained, of considerable promise. The}^ have fruited 
but once, and they may alter much, for better or for worse, when 
they fruit again. It requires two years for seedlings to acquire their 
permanent characteristics. In this connection I Avill make a few re- 
marks upon the value of the hermaphrodite and pistillate plants. 

Some twenty years ago many of our most distinguished horticul- 
turists, at the head of whom was Mr. Longworth, esteemed the pis- 
tilhite varieties of far greater value than the hermaphrodite; the 
latter did not set their fruit so Avell. This was especially true of the 
Pine strawberries imported from Europe; onl}^ a very small portion 
of the blossoms became fruit. The pistillale varieties, on the con- 
trary, would perfect all their blossoms, provided the}'' were impreg- 
nated by the pollen from stamen bearing plants. However, hermaph- 
rodite plants have been produced which perfect all, or nearly all 
of their blossoms; for example, " Longworth's Prolific," "Wilson's 
Seedling,'' the Agriculturist, and others. All other things being 
equal, I prefer the hermaphrodites, yet am not prepared to discard 
the pistillate varieties. 

If we cultivate but one variety, it must of course be a perfect 
plant. I find the pistillates of much value in raising new varieties. 
Tliere is no danger of self-impregnation. It is only necessary to re- 
move the plant from possibility of its becoming impregnated by 
insects, or by the wind wafting the pollen of other plants to its 
blossoms, and when the blossoms open to convey the pollen of the 
variety I wish to combine, with a small camel's hair brush. The 
cross may be obtained with absolute certaint}^ when one has access 
to a green house. Here the plants may be forced into bloom before 
plants in the open ground have time to blossom. Besides the facility 
ofiered for making sure work of crossing two varieties by having a. 
pistillate plant of one of the varieties, the plants produced, if her- 
maphrodite, are more likely to be productive. In the Pine and Chili 
families the male organs are usuall}'- strong and abundant, from which 
it is evident that a large part of the natural force of the plant is con- 
sumed in their production. This characteristic is greatly modiiied 
by raising seedlings from the pistillate varieties. Adopting this plan, 
I have ol)tained hermaphrodite varieties of the Pine and Chili that 
are as certain to set their fruit as the Albany Seedling. The Agri- 
culturist is an examjje that illustrates the principle. It was raised 
by impregnating the Green Prolific, a pistillate plant, with Peabody's 
Seedling, a strong staminate plant. In the Agriculturist the stamens 
are tew and small, some of the flowers having none. 


A few general remarks may now be added upon the culture of the 
strawberry. The Pines prefer a loamy soil, rather heavy; indeed, 
many of this class will not succeed at all on a lio^ht soil. La Con- 
stant w^ill not. Triomphe de Grand will do better, but it is most 
productive on a yellow loam, moderately enriched with well rotted 
manure. Ashes — wood ashes — are beneficial. A compost of leaves 
and horse-dung, well decomposed, is an excellent manure — the very 
best that can be procured. 

Varieties of the Scarlet strawberry will succeed on a lighter soil, 
and do not require so much manuring. The ground should be made 
mellow, and enriched to the depth of eighteen inches or more, espe- 
cially for the strong growing Pines. It will be understood once for 
all that wdien I use the term Pine strawberry I mean one of the spe- 
cies Grandijiora. Depth of soil is of the utmost importance in a 
dry season, as it enables the plants to draw moisture from it which 
cannot be done unless it be made deep. The strawberry" requires 
much moisture wdien the berries are swelling. On a small scale they 
can be watered, but this requires more labor than would have been 
necessary to deepen the soil. 

Strawberries may be planted at all times, from early sprins: till 
late autumn. The best times, as a general rule, are April and Sep- 
tember. Those planted in April should not be allowied to fruit the 
first summer; the flowers which appear should be cut ofi*. Those 
planted in September, if they root well before winter,, and if they 
are protected during the winter by a light covering of hay or straw, 
will fruit the succeeding summer, producing some fine berries but 
not a full crop. 

If plants can be transplanted immediately before their roots become 
dry by exposure, and if they are screened from the scorching efl^ects 
of the sun, by covering them with some grass, they may be trans- 
planted in July, thus producing fine plants for fruiting the next sum- 

The mode of culture must be varied according to the habits of the 
species. Some must be treated as biennials, only one good crop of 
fruit being obtained from the same plants. Of this class instance the 
"Albany seedling; " the "Agriculturist," too, I think must be so con- 
sidered. In general, plants that form large stools the first summer 
must, to obtain the best results, be considered as lasting but two sea- 
sons and bearing only one crop of fruit. Other species will bear 
well for three or four years without renewal. Hovey's seedling is of 
this class. The plants, though strong, do not increase in size, to any 
great extent, by throwing out spurs. 

Kinds coming under the first class may be cultivated either in rows 


or iu beds. If planted in rows, they may be kept trimmed or they 
may be snffered to fill up by letting the new plants take root. The 
neatest way is to plant them in April, either in beds or in drills; the 
minimum of space allowed to each plant should be one square foot. 
Kinds that make ver}^ large stools will require two or three times as 
much space; these, if they have been planted in well prepared soil, 
and kept clean, will produce a superb crop of fruit. They should 
then be dug under. When plants are scarce, in regard to a new 
variety, it will be advisable to let the plants fill up the ground. 
Plant in drills, three or four feet apart, or in beds. The minimum 
space allotted to a plant should be one square yard; some free grow- 
ing varieties will require two or three times this space. If planted 
in rows three or four feet apart, the ground should be kept clean and 
mellow with a cast steel rake. Weak runners may be taken off until 
the plants acquire strength, then let them fill up to the requisite 
thickness, one plant tc a square foot. If they are allowed to till up 
too thick, thin them out in the fall. Eunners mav be encourao^ed to 
root in a space two feet or two and a half feet wide, thus leaving a 
space to walk in between the rows. I think this is a better plan than 
to let them occupy the whole ground. If weeds appear they must 
be taken out. When beds are preferred, the plants will be allowed 
to occupy the whole bed. Oue very common error, in either mode 
of culture, is to let the plants stand too thick on the ground, and, 
whether planted in beds or in rows, destroy the plantation after the 
first crop. It will be cheaper to plant a new bed than to keep these 
free of weeds and grass, even though they should bear a second year 
as well as they did the first. 

Plants of the second kind, those that will continue in bearing three 
or four years, should be planted at the distances they are intended to 
be kept, from one foot to two feet apart, according to their habits of 
growth, and the runners should be all removed; this will render it 
possible to keep the ground clean, Avhich cannot be doncAvhen plants 
are thick. Many of the plants of this kind will succeed when treated 
as biennials, though some do not bear well the first year* 


The Library Committee of the American Institute respectfully 
submit the following report: 

The library and reading rooms have been opened regularly and 
conducted with admirable order and s^^stera by Mr. John W. Chambers, 
the Librarian; and the increasing interest of members of the Insti- 
tute, their friends, distinguished visitors and the public, has been 
manifested by numerous visits to the library, many inquiries for and 
references to its rare and valuable works on practical sciences, arts, 
manufactures, agriculture and horticulture. 

The publication of books is still very expensive compared with 
former years, and w^ith what ma}^ be reasonably expected a year or 
two hence. Authors, and publishers have been retaining in manuscript 
all costly works, except those so specially demanded by the times 
that their expense would not prevent the disposal of a remunerative 
edition. Your Committee have, therefore, been somewhat restricted 
by the non-publication of a large number of original and really im- 
portant works. There have been, however, valuable additions made 
to the library, which include most of the latest discoveries and inves- 
tigations in the branches of knowledge, which are the special objects 
of the Institute to disseminate. 

Upon the application of the Librarian, the index of all the patents 
published at the Great Seal Patent Office of Great Britain, consisting 
of forty-three volumes, has been presented by that Office to the In- 

The complete series of abridgments of the specifications of all the 
inventions patented by Great Britain, have been ordered. AVatts, 
Manfields and other valuable w^orks on Chemistry have been ordered 
from London. 

The Librarian has been instructed to prepare a catalogue of all the 
additions to the library since the last supplement was printed. This 
is in course of publication. 


New York, February 1, 1866. Committee. 


The Committee on Agriculture of the American Institute respect- 
fully report: 

In conformity to the Bj^-Laws, it is made the duty of this Com- 
mittee to report its dohigs during the year. 

They take great pleasure in informing the Institute that the inte- 
rest taken in the meetings of the Farmers' Club has been undiminished. 
They have been fully attended, not only by the members of the 
Institute, but by a number of influential farmers and eminent horti- 
culturists, in this and other States. 

The subjects discussed have been of a miscellaneous character, 
embracing the raising of crops, not only of cereals, but of the various 
fruits, manure, draining and subsoiling, agricultural machines and 
implements, diseases of cattle, insects injurious to vegetation, &c. 

The meetings of the Club have been reported and published in 
some of the leading papers of the city. The discussions have attracted 
-a wide-spread interest throughout the countrj^, and we are in the daily 
receipt of a large number of letters and communications from nearly 
every State in the Union, giving the results of the experiments made 
or modes of culture adopted by the writers, and asking opinions of 
the members of the Club on subjects in every department of agri- 

In connection with this subject, the Committee will briefly allude 
to the distribution of seeds, roots and cuttings. During the past year 
Mr. Chambers, the Secretary of the Farmers' Club, received over 
7,000 letters asking for seed, and sent out in answer near 25,000 
packages of seed of various descriptions. The labor of this alone was 
immense, requiring several reams of paper to make the small seed 
bags, 14,000 envelopes, and the services of his assistant for nearly 
two months. The postage paid by the recipients amounted to $350. 

To Mr. Wm. R. Prince, of Flushing, L. I., our thanks are due for 
a large quantity of seeds of perennial shrubs and plants embracing 
over forty varieties; also to the Rev. Mr. Griswold, of Saybrook, 
Conn., for 1,500 packages of named flower seeds. They also mention 
with pleasure that a number of ladies responded nobly to our invi- 
tation for seed by sending immense quantities to be distributed 
through the Club. 

The Secretary has already received 3,000 applications by mail for 
seed to be distributed in the spring. We are also in daily receipt 


of seeds put up with care from ladies and others who feel a deep 
interest in floraculture. It may not be out of place to mention that 
the Farmers' Club of the American Institute was established in the 
year 1843, and was the first of its kind established in this country. 
These clubs and associations have spread over the whole land, and 
have been of vast benefit to farmers and others, by bringing them 
together at stated periods for the purpose of discussing subjects con- 
nected with their pursuits. 

During the past year your Committee has lost one of its most use- 
ful and active members, one long connected with the American Insti- 
tute, Professor James J. Mapes, who died in this city on the 10th of 
the present month, in the 60th year of his age. 

Prof. Mapes took a deep interest in all that relates to agriculture, 
and was the inventor of several agricultural implements. He was 
always willing to impart information, especialh^ to the j^oung. His 
labors are now completed on earth, but his writings, his inventions 
and his discourses, on all m^itters connected with the science and with 
the practice of agriculture, will be cherished by the American people 
so long as the soils of our countr^^ and its machiuerj^ form a part of 
the study of enlightened farmers. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 


New York, February 1, 1866. Committee, 


Geyitlemen of the American Insiituie: 

The question of the relative economy of Steam and Sailing Ves- 
sels as a means of transportation of products, referred to your Com- 
mittee of Commerce, has occupied their attention. 

For coasting and internal navigation, there is no doubt of the ad- 
vantage being greatly in the favor of steam, Init for distant voyages 
to foreign countries, the relative economy is yet an undetermined 
problem. Where the products interchanged are of a costly charac- 
ter, small in bulk, and of sufficient quantity to furnish full freights 
with a large number of cabin and steerage passengers, lines of steam 
vessels have been successfully conducted without the subsidies which 
it was found necessary for governments to allow steamship compa- 
nies on their first attempting regular trips on the Atlantic and other 

Your Committee have met with so few persons engaged in the busi- 
ness of ocean steam navigation competent and willing to give infor- 
mation in reofard to this matter that the total data which can now be 
furnished is very meager. A line of steamers to the West Indies 
was the only one willing to make any statement touching this sub- 
ject; and it will be readily seen that the different rates for freights 
and transportation are so dependent on bulk and value, that until 
some great economy in the use of steam, long looked for, shall have 
become a fixed fact, the average advantage must still be in favor of 
sailino' vessels. 

The comparative cost of transportation to the West Indies is as fol- 
lows: One barrel of pork, valued at $40, freight by steamer $1.25, 
insurance 40 cents, total cost by steamer, $1.65; time of voyage 
seven days. Freight of the same pork by sailing Vessel, $1, insur- 
ance 80 cents, total cost by sails, $1.80; time of voyage 20 days. 
So that pork can be sent by steam for 15 cents less per barrel than 
by sail, with a saving of 12 days time. Flour at $10 per barrel 
by steam, freight $1, and insurance 10 cents per barrel; total cost 
by steam, $1.10. Freight of same by sailing vessel, 80 cents, insur- 
ance, 20 cents; total cost by sail, $1. Time of voyage, by steam 
seven days, by sail 20 da^^s. The rates mentioned for steam were all 
that shippers were willing to pay over the rates usually charged by 
sailino^ vessels. 

The steam line alluded to was finally compelled to withdraw from 


the business in consequence of the diminution of passengers during 
the rebellion, and the stoppage of the subsidy by the Haytian Gov- 
ernment during the troubles there. Of course, the cost of running 
steam vessels is much increased by high prices of coal at the present 
time, still they cannot be run profitably until greater economies than 
any now known have been successfully introduced. We might here 
mention that the United States Government bave had a commission 
on duty for over two years, to test some of the disputed theories in 
reofard to steam economv: but your Committee retrret to state that 
the experiments under the direction of this commission have not yet 
been completed. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

New York, Feb, Ut, 1866. 



The Committee on Manufactures, Arts and Sciences, respectfully 

During the past year but few devices have been referred to them 
for examination, and each has been the subject of a special report to 
the Institute. 

The only change made in the organization of the Polytechnic As- 
sociation under the charge of your Committee, has been the appoint- 
ment of Thomas D. Stetson, Esq., as Secretary. Its meetings have 
been well attended, and its discussions, embracing a great variety of 
topics, have developed much valua1)le information. Without enter- 
ing into a detailed account of its doings, which will appear in the 
annual volume of Transactions, it may not be improper to state that 
while all important European inventions and discoveries . have been 
noticed, most of the time of the association has been devoted to the 
examination of subjects of very general public interest. 

The late Autumnal Exhibition of this Institute contained a large 
collection of novelties; many of them were separately brought before 
the attention of the Polytechnic Association, and subjected to criti- 
cal examination. Most prominent among these positive evidences 
of progress w^as one, for the first time publicly exhibited, which on 
account of its great importance in connection with Meteorological 
observations, deserves especial mention. 

The self-recording Barometer, invented by Prof. G. W. Hough, Di- 
rector of the Dudley Obsei'vatory at Albau}^, has obviated the principal 
difficulties found in self-registering instruments of this class. The elec- 
tric current is made to detect the variations in the mercurial column, 
and with an aid of clock-work not only to represent them to the e^^e 
by the elevations and depressions of a continuous line, but to actu- 
ally print with ordinary type, the measurement of any change in the 
height of the column exceeding one thousandth part of an inch, at 
equal and very short intervals of time. The only conditions required 
to keep this automatic register and printer constantly at work are: 
once in twenty -four hours to supply it with paper, to wind up its 
clock-work and occasionally to replenish its battery with acid. 

The application of the same principles will soon be made in the 
thermometer and other instruments used bv meteorolooists, thus se- 


curing for them an accuracy which the human eye and hand can 
never attain. Philosophers will soon have the means of correctly 
interpreting atmospheric signs, and it is a subject of especial gratifi- 
cation that the American Institute was the medium through which 
this great invention has been brought prominently before the world. 



New York, Feb, 1, 1866. 


The Committee on Manufactures, Arts aucl Sciences, respectfully 
report that they have examined the artificial limbs invented by John 
Condell, of Morristown, N. Y., referred to your Committee, but have 
not seen them in practical use. The novelties in his artificial leg 
and foot consist essentially of 

1. An adjustable pad for the purpose of adapting the capacity of 
the socket to any changes in the size of the stump. 

2. The yoke, belt and straps by which the limb is attached to the 
body at points, are, comparatively speaking, fixed, so that the mo- 
tions of the shoulder are made to assist materially in giving a for- 
ward motion to the les^. 

3. An elastic attachment passing over the knee, assisting in the 
forward motion of the lesr when the thio'h has moved forward. 

4. A firm support for the anterior tendons, and a novel spring 

5. An arrangement of ham-strings attached to the posterior part 
of the leg to check its fqrward motions. 

6. Two modes of constructing the ankle joint;, one consisting of a 
large ball and socket, intended to provide against excessive wear by 
extended surface; the other embracing a socketed axial bolt in com- 
bination with a forked bar. 

The united operation of these devices seems to secure very desira- 
ble results. 

The artificial arm and hand embraces several novelties, viz: 

1. The appendage for sustaining the limb, and aflfording compara- 
tively rigid points, in connection with which the movements of the 
stump are made to produce certain motions of the forearm and 

2. The methods for producing and modifying flexor and extensor 
motions of the forearm, as well as the radial or rotary movements of 
the lower end of the forearm. 

3. The devices for giving various motions to the metacarpus and 

Your Committee would transcend the proper limits of a report 
should they attempt to minutely describe the ingenious combinations 
of levers and springs by which, with the aid of the stump, the re- 
quired action is given to the elbow, wrist and hand; and by which 
even the fingers are made to move at the will of the wearer. 


The essential qualities in the materials used in artificial limbs arc 
lightness, strength, stabilitj' and durability. It is very desirable, 
also, that the mechanism should not be complicated. The greater 
the number of hinges, springs and straps emplo\'ed, the greater is 
the liability to get out of order and the consequent difficulty of re- 
pairs. Artisans capable of repairing such work are to 1)e found 
generally in large cities, and artificial limbs are often used in remote 
districts where the wearers would be subjected to great inconve = 
nience and expense b}- sending them long distances to be put in 

The cost of the limb is also an important consideration. Xearly 
all who are so unfortunate as to need its assistance, have but little 
money to spare, and must consult economy in their purchases. 

Your committee will not attempt to compare the limbs under ex- 
amination with those made by other manufacturers, for the purpose 
of deciding upon their relative merits: nor would they feel war- 
ranted in expressing a confident opinion as to the precise valine of 
the Condell limbs until the}' had seen them long and thorous^hlv 
tested bv actual use. Yet thev cannot conclude without savino- that 
their examination of these limbs has made a ver^^ favorable impres- 
sion as to their utility and the ingenuity displa^^ed in their construc- 
tion. " JOHX D. WARD, 

jos. dixox, 
sa:\iuel d. till:max, 
james l. jacksox. 

New York, Fed. 1,- 1866. 


The Board of Managers of the 36th Annual Fair of the American 
Institute respectfully report 

That the Board of Mauao-ers held their first meetino* on the 27th 
day of February last, and completed their organization by the elec- 
tion of Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter as Chairman, Mr. J. Owen Rouse as 
Vice-Chairman, and Mr. John W. Chambers as Secretary. 

It was the unanimous opinion of the Board that the Fairs of the 
Institute should be revived on a scale commensurate with the objects 
for which the Institute w^as incorporated. A committee was ap- 
pointed to select a proper location for the exhibition. After consid- 
erable investigation and research, no place seemed to embrace so many 
advantages as the armory of the 22d regiment, in Fourteenth street, 
the building erected by the city of New York for the Sanitary Fair. 
After making various propositions to the officers of the regiment, an 
agreement was entered into on the 6th day of June, by which the 
Board of Managers agreed to make certain alterations in the build- 
ing, as were desired by the officers of the regiment, which was to be 
equivalent for rent. 

The plan originated with a member of the Board, Mr. R. G. Hat- 
field, an architect of well known ability, and it was deemed for the 
interest of the Institute that the alterations in the building should be 
done under his direction and supervision. Plans and specifications 
were made, and contracts entered into, by which these alterations 
were completed for the sum of $3,358.76. The alterations met with 
the approval of your Board and the officers of the regiment. 

Circulars were at once issued and sent to manufacturers, mechanics 
and others, and advertisements inserted in the newspapers, calling 
attention to the exhibition. 

The exhibition was opened to the public on the 12th of Septem- 
ber, and closed on the 19th of October. 

The opening address was delivered by Major General Sickles, a 
gallant son of this city, who in a speech full of interest reviewed the 
conduct of the war, and paid merited compliments to the men who 
had brought the war to a happy end, thus enabling the American 
Institute to resume its interrupted efforts in the advancement and 
encouragement of the Arts and Sciences. 

The prevailing character of the exhibition w^as mechanical rather 
than agricultural. The Board Avas unanimous in the opinion that 


it was quite time that the mechanics should have au opportunity to 
exhibit the great progress of mechanical skill, and a large space was 
devoted for that purpose, which was filled with new and improved 
machines, showing that inventive genius had not been idle during 
the terrible ordeal through which our beloved country had just 

The want of a suitable building prevented the Managers from 
giving encouragement to many useful branches of industry. Agri- 
culture and Horticulture merely held a footing in the exhibition. 
This is to be regretted, as we think these branches are intimately 
connected with the mechanic arts. It is at the workshop the agri- 
culturist procures the nicely wrought and well adapted implement, 
without which progress on the farm and garden would be compara- 
tively slow. The great development of the resources of our country 
are no more due to the perseverance and skill of the agriculturist 
than to the mechanic, and both should be encouraged and fostered 
alike; but this cannot be done under existing circumstances. After 
a careful examination of all the public buildings in this city, not one 
is to be found that will accommodate the Institute for its practical 
operations. We would therefore earnestly urge the importance of 
procuring a suitable location on which to erect a building adapted 
to the encouragement of the various subjects intrusted to the care of 
the American Institute. 

It may not be out of place to mention that for want of such a 
permanent location the Board of Managers are compelled, at great 
expense, to erect additional structures and fittings which are only 
used for a few weeks, and then have to be taken down and sold for 
what they will bring. By a reference to the account herewith sub- 
mitted these expenses alone amounted to the sum of $8,814.52, viz: 

Alterations of buildings $3,358 76 

Carpenters' work _. 2,997 27 

Steam-pipes, shafting, belts, &c 2,143 65 

Insurance 374 33 

Rent of Agricultural room 350 00 

Mason work, flai^^oino:, &c 557 89 

Putting up stoves, scrubbing floors, &c 152 62 

$9,934 52 
Less sales at auction ._ _ _ 1,120 00 

$8,814 52 

We take great pleasure in informing the Institute that the exhibi- 
tion was one of the best held for some years past, and from a report 
made by the Premium Committee we make the following extract: 


*' 111 regard to improved machinery for saving labor, and the great 
magnitude of the display, it has exceeded our most sanguine expec- 
tations. On steam engines and boilers, your Committee are grati- 
fied to sa}^ that tlipy exceeded in number those of any previous 
exhibition. Some were of novel construction, but a practical test of 
their superiority was not attempted by the judges. The machinery 
for working iron and other metals presented a great variety, besides 
lathes of various forms and sizes, embraced many machines and tools 
of great importance; in quality of workmanship it was quite evident 
that a great advance had been made. 

Machinery for working wood included many ingenious modifica- 
tions adapted to a country like ours, abounding in extensive forests. 
These occupied so large a space of the building that but a small por- 
tion was left for other branches of the Mechanic Arts. Yet small as 
the space was, it was filled with gems, some of very great merit and 
high cost, which for utility and beauty of finish far surpassed any 
former exhibition. 

!'• Two of the leading firms of this city added greatly to the interest 
of the exhibition by gorgeous displays of gold and silver ware. 

In the Art galleiy, covering a space of 50 b}^ 150 feet, the effect 
was exceedingly grand ; the walls were lined with marble mantles, 
over which hung many valuable works of art, photographs, plain 
and in colors, also plain and ornamental writing. On the main floor 
we had at the extreme end, large parlor organs, and some of cabinet 
sizes, the peculiarity to be noticed in these instruments is the suc- 
cessful application of reeds in the place of pipes. 

The pianos exhibited were remarkable for purity and strength of 
tone, and some were of novel form and construction. 

The barometer for printing automatically the slightest change in 
the pressure of the atmosphere, attracted great attention, and is pro- 
bably the most valuable contribution to science made in many years. 
. Plants, fruits and flowers were assigned a prominent and appro- 
priate place ; among them were found over ninety varieties of ever- 

The Agricultural Department, although not so extensive this ^^ear 
as formerly, attracted considerable attention and maintained its repu- 
tation for meritorious articles, such as mowers, reapers, grain sepa- 
rators, potato diggers and threshing machines. 

To enumerate all would require too much space for this report; 
suffice it to say that we have awarded 57 Gold Medals, 155 Silver 
Medals, 126 Bronze Medals, 88 Diplomas, exclusive of Silver Plate 
in the Floral and Horticultural Department, the whole estimated to 
cost near three thousand dollars." 

The number of entries at the exhibition was 1,271, of which 


1,135 were in the Manufacturing and Mechanical Department, and 
136 in the Agricultural and* Horticultural Departments. 

The closing address was delivered on the evening of the 18th of 
October, by Professor John W. Draper, of the New York University, 
and was listened to with marked attention. , 

The Premiums were announced on the last day of the exhibition. 

The following is a condensed statement of the receipts and expen- 
ditures of the Fair: 


Sale of tickets at the door $22,773 40 

Season and other tickets 

Rent of restaurant and stands, and catalogue 

Soda water, net : 

Sales at auction at the close of the fair 

Bulletin boards, &c __ 

Amount from the American Institute, appropriated Aucf. 
3, 1865 r^ 

Less discount on uncurrsnt money and counterfeit cur- 
rency ._ , 

Amount to be accounted for §29,200 55 

By committee on location: 
Alterations of armory buildings per con- 
tracts, &c . , _..__.. $3,358 76 

By committe on carpenter work: 
Erecting gallery sheds, flooring truss work 

for shafting 2,997 29 

B}^ committee on print'g and publication : 
Printing circulars, posters, 

handbills, tickets, &c $1,143 14 

Advertising, bill posting, &c_ _ 998 28 

Badges 22 97 

2,164 39 



















By committee on machinery: 

Steam pipes $1,000 00 

Shaftino-, puUe^^s, &c_. _. 814 47 

Belting^ I . _ _ _ . 329 18 

Plumber's work. _ 352 24 

Oil-.. 98 25 

Cartinof dirt 56 50 

Carried forward $2,650 64 $8,520 44 $29,200 55 

[Am. Inst.] , C 


Brought forward $2,650 64 $8,520 44 $29,200 55 

Croton water 34 50 

Fuel 1,390 75 

Sundries 14 75 

Pa}^ roll, superintendent, engi- 
neers and laborers,- 1,310 24 

■- 5,400 88 

By committee on police: 

Pay roll, floor clerks, night w^atch, &g 1,008 99 

By committee on music: 

Music during the exhibition 1,910 00 

By committee on light: 

Gas $1,053 62 

Gas fixtures 330 97 

Oil 22 50 

■ — 1,407 09 

B}^ committee on finance: ■ 

Ticket seUers .... $165 00 ■ 

Revenue stamps 3 30 

168 30 

By committee on tickets: 

Ticket receivers $231 00 

Ticket boxes 11 25 

242 25 

By committee on refreshments: 

Eefreshments for managers and guests 526 91 

By committee on premiums (estimated 
at $3,000): 

Gold and silver for medals. . . $1,420 25 

Diplomas, printing and paper_ 33 75 

Medalcases 169 00 

Striking medals 325 00 

Cash premiums 8 00 

1,956 00 


Expenses, trial of mowing ma- 
chines _ . - $155 00 

Insurance _ 374 33 

Clerks oflace 308 00 

Signs and banners 231 04 

Balloon expenses 44 27 

Decorations 150 00 

Covering tables 15 02 

Eent of room for agricultural 

machines 350 00 

Mason w^ork and flagging 557 89 

Putting up stoves 67 22 

Carried forward $2,252 77 $21,140 86 $29,200 55 


Brought forward $2,252 77 $21,140 8G $29,200 55 

Traveling expenses of agent- - 150 00 

Pistol and ease presented to 

Captain Speight 

Use of crockery for hort'l dept. 

Scrubhino' floors 

Photograph of building and 

franiinri: — 

Ice — - — - 

Sundry expenses 

30 20 

23 81 

85 50 

()9 00 

23 40 

238 25 

2 872 93 

24,013 79 

$5,186 76 
Amount repaid Institute $3,000 00 

Amount surplus i:)aid Treasurer 1,397 91 

4.397 91 

Leaving a balance in the treasury of. _ — $788 85 

By the above account it will be seen that the surplus of the 
exhibition, after paying the expenses and the premiums, have 
amounted to. $1,397 91 

To which should be added the appropriation to be re- 
ceived from the State 950 00 

$2,347 91 
There was also received by the Secretary during the ex- 
hibition, for arrears of dues from raembers . . $635 00 
From 112 applicants, to become members of the 

Institute 802 00 

1,497 00 

Total $3,844 91 

A considerable part of this amount should be fairly credited to the 
exhibition, as a great portion Avould not in all probability have been 
collected if a fair had not been held. 

The premiums are nearly all completed, a part of which have been 

The Board of ^Managers, in concluding their labors, have the satis- 
faction of believing that the objects for which the Institute was orga- 
nized have in a measure been carried out within the past year, by 
holding the anmial fair. All of which is respectfully submitted. 









Neav York, January 30, 1866. 






Judges — Chas. Dowxixg, Peter B. Mead, 
John A. Warder. 


Ellwanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y., for 
the best thirty named varieties of pears. Sil- 
ver cup, S20. 

\Vm. L. Ferris, Throg's Neck, N. Y., for 
the second best thirty named varieties of 
pears. Silver plate, $15. 

Ellwaiiger & Larry, Rochester, N. Y., for 
the best fifteen named varieties of pears. Sil- 
ver cup. Si 5. 

W. R. "Ward, Ncvrark, N. J., for the se- 
cond best fifteen named varieties of pears. 
Silver plate, SlO. 

E. Ware Sylvester, Lyons, N. Y., for fifteen 
named varieties of pears. Special prize, S5. 

P. T. Quinn, Newark, N. J., for the best 
six named varieties of pears. Silver plate, 

E. Williams, Montclair, N. J., for the sec- 
ond best six named varieties of pears. Silver 
plate, $3. 

W. R. Ward, Newark, N. J., for the best 
twelve table pears, one variety, "Seckel." 
Silver plate, S3. 

E. Williams, Montclair, N. J., for twelve 
table pears. Special prize, S3. 

Gilbert Combs, Freehold, N. J., for twelve 
table pears. Special prize, §2. 


E. Ware Sylvester, Ljons, N. Y., for the 
best fifteen named varieties of apples. Silver 
plate, Slo. 

W. R. Ward, Newark, N. J., for the best 
six named varieties of apples. Silver plate, 

E. Ware Sylvester, Lyons, N. Y.. for the 
second best six named varieties of apples. Sil- 
ver plate, S3. 

E. Williams, Montclair, N. J., for the best 
twelve table apples, " Fall Pippin." Silver 
plate, $3. 


John Dingwall, Albany, N. Y., for the best 
collection of named varieties of native grapes, 
fifty-two varieties. Silver cup, Slo. 

David Thompson, Green Island, near Troy, 
N. Y., for a collection of seedling grapes, 
twelve Aarieties. Special prize, So. 

John Egan, gardener to C- C. Taber, Staten 
Island, for the best dish of graces, one variety, 
''Delaware." Silver plate, S5. 

John Egan, gardener to C. C. Taber, Staten 
Island, for the best collection of grapes grown 
UBder glass. Silver cup, $15. 


S. S. Springstead, Union Port, Westchester 
county, N. Y., for the best plate of peaches, 
" Late Crawford." Silver plate, $3. 

S. S. Springstead, Union Port, Westchester 
county, N. Y., for a basket of peaches, "Late 
Crawford." Special prize, $2. 


Ellwanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y., for 
the best collection of plums. Silver plate, $o. 

David Thompson, Green Island, near Troy, 
N. Y., for a half peck of prunes. Special 
prize, $2. 


Alexander Douglas, No. 155 Prospect street, 
Jersey city, for the best twelve quinces. Sil- 
ver plate, $3. 


W. J. Weeks, Yaphank, L. I., for the best 
cranberries. Special prize, §3. 


Pot Plants, Orchids, S,-c. 

Judges — Wm. C. Wilson, Francis Briell, 
Joshua D. Withams.. 

Isaac Buchanan, No. 9 West ITth street, 
for the best collection of plants in pots. Sil- 
ver plate, S25. 

Wm. Baker, Xo. 104 East 42d street, for 
the second best collection of plants in pots. 
Silver plate, §15. 

Isaac Buchanan, No. 9 West 17th street, 
for the best six ornamental leaf plants. Sil- 
ver plate, Si 5. 

Wm. Baker, No. 164 East 42d street, for 
the best single specimen of ornamental leaf 
plant. Silver cup. So. 

Isaac Buchanan, No. 9 West ITth street, 
for the best collection of orchids. Silver 
plate, SlO. 

Wm. Baker, No. 164 East 42d street, for 
the second best collection of orchids. Silver 
plate, $5. 


James Hogg, Yorkville, N. Y., for a col- 
lection of plants from Japan. Silver cup, $15. 

dahlias, roses and avax flowers. 

Judges — Wm. C. Wilson, .Joshua D. Wit- 
hams, Francis Briell. 

A. M. Henning, Llewellyn Park, Orange, 
N. J., for the best collection of dahlias. Sil- 
ver plate, $10. 

Chas. S. Pell,' N. Y. Orphan Asylum, for 
the second best collection of dahlias. Silver 
plate, $5. 

Chas. S. Pell, N. Y. Orphan Asylum, for 
the best 12 named dahlias. Silver plate, $5. 



A. M. Henning, Llewellyn Park, Orange, 
N. J., for the second best 12 named dahlias. 
Silver plate, $3. 

Isaac Buchanan, No. 9 "West 17th street, 
for A seedling yellow rose. Special priie, Sil- 
ver plate, $P. 

Mrs. .J. U. Sniffen, Xo. 12 South 9th street, 
AVilliamsburgh, L. I., for a beautiful collec- 
tion of wax flowers. Silver plate $5. 


Judges — GuxARirs Gabrielsox, James 
Fleming, William Fitzpatrick. 

Daniel Wilson, Xo. 43 West 14th street, for 
the best basket of cut flowers. Silver plate, 

P. Rcid & Son, Brooklyn, L. I., for the 
second best bai-ket of cut flowers. Silver 
plate, $0. 

Daniel Wilson, Xo. 43 West U'h street, for 
the best pair of hand bouquets. Silver plate, 

J. C. Barnes, Astoria, X. Y., for a fine dis- 
play of zicnias. Silver plate, .*5. 

D. D. Buchanan, Elizabeth, X. J. for a 
collection of evergreens, 91 varieties. Silver 
plate, $15. 

Special Exhibition of Dahlias. 

A. G. Burgess, East Xew York, L. I., for 
the best 12 named dahlias. Silver plate, $3. 

C. S. Pell, X. Y. Orphan Asylum, for a fine 
collection of dahlias. Silver jjlate, S5. 


J. S. Barnes, Astoria, L. I., for the best 
named collection of verbenas. Silver plate, 


• Judges — "Wir. C. Wilsox, Isaac Buchaxax, 
Francis Briell. 

W. R. Ward, X^ewark, X. J., for the best 
12 ears of sweet corn. Silver plate, $5. 

J. M. Greeley, Engli^sh Xeighborhood, X. 
J., for the best 12 ears of field corn. Silver 
plate, §5. 

S. S. Springstead, Union Port, Westchester 
county, X. Y., for the largest pumpkin. Sil- 
ver plate, $3. 

James Hogg, Yorkville, X, Y., for the best 
table squash. Silver plate, $3. 


Judges — Wir. C. Wilson, Isaac Buchanan, 
Francis Briell. 

C. C. Williams, X'o. 314 Dean street, Brook- 
lyn, L. I., for the best assortment of preserves. 
Silver plate, §^5. 

wine and brandv. 

Judges — John A. Warder, E. Ware Svl- 
vester, Isaac M. Ward. 

Perkins, Stern & Co., Xo. 180 Broadway, 
for California Ilock wines. Silver cup, Si 5. 

Perkins, Stern & Co., Xo. 180 Broadway, 
for California Port wijie. Silver plate, $5. 

Perkins, Stern <t Co., Xo. 180 Broadway, 
for Angelica wine. Silver plate, 85. 

American Vintage Company of California, 
Xo. 24 Dey street, for grape brandy. Silver 
plate, $10. 


American Vintage Company of California, 
No. 24 Dey street, for superior wines, " So- 

nomo Hock, 1861," ''Gen. Sutta." Silver 
cup, $15- 

Angelo Ilellman, Xo. 202 Broadway, for 
Presi'ient's sparkling Catawba wine. Silver 
plate, $10. 

Hiram T. Dewey, X'o. 181 Broadway, for a 
collection of American wine. Silver plate, $10. 



Judges — S. Edwards Todd, Tugs. Haight, 
A. M. Halsted. 

John Vanderbilt, Xo. 23 Fulton st., for a 
thermometer-churn. Silver medal. 

John Vanderbilt, Xo. 23 Fulton av., for 
the Eaffle plow. Silver medal. 

A. C.^A R. L. Betts, Troy,X. Y,, for Branch 
beam hilling plow. Bronze medal. 

Collins & Co., Hartford, Conn., for cast steel 
plows. Diploma. 

Parsons A; Haines, Harri.«burgh, Penn., for 
the best stalk cutter, -'Eureka." Bronza 

Tobias Lane &, Co., Richmond, Ind., for the 
second best fodder cutter. Diploma. 

Jules Lachaume. Xo. 188 Spring street, for 
ornamental brackets and baskets. Diploma. 

Grant Fan Mill and Cradle Co., Junction, 
X. Y., for grain cradles. Diploma. 

J. W. Fisk .t Co., No. 120 Xassau street, 
for copper weather vanes. Diploma. 

Adriance, Piatt & Co., Xo. 1()5 Greenwich 
street, for a horse pitchfork. Diploma. 

Haines <fe Pell, Xo. 27 Cortlandt street, for 
Share's coulter harrow. Diploma. 

Haines & Pell, Xo. 27 Cortlandt street, for 
Share's hoer and hiller. Diploma. 

Parsons & Haines, Harrisburgh, Penn., for 
the best cider mill. Diploma. 

Horace L. Emery A Son, Xo. 184 Water St., 
for a cider pre?s. Diploma. 

American Agricultural Works, Xo. 17 Cort- 
landt street, for a combined corn plow and cul- 
tivator. Bronze medal. 

E. H. Bennet, Xo. 240 Broadway, for anti- 
friction horse power and burr stone mill. Di- 

F. W. Ritterhoff, Xo. 118 Seventh avenue, 
for a tobacco cutter. Diploma. 

Joseph L. True, Garland, Me., for a potato 
planter. Silver medal. 

Pitts it Bray ley, Rochester, X. Y., for a 
smut machine. Diploma. 

Henry Steele, Jersey City, for a bee pro- 
tector. Diploma. 

S. C. Herring Xo. 121 West 16th street, 
for a model of a hay tedder. Bronze medal. 

George L. Cummings, X'o. 14S Centre St., 
for an ii"on carriage jaclv Diploma. 

E. R. Kent, Yorkville, X. Y., for a lever 
press for transmitting motion. Bronze medal. 

Jos. Sweetser, Biddeford, Me., for a patent 
saw horse and buck .«aw. Bronze medal. 

American Agricultural Works, Xo. 17 Cort- 
landt street, for the Columbian mowing and 
reaping machine for superiority of combina- 
tion without trial in the field. Silver medal. 


E. McKinney, Clarksville, Tcnn., for a 
model of a corn planter. Diploma. 

L. Beach, Montrose, Penn., for Beach's pa- 
tent wheel hay rake. Bronze medal. 




At AVest Mount Vernon, N. Y., July 22, 1S65. 

Judjies — S. Edwards Todd, Charles D. 
Ward, Wm. IL S>riTH. 

Adriance, Piatt .fc Co., No. 165 Qrcemrich 
street, for the best mowing machine, *• Buck- 
eye.-' Gold medal. 

R. H. Allen & Co., No?. 1S9 and 191 Water 
street, for the Clipper mowing machine. Sil- 
ver medal. 

architecttral drawings. 

Judges — Charles D. Gambrill, Julius 
MuNCHWiTz, R. F. Hatfield. 

H. Van Langen, No. 87 Nassau street, for 
architectural drawings. Bronze medal. 

Judges — Jacob Capron, Theodore Per- 

American Bell Co., No. ."2 Liberty street, 
for steel and bron/.ed metal bells, with Harri- 
son's rotating hanging apparatus. Gold medal* 

billiard tables. 

Judges— CuM^. S. KiNGSLEY, F. Pentz, jr., 
John "Waite. 

PhelaniCollcnder, 63 to 69 Crosby St., for 
a billiard table, combining elegance of design 
and durability of workmanship, with Phelan's 
combination cushions. Gold medal. 

books, printing, and stationery. 

Judges — Edward "Walker, Robt. Craig- 

F. Hart & Co., No. 6.S Cortlandt street, for 
the best wood-cut printing. Siher medal. 

H. 0. Houghton & Co., Cambridge, Mass., 
for the second- best wood-cut printing and book 
printing. Bronze medal. 

Edward Knabeschuch, Nos. 121 to 125 Green 
street, for the best fancy stationery. Bronze 

Jacob Hyatt, No. 12 John street, for excel- 
lent specimens of card engraving and print- 
ing. Diploma. 

W. H. Swartwout, No. 100 Liberty street, 
for patent metallic paper fasteners, and binder 
and lever presses and tools for applying the 
same. Silver medal. 


James S. Utley, No. 41 Liberty street, for a 
check cutter and ruler. Diploma. 

A. G. Shaver, New Haven, Conn., for patent 
erasers, burnishers, pencil sharpeners, &c. 
Silver medal. 

A. G.. Fuller, ?> Front street, Brooklyn, for 
specimens of paper made from sea-weed or 
eel-grass. Diploma. 

boots and shoes. 

Judges — Jas. R. Smith, Wm. Ebbett. 

John L. Watkins, No. 114 Fulton street, for 
fine specimens of dress boots and shoes, and 
hunting and lishing boots. Bronze medal. 

Edwin Chesterman, Roxbury, Mass., for 
vulcanized rubber shoes. Bronze medal. 

brass and copper seamless tubes. 
Judges — Hezekiah Bradford, A. H. Ev- 
erett, Dubois D. Parmelee. 

Columbian Metal Works, No. 40 Broadway 
(Wm. F. Brooks, inventor), for brass and cop- 
per seamless rolled tubes. Gold medal. 

building materials. 

Judges — Eobt. L. Darragh, Wm. Shutk? 
Freeman Bloodgood. 

Washington I. Smith & Co., No. 261 Wes^ 
Eighteenth street, for drain pipe. Bronze 

Samuel Bissicks, No. 294 Bowery, for besfe 
plumbing work, wash-stand and water-closet 
combined. Bronze modal. 

H. Tucker & Co., Boston, iNlass., for the best 
ornamental iron wt'rk, superior in design and 
finish. Bronze medal. 

Architectural Iron Works, New York, for a 
sheet-iron sash and Iron Venetian blinds. 
Bronzo medal. 

L. R. Case, No. 5 Worth street, for patent 
illuminating vault lights. Bronze medal. 

William Toshach, No. 393 Carlton avenue, 
Brooklyn, for a patent window fastener. Sil- 
ver medal. 

Sheppard it Gifford, No. 74 Bleecker street, 
for a metallic weather strip. Bronze medal. 

Chambers & Brother, Pliiladelphia, Penn., 
for specimens of common brick. Silver medal. 

J. H. Gauticr it Co., Jersey City, N. J., for 
the best fire-brick. Silver medal. 

B. Kreischer, 2so. 58 (Joerck street, for fire- 
brick materials. Bronze medal. 

cabinet avare and upholstery. 

Judges — J. R. Igelstrom, A. W. Bogert, 
F. Pentz, jr. 

J. F. C. Pickhardt, No. 167 Bleecker street, 
for the best extension bedstead. SiU^er medal. 

J. Barnes, No. 18U Grand street, for the best 
spring bed bottom. Bronze medal. 

J. Ziegler & Co., No. 42 Bleecker street, for 
a book-case. Silver medal. 

Discretionary. • 

A. B. Waldron, Brooklyn, L. I., for fancy 
inlaid work boxes. Diploma. 


Judges — Wm. D. Andrews, Daniel Friel. 

G. D. Brown, Rochester, N. Y., forcarriage 
wheels, with joint clijD and spoke socket com- 
bined. Silver medal. 

Wm. Z. W. Chapman, No. 835 Broadway, 
for patent fastenings for carriage curtains. 
Bronze medal. 


Judges — H. Hudson Hally, John Rogers. 

Wm. K. O'Brien <fe Brother, No. 77 Third 
avenue, for the best carved frames. Silver 

Fred. Kaiffer, No. 833 Broadway, for the 
best carving work. Bronze medal. 

E. H. Vurdy & Co., Nos. 56 and 62 West 
Thirteenth street, for niachine carved mould- 
ings. Diploma. 


Judges — S. W. Marsters, Warren S. 


John Gowans, No. 179 Water street, for the 
best chronometers. Gold medal. 

.John Gowans, No, 179 Water street, for a 
gold hunting lever watch. Silver medal. 

Cameron Coal Company, No. 71 Broadway, 
for superior bituminous coal. Silver medal. 




Judges — Wm. p. Bensel, A. T. Briggs, 
S. S. Moure, jr. 

American Barrel Machine Company, Boston, 
Mass., for the best barrels. Silver medal. 


Judges— J. L. McDuRMiT, Stiles W. Jud- 

S. S. "White, Philadelphia, Pa., for the best 
porcelain teeth. Silver medal. 

A. Jones, Xo. 724 Broadway, for a fine se- 
lection of artificial teeth. Silver medal. 

N. W. Kingsley, No. 28 East Twentieth 
street, for a portable gas blow-pipe. Silver 

John D. Chevalier & Sons, Xo. 737 Broad- 
way, for a fine collection of dental instru- 
ments. Diploma. 


Judges — JcLirs G. Pohle, Lewis Feucht- 


Julius Pollock, Morrisania, X. Y., for py- 
roxylic spirit wood alcohol, a now article as a 
cheap substitute for alcohol. Silver medal. 

J. C. Uull-s Sons, Xo. 32 Park Row, for the 
best fancy soaps. Silver medal. 

Van Haagen & McKeone, Xo. 30 Barclay 
street, for fancy soaps. Silver medal. 

Union Sugar Company, Xo. IS and 20 Piose 
street, for corn svrup. Silver medal. 

J. B. Thompson, M. D., Xo. 406 West 32d 
street, for albumen, valuable as a new article 
of domestic manufacture. Silver medal. 

Joseph AV. Feuchtwanger, Xo. 55 Cedar st., 
for liquid quartz, an excellent article. Bronze 

Union Condensed Milk Company, Xo. 188 
Bleecker street, for the best condensed milk. 
Bronze medal. 

American Condensed Milk Company, for ex- 
cellent flavored milk. Diploma. 

"William Carter <fc Brother, Boston, Mass., 
J. P. Dinsmore, agent, Xo. 36 Dey street, for 
excellent .specimens of ink. Silver medal. 

X. Thomas Spencer, Xo. 41 Spruce street, 
for extract of hemlock. Bronze medal. 

Charles Korf, Xo. 272 East Xinth street, for 
artificial fuel. Bronze medal. 

D. B. Coles & Son, Xewark, X. J., for prus- 
siate of potash. Bronze medal. 

Thomas M. Redhead, Xo. 66 Fulton street, 
Brooklyn, for baking powders. Bronze medal. 

D. Briggs, Pleasant Run, X. J., for Sorg- 
hum molasses. Diploma. 

Boston Milling and Manufacturing Co., Bos- 
ton, Mass., C. H. Gardner, agent, for flour of 
bone of fine quality. Silver medal. 

B. T. Babbitt, Xo. 70 Washington street, for 
washing soap. Bronze medal. 

R. Rowland, Xo. 549 Pearl street, for Uncle 
Sam'£ laundry soap. Bronze medal. 


Judges — R. G. McDouGAL, Joseph F. Far- 
RiXGTOx, Samtel C. Bishop. 

Walton & Bros., Xo. 67 Warren street, for 
the best specimens of skates. Diploma. 

C. S. Osborne & Co., Xewark, X. J., for fine 
specimens of harnessmakers' tools. Silver 

Douglass Manufacturing Company, No. 70 
Beekman street, for superior carpenters', far- 
mers' and carriagemakers' tools. Silver 

W. J. Ten Eyck & Co., Xo. 57 Beekman st., 
for superior edge tools, consisting of axes, 
hatchets, picks, adzes, i:c. Silver medal. 

Meriden Cutlery Company, Xo. 45 Beekman 
street, for beautiful specimens of table cutlery. 
Silver medal. 

Whipple File Co., Ballard Va\e, Mass., for 
the best specimens of files. Silver medal. 

American File Company, Pawtucket, R. I., 
Foster & Tower, Xo. 78 Beekman street, for 
the second best files. Bronze medal. 

Stackpole Bit Brace Company, Elizabeth, 
X. J., for Stackpole's patent bit brace. Silver 

Comstock, Lyon & Co., Xo. 74 Beekman st., 
for beautiful specimens of screws for small ma- 
chine work. Bronze medal. 

Samuel Hall A Son & Co., Xo. 129 West 
10th street, for fine specimens of screw bolts, 
nuts, washers, <tc. Bronze medal. 

F. K. Sibley, Auburndale, Mass., for sam- 
ples of emery cloth, very superior. Bronze 

Boughton & Oakman, Xo. 41 Centre street, 
for the best faucets and brass oil works. Sil- 
ver medal. 

Stone & Herrick, Xo. 48 Beekman street, 
for a squirting oil can. Diploma. 

Betts, Davenport & Atwood, Stamford, 
Conn., for Olmstead's self-feeding racket drill 
and spring top oil can. Bronze medal. 

Webster & Co., Xo. 17 Dey street, for an 
improvement in screw wrenches, embracimg 
pipe cutters, pipe tongs, &c. Gold medal. 

Clement Hawkes & Mayuard, Xo. 14 Beek- 
man street, for solid steel machine made plan- 
ters' hoes. Silver medal. 

John Pease, Philadelphia, Penn., for an 
assortment of gas fitters' tools. Bronze medal. 

C. L. Griswold, Chester, Conn., for patent 
extension lip bits. Bronze medal. 

Lymbumer & Bogue, Xo. 46 Essex street, 
for very chaste specimens of coflBn handles. 
Bronze medal. 

S. S. Putnam <fc Co., Xeponsett, Mass., for 
superior forged horse shoe nails. Diploma. 

G. F. Warner &, Co., Xew Haven, Conn., 
for a superior assortment of valuable malleable 
iron castings. Silver medal. 

Jacobs & Hastings, Worcester, Mass., for 
excellent callipers and dividers combined. 
Bronze medal. 


F. G. Ford, Xo. 173 Bleecker street, for im- 
proved furniture castors. Diploma. 

Alexander il. Cochran, Xo. 442 West 35th 
street, for a very simple sash fastener and 

lock. Diploma. 


Judges — Hiram Dixon, Johx F. Ruttmax, 
Frederick Foster. 

B. F. Brady, Xo. 169 Elm street, for the 
best specimens of ornamental engrossing. Gold 

B. F. Brady, No. 169 Elm street, for supe- 
rior specimens of pen-drawing. Silver medal. 

Bryant, Stratton Jb Co., Xo. 937 Broadway,* 
for superior specimens of penmanship. Silver, 

nxE arts. 

Judges — William Gibsox, G. B. Dk 

John G. Force, High street, Brooklyn, L, I., 



for the best portrait in oil, '' Chief Justice 
Chase." Bronze medal. 

S. N. Carvalho, No. 481 Broadway, for the 
second best portrait in oil, *' Thos. Hunter." 

John C. Force, High street, Brooklj^n, L. I., 
for an oil painting by Hamilton. Silver medal. 

John C. Force, High street, Brooklyn, for 
an oil painting, "Capture of Major Andre," 
by Alonzo Chappel. Bronze medal. 

Chas. Mullcr, East 75th street, E. R., for 
a marble group and bronze medallion portrait. 
Silver medal. 


Judges— B. H. Mavnard, B. S. Osbon. 

Spencer Repeating Rifle Company, Boston, 
Mass., for Spencer's Magazine Rifle. Silver 

National Arms Company, Brooklyn, L. I., for 
breech-loading rifles. Silver medal. 

Brooklyn Arms Company, Brooklyn, L. I., 
for Slocum's patent pistol. Diploma. 

AVm. Z. W. Chapman, No. 835 Broadway, 
for improvement in fastenings for cartridge 
boxes, &c. Diploma. 

Samuel Gardiner, No. 171 Broadway, for a 
bullet and shell machine. Silver medal. 


Judges — Hezekiah Bradford, Thos. D. 
Stetson. ' 

M. R. Clapp, No. 455 Water street, for the 
best steam fire engine. Gold medal. 

Plantation Engine Boiler and Copper "VYorks, 
No. 7 Old Slip, for a good and substantial 
engine. Bronze medal. 

American Coupling Company, Nos. 31 and 
33 Dey st., for hose couplings. Silver medal. 

E. Warner, No. 35 Spruce street, fox speci- 
men of hose. Silver medal. 

G. Palmer, No. 119 Nassau street, for a 
hose and sprinkler. Bronze medal. 

W. D. Tewksbury, No. 31 Dey street, for 
Morrison's hose pipe. Bronze medal. 

fishing tackle and twine. 

Judges — R. G. McDouGALE, Robert B. 
Roosevelt, John F. Baldavin. 

Willard Harvey, No. 84 Maiden lane, for 
superior fishing lines. Bronze medal. 

Alfred Woodham, No. 424 Broadway, for 
fishing reels and lines. Bronze medal. 

Demarest & Joralemon, No. 100 Barclay St., 
for excellent cotton seine twine. Diploma. 


Judges — Robert Dunlap, Alfred Y. Ry- 

Bigelow & Co., No. 185 Fulton St., Brook- 
lyn, for the best furs. Silver medal. 

John N. Genin, No. 513 Broadway, for 
manufactured furs. Bronze medal. 


J. H. Gautier & Co., Jersey City, N. J., 
. for a superior clay gas retort. Silver medal. 


Judges — Hiram Young, D. D. Parmelee. 

Bali, Black & Co., Nos. 565 and 567 Broad- 
Tray, for a gold and silver service of plate. 
Gold medal. 

Tiffany & Co., Nos. 550 and 552 Broadway, 
for a silver service of plate. Gold medal. 


Bishop's Gutta Percha Co., No. 201 Broad- 
way, for gutta percha goods, telegraph cables, 
&c. Gold medal. 


Judges — G. W. Crouch, Daniel Wright. 

Hoover, Calhoun & Co., No. 362 Broadway, 
for a set of single harness. Silver medal. 

Benjamin Armstrong, No. 371 Pearl street, 
for improved pipe horse collars. Diploma. 


Judges — Henry Y. Scattergood, Johk B. 
WiNSLOW, F. G. Ford. 

The Silver Skirt Manufacturing Co., Nos. 
30 and 32 Barclay street, for the best hoop 
skirt. Silver medal. 

household UTENSILS. 

Eureka Manufacturing Co., Boston, Mass., 
for the American self-stirring coffee roasters. 

James Stephens & Co., Nos. 116 and 118 
Twenty-fifth street, for refrigerators. Bronze 

Stephen W. Smith, No. 90 William street, 
for patent cantering horses. Silver medal. 

Metzler & Cowperthwaite, No. 620 Fifth st., 
for a .spring horse. Bronze medal. 

Noe & Archer, No. 25 Delancey street, for 
doorway swing or scup. Diploma. 

Miles Manufacturing Co., Nos. 57 to 61 
Lewis St., for meat cutters. Bronze medal. 


Judges — Warren S. Sillcocks, S. W. 
Marsters, James G. Scholefield. 

N. A. Buhle, No. 105 Nassau St., for supe- 
rior specimens of enameled jeAvelry. Silver 

Geo. W. Sullivan, No. 175 Hester st., for 
gold pens and i^encil-holders. Silver n)edal. 

John S. Purdy & Co., No. 335 Broadway, 
for specimens of fountain pens. Diploma. 

Shiff'er & Co., No. 603 Broadway, for speci- 
mens A'ulcanite jewelry. Silver medal. 

W. H. Brady, No. 12 Bank st., for a speci- 
men of landscape chasing on a silver goblet. 


Judges — James G. Moffet, Alfred Bliss, 
Jas. Donalson. 

Hiram Tucker & Co., No. 59 John st., and 
Nos. 117, 119 Court st., Boston, Mass., for 
bronzed iron chandeliers, lamps, brackets, &c. 
Gold medal. 

Julius Ives & Co., No. 18 Beekman st., for 
patent lamps, the mode of filling and lighting 
now and good. Silver medal. 

Reuben H. Plass, No. 110 East 29th st., for 
a night-attachment for Kerosene lamps. 
Bronze medal. 

Petroleum Stove Co., No. 171 Broadway, 
for the best petroleum stoves. Bronze medal. 

Lesley & Elliott, No. 494 Broadway, for the 
second best kerosene stoves. Diploma. 

Morrell Petroleum Stove Company, No. 636 
Broadway, for the gas generating chamber in 
petroleum stoves. Bronze medal. 


Judges — George Evans, Jas. R. Smith. 
Charles Korn & Co., No. 321 Pearl street, 
for the best calf skins. Bronze medal. 




Judges — Edward Faron, George Tugnot,- 
William Watts. 

Ilcwes & Phillips, Newark, N. J., for the 
best iron lathe, slotting machine, gear cutter, 
and shaning machines. Gold medal. 

W. H". Hoag, No. 40 Cortlandt street, for 
the second best iron lathe and planers. Silver 
medal. | 

Wright k Smith, Newark, N. J., for the best j 
engine lathe for light ■work. Silver medal. ! 

Adam Stewart, No. 252 Canal street, for the 
best foot lathe. Silver medal. 

F. W. Bacon & Co., No. 84 John street, for 
the best lathe for brass work. Silver medal. 

Richard Dudgeon, No. 24 Columbia street, 
for the best double-acting steam hammer, hy- 
draulic punches, lifting, and pulley jacks. 
Gold medal. 

Charles Merrill & Sons, No. .550 Grand st., 
for the best atmospheric forge hammer. Sil- 
ver medal. 

N. C. Stiles, West Mcriden, Conn., for the 
best punching press. Silver medal. 

J. M. Bottum, No. 109 Broadway, for the 
best watchmaker's tools, splendid mechanisni. 
Silver medal. 

H. Burden & Sons, Troy, N. Y., for the best 
machine for making horse shoes. Gold medal. 

Corning & Winslow, Troy. N. Y., for the 
second best machines for making horse shoes. 
Silver medal. 

Wright A Smith, Newark, N. J., for Olm- 
sted's friction shaft. Bronze medal. 

Betts, Davenport & Atwood, Stamford, Ct., 
for Olmsted's friction clutch, pulley, and self- 
feeding racket drill. Bronze medal. 

New York Steam Engine Works, Twenty- 
third street, E. R., for a superior collection of 
centering, shaping, milling, bolt cutter, drills, 
<tc. Silver medal. 

Thomas Prosser k Son, No. 28 Piatt street, 
for the best boiler-makers' tools. Silver 

Lyon k. Isaacs, No. 9 Jane street, for a self- 
feeding hand and power metal drill. Silver m. 


Judges — John A. Schenck, Edward Rtjg- 
GLES, M. D. 

J. A. Fay & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, for the 
best scroll saw and wood planing machine. 
Gold medal. 

Wright & Smith, Newark, N. J., for a pen- 
dulum scroll saw. Bronze medal. '< 

John D. Chism, No. 854 Sixth avenue, for ! 
the best shingle machine. Silver medal. i 

C. B. Rogers & Co., Norwich, Cctin., for a 
morticing machine and boring apparatus. I 
Bronze medal. 

S. C. Ellis, Jersey City, N. J., for a blind 
slat tenoning machine. Diploma. 

C. B. Rogers & Co., Norwich, Conn., for a 
moulding machine. Silver medal. 

R. Ball & Co., Worcester, Mass., for a planer 
and matcher. Bronze medal. 

Combination Moulding and Planing Machine 
Company, Nos. 108 and 110 East Twenty-ninth 
street, for a double serpentine machine and 
variety moulding machine . Gold medal. 

Wm. F. Dodge, Newark, N. J., for Hall's 
mitre machine. Bronze medal. 

J. A. Fay & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, for a 
planing and matching machine. Bronze medal. 

J. A. Fay & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, for a 
sash and door machine. Silver medal. 

S. E. Anthony, Stillwater, Montgomery 
county, N. Y., for a saw shingle machine. 
Bronze medal. 


Judges — Theodore Schwartz, Miers Cor- 
yell, Joseph G. Harrison. 

New York Steam Engine Works, Twenty- 
third street. East river, for the best portable 
engine and iDoiler. Gold medal. 

American Safety Engine Company, Boston, 
Mass., for a steam engine and generator. 
Bronze medal. 

Washington Iron Works, Ncwburgh, N. Y., 
for an engine and saw-mill combined. Gold 

Joseph Champion & Wm. H, Hoag, No. 40 
Cortlandt street, for a portable steam engine. 
Silver medal. 

Hicks Engine Company, No. 88 Liberty st., 
for a steam engine. Silver medal. 

Root Square Engine Company, No. 155 
Duane street, for a steam engine. Silver 

J. E. Conner, Brooklyn, for a rotary eno-ine. 

G. F. Hall & Co., No. 137 Elm street, for 
self-adjusting steam piston packing. Bronze 


Wm. D. Andrews & Brother, No. 414 Water 
street, for the best oscillating engine. Gold 

Wood & Mann, Utiea, N. Y., for a portable 
steam engine. Silver medal. 

Wm. D. Andrews k Bro., No. 414 Water 
street, for a steam boiler. Gold medal. 

Henry Gerner, No. 20 Bleecker street, for a 
hydro-carbon blower. Bronze medal. 

New York Metallic Steam Packing Company, 
Brooklyn, for metallic steam packicg. Bronze 

New England Tube Brush Company, Fall 
River, Mass., for boiler tube brushes. Bronze 


jMrfgc.9— Henry. McKee, Joseph A. Ster- 
LING, David Cochran. 

New York Rock Drill Co., No. 152 Broad- 
way, for the best steam power rock drilling 
machine. Gold medal. 

George W. Thomas, No. 171 Broa,dway, for 
a working model of a patentwell borer, Hyde's 
patent. Silver medal. 

Boston Milling and Manufacturing Co., 
Boston, Mass., for the best quartz crusher. 
Gold medal. 

J. L. Douglass, No. 100 Broadway, for 
Hughes' atmospheric quartz crusher, blower 
and receiving box. Silver medal. 

railroad machinery. 

Judges — H. L. Brown, William Cummings. 

W. G. Creamer & Son, No. 15 Piatt street, 
for a railroad safety brake. Gold medal. 

Washburn, Hunt k Co., Jersey city, N. J., 
C. A. Peck, agent. No. 01 Chambers street^ 
for the best car Avheels. Silver medal. 

Lamborn k Justice, Philadelphia, Fenn,^ 



for a bridge joint fastening for railroads. Sil- 
ver medal. 

William Wharton, Jr., No. 101 Libert}- st., 
for a model of a safety switch. Bronze medal. 

Radlev, McAllister"' & Co., No. 162 Green- 
wich street, for locomotive head lights. Sil- 
ver medal. 


Judges — David G. Starkey, George M. 
"VTooDWARD, Emil Vossxack, Daniel Bar- 


Convex Weaving Co., No. 97 Reade street, 
for a loom for weaving irregular shapes. Gold 

Charles Hardy, Biddeford, Maine, for a 
main cylinder and doflfer grinder. Gold medal. 

C. L. Goddard, No. o Bowling Green, for a 
mestizo burring picker. Gold medal. 

S. R. Parkhiirst, Nos. 26 and 28 Barclay 
street, for the best cotton gin. Silver medal. 

Horace L. Emery & Son, No. 184 Water st., 
for a cotton gin. Diploma. 

J. E. Palmer, Middletown, Conn., for a cir- 
cular loom for weaving. Silver medal. 

C. L. Goddard, No. 3 Bowling Green, for 
the best wool burring machine. Bronze medal. 

S. R. Parkhurst, Nos. 26 and 28 Barclay 
street, for. the second best burring machine. 

E. C. Cleaveland, Worcester, Mass., for a 
cloth drying and tentering machine. Gold 

George F. Taylor, Hudson city, N. J., for a 
model of a cotton press. Bronze medal. 

Henry Burley, No. 64 Charlton street, for 
hackles for dressing flax, hackling machine 
and riving frame. Diploma. 

E. D. & G. Draper, Hopedale, Mass., for 
Dutcher's patent temples. Diploma. 

M. Finkle, Nos. 254 and 256 West 27th st., 
for wire harness for weavers and wire heddles. 

governors and gauges. 

Judges — Theodore Schwartz, Miers Co- 
ryell, Joseph G. Harrison. 

Schmidt and Bios., No. 41 Centre street, for 
the best steam gauge. Silver medal. J 

F. W. Bacon & Co., No. 84 John street, for 
steam and water gauges. Silver medal. 

V. Giroud & Co., No. lUl Lewis street, for' 
a steam gauge. Bronze medal. 

Clark's Steam and Fire Regulator Co., No. 
117 Broadway, for a patent steam and fire reg- 
ulator. Gold medal. ' 

August Brown, N. Y , for a governor for 
steam engine. Silver medal. ; 

C. T. Porter. No. 235 West 13th street, for' 
a steam regulator. Silver medal. i 

Pickering ct Davis, No. 144 Green street, , 
for a steam regulator. Silver medal. 1 

Campbell, Ilardick Bros., No. 9 Adams st., 
Brooklyn, for a water valve chest. Bronze '■ 


John Tremper, Philadelphia, Penn., for a' 
chronometer governor and graduating cut-ofi". ■ 
Silver medal. | 

Pickering & Davis, No. 144 Greenwich st., i 
for a marine engine governor. Bronze medal. 

A. Campbell, No. 117 Broadway, for self- 
regulating valve. Bronze medal. 

Xv. Barnet Le Van, Philadt-lphia, P., for a 
steam engine governor. Bronze medal. i 

j J. L. McDermut, No. 257 West 22d St., for 
; a steam thermometer. Diploma. 

WATER wheels. 

I Ji/rfges— William K. Thomas, W. W. Van- 
j DERBiLT, Joseph A. Sterling, Jacob M. 

I Talcott & Undcrhill, No. 170 Broadway, for 
! the best submerged water wheel. Gold medal. 
I J. E. Stevenson, No. 200 Broadway, for the 
second best water wheel. Silver medal. 

Union Machine Company, NorAvich, Conn., 
for a water wheel governor. Silver medal. 

Gillespie Governor Manufacturing Co., for a 
water wheel governor. Silver medal. 


Eben Tuttle, Canaan, Maine, for a center 
vent water wheel. Silver medal. 

prMPS and hydraulics. 

Judges — Wm.K. Thomas, W. W. Vander- 
BiLT, Joseph A. Sterling, Jacob M. Pal- 

WoodAvard Steam Pnmp Manufacturing Co., 
No. 95 Bleecker st., for the best crank steam 
pump. Gold medal. 

A. S. Cameron & Co., 22d street and 2d 
avenue, for the second best crank steam pump, 
" Sewell's." Silver medal. 

George Dwight, jr., & Co., Springfield, 
Mass., for the best direct action steam pump. 
Gold medal. 

Knowles & Sibley, Warren, Mass., for the 
second best direct action steam pumj). Silver 

Campbell it Hardick Brothers, No. 9 Adams 
St., Brooklyn, for the third best pump. Bronze 

James Clayton, No. 102 Front st.., Brooklyn, 
for the fourth best steam pump. Diploma. 

William D. Andrews A Bros., No. 414 Water 
St., for the best centrifugal pump, for drain- 
ing, mining and bilge pumps. Gold medal. 

Plantation Engine Boiler and Copper Works, 
No. 7 Old Slip, for the second best drain pump. 
Bronze medal. 

J. D. West & Co., No. 40 Cortland st., for 
the best pumps for farming and gardening pur- 
poses. Silver Medal. 

Brinkerhoof & Springsteen, No. 427 Tenth 
St., for a deck pump. Silver medal. 


L. Rood, No. 254 Broadway, for an hydro- 
pult. Silver medal. 

William Foster Dodge, Newark, N. J., for 
suction and force pumps. Silver medal. 

Robt. Taggart, No. 593 Hudson street, for 
a hydrant. Silver medal. 


Judges — Thos. Eavbank, James Bogabuus, 
Saml. Gardiner. 

Florence Sewing Machine Co., No. 515 
Broadway, for the best family sewing machine. 
Gold medal. 

A. H. Suplee, No. 531 Broadway, for the 
second best sewing machine. Silver medal. 

Planer & Kayser, No. 84 Bowery, for a first 
class manufacturing sewing machine. Silver m. 

Fred. W. Grote, No. 40 avenue B, for a uni- 
versal sewing machine. Silver medal. 

Howe Machine Company, No. 629 Broadway, 
for a double thread sewing machine, simple in 
construction, and works well, a first class 
manufacturing machine. Silver medal. 



Empire Sewing Machine Co., No. 536 Broad- 
way, tor a well -studied, works well, and runs 
reuiarkalily still for a shuttle machine. Sil- 
ver medal. 

John McCloskey, No. 240 Tenth st., for a 
single thread attachment to Wheeler & Wil- 
son's sewing machine. Silver medal. 

D. Barn urn, No. 508 Broadway, for a guide 
doing away with basting for sewing machines. 
Silver medal. 

Geo. F. demons, Springfield, Mass., for a 
cloth guide. Bronze medal. 

Wheeler & Wil.^on Manufacturing Co., No. 
625 Broadway, for the best button-hole ma- 
chine. Gold nudal. 

Union Button-hole Sewing Machine Co., 
No. 747 Broadwaj', forthe second best button- 
hole mocliine. Silver medal. 

Lamb Knitting Machine, Springtield, Mass., 
for a family knitting machine. Gold medal. 

Dalton Knitting Machine Co., No. 537 
Broadway, for a rotary knitting machine, 
beautiful in its movements, and works well. 
Silver medal. 


Judges — S. N. Carvalho, H. Bradford, 
A. H. Everett. 

E. Bigelow & Co., Springfield, Mass., for 
anti-curro.-ive syrup apparatus, polar soda and 
syrup apparatus. Bronze medal. 

John Matthews, No. 437 First avenue, and 
Sehultz <t Warker, No. 133 Fourth avenue, 
for soda water aiiparatus and glass fountains. 
Gold medal. 

Wm. Gee, corner of Franklin and Elm sts., 
for patent soda water apparatus. Gold medal. 

G. D. Dow.<, Button, Mass., S. H. Scrip- 
ture, agent, fur soda water fountain cooler, 
ice cutler and s3Tup holder. Bronze medal. 


Judges — BoBT. Craighead, Edw. Walker. 

M. J. Campbell, A. Campbell, agent. No. 
56 G(dd street, for Campbell's country printing 
press. Gold medal. 

D. F. BucUley, Manchester, N. H., for a 
newspaper folding machine. Silver medal. 

R. lloe & Co., No. 29 Gold street, for copy- 
ing presses and stands. Bronze medal. 

washing machines and CLOTHES WRINGERS. 

Judges — \\'yi. A. Fitch, Thos. Haight. 

Doty Bros.. Joncsville, Wis,, R. C. Brown- 
ing, agent, No. 347 Broadway, for the best 
washing uiachine. Silver medal. 

Oakley it Keating, No. 184 Water St., for 
the second best washing machine. Bronze 
medal . 

C. H. Hudson tt. Co., No. 48 Fulton st., for 
a washing nnichine comprising simplicity, 
efficiency and clieapncss. Bronze medal. 

R. C. Browning, No. 347 Broadway, for the 
best clothes wringer. Bronze medal. 

John Ward it Co., No. 457 Broadway, for 
the second best clothes wringer. Diploma. 

COOPERAGE machinery. 

Jude:es — Wm. P. Bensel, A. G. Briggs, 
S. S. Moore, jr. 

Houck k Taylor, Buffalo, N. Y., for the 

best barrel making machinery. Silvermedal. 

Charles Murduck, EUcnrillo, N. Y., for the 

second best barrel making machinery. Silver 

labor-saving machines not enumerated in 

OTHER lists. 

Judges — S. n. Maynard, B. S. Osbon. 
I Chambers, Brother & Co., Philadelphia, 
I Penn., for a clay-tempering brick making 
1 machine. Gold medal. 

I Barry Bradford »fe Co., Boston, ]Mass., for a 
tack leathering machine. Silver medal. 

Geo. Jl. Kitchen & Co., No. 561 Broadway, 
for Empire gas machine. Silver medal. 

John Stover, 227th street and Second avenue, 
for a suet lubricator. Diploma. 

Daniel J. Tuttle, Albany, N. Y., for a pill 
making machine. Silver medal. 

J. J. Doyle, Greenpoint, L. I., for eccentric 
pulley blocks. Diploma. 

Samuel Hall's Sons & Co., No. 129 West 10th 
St., for Doyle's patent pulley blocks. Diploma. 

Henry Getty, No. 45 Cortland i-treet, for a 
self-adjusting pipe Avrench. Bronze medal. 

J. R. Harrington, No. 43 De Kalb avenue, 
Brooklyn, for a blacksmith tuyere. Silver 

W. J. Stratton, No. 107 West 12th st., for a 
working model of a tobacco cutter. Diploma. 

Jabez Burns, No, 269 Washington ; t., for a 
coffee roasting machine. Bronze medal. 

Sampson and Tibbits' Scale Co., No. 15 Dey 
St., for a rolling mill scale. Bronze medal. 

John Thompson, No. 147 East 25th st., for 
a machine for making cigars. Diploma. 

H. V. Scattergood, Albanj-, for a model of 
needle cotton gin and condenser. Bronze 

S. N. Carvalho, No. 861 Broadway, for an 
apparatus for super-heating steam. Silver 

Anson P. Stephens, No. 230 Washington 
avenue, Brooklyn, L. I., for a parallel vice. 
Silver medal. 

Richardson Mill Co., Gloucester, Mass., 
David W. Low, agent, for an ice crusher. Sil- 
ver medal. 

marble mantles, marble tiling, etc. 
Judges — Richard Upjohn, F. Diaper, D. 


Fisher & Bird, No. 97 East Houston st., for 
the best marble mantels. Gold medal, 

John Kennedy, Broadway, corner 35th st., 
for the second best marble mantels. Silver 

E. Deming, No. 181 West 14th st,, for the 
best marbleized mantels and marbleized mantel 
tops. Silver medal. 

John Parry, No. 167 East 12th street, for 
the second best marbleizing in imitation of 
Sienna marble. Bronze medal. 

Fisher & Bird, No. 97 East Houston st., for 
marble tiling. Bronze medal. 


Judges — Henry M. Watkins, W. Stack- 
pole, Dubois D. Parmelee. 

G. W . Hough, Dudley Observatory, Albany, 
N. Y., for an automatic registering and print- 
ing barometer. Gold medal. 

W. H. Paine, Sheboygan, Wis., for a sur- 
veyor's measure and case. Bronze medal. 

Plantation Engine Boiler and Copper Works, 
No. 7 Old Slip, for a copper rum distillery and 
worm. Silver medal. 



C. Scribncr & Co., No. 124 Grand st., for 
Perce's magnetic globes. Bronze medal. 

B. J. Burnett, Mount Vernon, N. Y., for 
model of ventilators. Diploma. 

Edmund Hook, No. 171 William st., for a 
patent money drawer. Bronze medal. 

Schou & Hull, Lafayette, Ind., for a pro- 
philometer or surveyor's instrument. Silver 

E. P. Needham, No. 128 East 19th st., for 
a pneumatic way. Silver medal. 


Ph. p. Meyer, Nos. 180 and 182 Centre st., 
for specimens of spinning in silver, copper, 
brass, zinc, &c. Silver medal. 


Judges — A. n. Everett, C. E. Chandler, 
H. L. Brown. 

Winslow, Griswold & HoUey, Troy, N. Y., 
for Bessimer east steel. Gold medal. 

Taghonic Iron AVorks, Housatonic, Mass., 
for the best Copake and Leete pig-iron. Gold 


Judges — Mrs. L. De Voe, Mrs. L. Wother- 
SPOON, Miss A. A. Smith. 

L. Binns, No. 577 Broadway, for the best 
millinery and jockey hats. Bronze medal. 

New York Hard Rubber Company, No. 1G3 
Broadway, for a case of hard rubber cravats. 
Bronze medal. 

Savoye & Menu, West Hoboken, N. J., for 
specimens of kid gloves. Diploma. 

Stacy Courtis, No. 66 Duane street, for an 
Affghan. Diploma. 

Margaret A. Boax, No. 36 Horatio street, 
for a woolen coverlet. Diploma. 

Miss Hendry, No. 3 Beach street, for a wax 
vase. Diploma. 

A. W. Demuth & Brothers, No. 214 William 
street, for specimens of glass buttons. Silver 

Leopold Stern, No. 74 Carmine street, for 
potiehomania vases. Diploma. 

Champnery &, Smitten, No. 127 Eulton st., 
Brooklyn, for a hair picture. Diploma. 

Mrs. J. W. Peters, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 
for specimens of sliell work. Bronze medal. 

Andrew T. Thaery, Nos. 92 and 94 Grand 
street, for patent spring hair pins. Diploma. 

Mrs. Eagleson, No. 2 Albion place, for a 
cone frame. Bronze medal. 

Mme. Demorcst, No. 473 Broadway, for sys- 
tem of dress cutting, corsets, embroiderings, 
braid, and embroidery stamps. Silver medal. 


Piano Fortes. 

Judges — James M. Quinn, Clare W. 
Beames, J. N. Pattison, Chas. Fradel. 

George Stock & Co., Nos. 113 and 115 Walk- 
er street, for a grand piano forte, for general 
superiority. Gold medal. 

Driggs Patent Piano Company, No. 252 
Ninth avenue, for a square piano forte, for 
general superiority. Gold medal. 

Geo. Steck & Co., Nos. 113 and 115 Walker 
street, for the second best square piano forte. 
Silver medal. 

Lindeman &, Sons, No. 2 Leroy place, for 
Cycloid piano forte, for novelty of construction 
and general excellence. Gold medaL 


Judges— W^ii. Berge, D. M., Thomas Ap- 
pleton, C. B. Seymour, Dr. E. Ringer, 
George Jardine. 

Carhart, Needham & Co., Nos. 97 to 101 
East Twenty-third street, for the best organ. 
Special gold medal. 

J. M. Pelton, No. 841 Broadway, for the 
best cabinet organ made by Peloubet & Son, 
Bloomfield, N. J. Gold medal. 

Mason & Hamlin, No. 596 Broadway, for the 
second best cabinet organ. Silver medaL 


J. Bauer & Co., No. 650 Broadway, for col- 
lection of musical iustruments. Silver medal. 

Wm. B. Tilton, No. 675 Broadway, for ban- 
jos. Bronze medal. 


Alfred B. Kilson, No. 575 Broadway, for 
the best guitar, Tilton's patent. Bronze 


Judges-^li. S. OsBON, Howard Rogers. 

0. R. Ingersoll, No. 243 South street, for 
a metallic life boat. Gold medal. 

C. F. Hall, Navy street, Brooklyn, for two 
yacht models. Bronze medal. 

Ferd. Ilochow, Morgan Iron Works, for ship 
steering apparatus. Silver medal. 

R. G". McDougall, No. 466 Cherry street, for 
a model of an iron-clad ship of war, for ocean 
service. Gold medal. 

Richard Montgomery, No. 24 Broadway, for 
a fire box for ocean steamers. Diploma. 

John F. Patten, No. 187 Sixth avenue, for 
a model of a steam propeller. Diploma. 

A. E. Lozier, No. 61 Bleecker street, for 
marine log and leeway indicator. Bronze 

Stuler & West, Greenpoint, L. I., for models 
of vessels. Diploma. 

0. C. Phelps, No. 181 East 33d street, for 
model of a new propeller. Bronze medal. 

American Ship Windlass Co., Providence, 
R. I., for a patent rudder support. Silver 

American Ship Windlass Co., Providence, 
R. I., for ships' windlasses. Silver medal. 

Pierrepont Bartow, No. 30 Broadway, for a 
model of a river steamboat. Bronze medal. 


George W. Fellows, No. 28 West Washing- 
ton place, for a new mode of building vessels. 


Judges — Thomas M. Stanton, C. H. Mon- 


E. W. Page, No. 89 West street, for supe- 
rior oars. Diploma. 

Judges — Leopold Eidlitz, William Main 
Smilie, Maurice Hudtfelt. 

F. Gutekunst, Philadelphia, Pa., for the 
best plain photographs. Gold medal. 

Rockwood & Co., No. 839 Broadway, for the 
best mechanical and architectural photographs. 
Silver medal. 

C. H. Williamson, Brooklyn, for the best 
imperial photographs. Gold medal. 



J. Gurney & Sons, No. 707 Broadway, for 
the best colored photographs. Silver medal. 

0. C. Mason, No. 599 Broadway, for photo- 
graphs of the moon. Silver medal. 

Rock wood & Co., No- 839 Broadway, for 
photographs on porcelain. Silver medal. 

Biersladt Brothers, New Bedford, Mass., for 
transparent stereoscope views. Bronze medal. 

S. A. Holmes, No. 553 Broadway, for pho- 
tographic scenery. Diploma. 


Jwrf?e5— Alexaxder II. Everett, C. F. 

John G. Bell, No. 335 Broadway, for a case 
of preserved birds. Bronze medal. 

Edgar Chipman, No. 634 Broadway, for spe- 
cimens of aluiio;j:en. Diploma. 

SMOKING pipes. 

Judges — W.\r. Ebbitt, James R. Smith. 

L. H. Hale & Co., No. 10 Beekman street, 
for a smol<ing pipe and cartridge, and Melett's 
patent pipe charge. Branze medal. 

Pollak & Son, No. 692 Broadway, for supe- 
rior meerschaum goods. Bronze medal. 

Kaldenberg & ISon, No. 6 John street, for 
superior meerschaum pipes. Bronze medal. 

W. H. Fickey, Baltimore, Md., Edw'd Hen, 
No. 43 Liberty street, for Kapno Kathairie 
tobacco pipes. Bronze medal. 

steel pens. 

Empire Pen Co., Nos. 215 and 217 West 35th 
St., for the best steel pens. Silver medal. 

stoves, ranges, heaters and ftrnaces. 

Judges — 0. P. Hatfield, D. J. Stagg, 
Chas. Fowler. 

J. E. Liddle, No. 250 Water st., for the 
best parlor stove, "Oriental Base Burner." 
Silver medal. 

W. R. Butler, No. 240 Water st., for the 
second best parlor stove. Bronze medal. 

Samuel Patrick, No. 61 Bleecker st., for a 
plate warmer. Diploma. 

J. Q. A. Butler, No. 236 Water st., for a 
cook stove. Bronze medal. 

F. Milliken, Saco, Me., for a steam cooking 
apparatus. Silver medal. 

Budd & Brothers, No. 184 West 14th st., for 
the best fire-place heater. Bronze medal. 

W. C. Lester, No. 1279 Broadway, for tho 
second best fire-place heater. Diploma. 

John T. Budd, No. 8 East 19th st., for the 
best hot-air furnace. Silver medal. 

E. Barrows, No. 254 Water st., for the 
second best hot-air furnace. Bronze medal. 

Charles R. Ellis, No. 182 Centre st., for the 
best hot water furnace. Bronze medal. 

Baker, Smith &, Co., No. 37 Mercer st., for 
a steam generator for house warming. Silver 

Mackenzie Range Co., No. 484 Broadway, 
for the best dwelling house range. Silver 

John Sumner, No. 270 Canal street for the 
second best dwelling house range. Bronze 

Bramhall, Deane <fe Co., No. 268 Canal st., 
for a hotel range. Silver medal. 

surgical instruments. 

Judges — James Knight, M. D.,. J. M. Car- 
nochan, M. D., J. V. C Smith, M. D. 

A. A. Marks, No. 575 Broadway, for artifi- 
cial limbs, f jr simplicity of construction and 
durability. Gold medal. 

N. W. Kingsley, No. 28 Twentieth street, 
for an artificial palate. Gold medal.. 

Marsh Bros., No. 542 Broadway, for trusses, 
shoulder braces and orthopedic instruments, 
for elegance and beautiful workmanship. Di- 

Ernest Marx, No. 225 East 11th street, for 
surgical and medical elevator. Silver medal. 

George W. Lovejoy, No. 76i Broadway, for 
Hartman's patent elestic crutches. Diploma. 


Judges — A. H. Everett, S. II. Maynard. 

L. Bradley, Jersey City, N. J., for naked wire 
helix telegraph instruments. Silver medal. 

S. F. Day, Ballston Spa, N. Y., for a regis- 
ter, sounder and electric escape attachment. 
Silver medal. 

C. F. & J. N. Chester, No. 104 Centre st., 
for electrical apparatus. Silver med^jiil. 


Jerome Kidder, Jr., 483 Broadway, for the 
best bath electro apparatus and the best office 
and pocket electro medical apparatus. Dip. 

velvets, carpetings and musquito net- 
Judges — Henri L. Stuart, Isaac Parmly. 

American Velvet Company, Nos. 26 and 28 
Barclay street, for silk velvet and plush. Gold 

American Water-proof Cloth Company, No. 
43 Barclay street, for lap robes, table covers, 
car and carriage seating and carpeting. Gold 

Spring Valley Manufacturing Co., No.^ 38 
Walker street, for fancy colored musquito net- 
ting of fine quality. Diploma. 

Johnson <t Brinkerhofi', No. 12 Vesey street, 
for musquito guards. Diploma. 


French Self-fastening\ Button Co., No. 80 
Reade street, for self-fastening buttons. Sil- 
ver medal. 

Nicholas Groel, No. 202 Market st., New- 
ark, N. J., for a bag. Diploma. 

John A. Batchelor, No. 19 Bowery, for var- 
nishing and enameling on clocks, grates and 
table. Diploma. 

Richard Montgomery, No. 24 Broadway, for 
a model of a bridge constructed of corrugated 
metal. Silver medal. 

Albert Fuller, No. 223 DeKalb av., Brook- 
lyn, L. I., for the best brass and silver faucets. 
Silver medal. 

C. B. Rogers & Co., Norwich, Conn., for 
skates and compression valves. Bronze medal. 

Patent Package Co., Newark, N. J., for the 
best package for packing tobacco, coflfee, 
spice, seed, &c. Bronze medal. 

Schwitter & Ruman, No. 177 Broadway, for 
glass engraving, done on the engine turning 
lathe. Silver medal. 

James Eustace, No. 540 Broadway, for mil- 
itary goods. Diploma. 



Northrop & Wright, No. 58 Attorney street, 
for a clothes dryer. Diploma. 

Dennison & Co., No. 198 Broadway, for tags 
and labels. Diploma. 

Metzler & Cowperthwait, No. 620 Fifth st., 
for rocking horses. Diploma. 

F. W. Bacon i Co., No. 84 John street, for 
smoothing iron, a good article. Diploma. 

N. P. Otis, Yonkers, N. Y., for an improved 
canal boat. Bronze medal. 

W. C. Lester, No. 1279 Broadway, for a 
portable wash stand. Diploma. 

Steele & Co , No. 3 Park row, for patent 
feather dusters. Bronze m(?dal. 

Chase & Co., No. 524 Broadway, for iron 
stools, garden vases, hitching posts, &c. 
Bronze medal. 

Howard Tilden, Boston, Mass., for the "Bon ! 
Ton" flour and sauce sifter. Diploma. I 

J. Palmer, Bedford avenue, Brooklyn, L. I. ! 
for a family dough kneader. Diploma. j 

E. F. Woodward, Brooklyn, L. I., for pa- 
tent corrugated bottom boilers. Diploma. 

F. J. May, No. 333 Greenwich street, for 
patent self-skimming milk pans. Diploma. 

J. F. Griffen, No. 9 Barclay street, for pa- 
tent self-sealing preserve jars. Bronze medal. 

James Morton, 128 Fulton avenue, Brook- 
lyn, for specimens of crackers. Diploma. 

M. K. Maximilian, No. 73 Third av., for 
tasteful decorations in the building. Bronze 

Close & Buckman, No. 192 South Third St., 
Brooklyn, L. I., for a patent right left and 
double acting spring butt. Bi'onze medal. 

Isaac E. Palmer, Middletown, Conn., for 
musquito net fixtures. Diploma. 

Isaac E. Palmer, Middle town, Conn., for 
power loom musquito netting, picture and 
worsted ball cord, window shade lines and self- 
adjusting pully. Bronze medal. 

P. Miles, No. 59 Lewis street, for patent 
spring balance shade fixtures. Diploma. 

American Eyelet Company, Providence, R. 
I., for eyelets. Diploma. 

Louis *F. Metzger, No. 549 Pearl st., N. Y., 
for superior portable lemonade. Bronze medal. 

Albert B. Waldron, No. 64) Broadway, for 
specimens of show cards. Diploma. 

Honorable Mciition. 

Wm. W, Marston, for three -barrel repeat- 
ing pistols. Being a manager, he is debarred 
from receiving a premium. 

T. C. Smith & Co., Union Porcelain Works, 
No. 38 John street, for beautiful specimens of 
China ware. Being a manager, he is debarred 
from receiving a premium. 

S. S. Hickok, Buffalo, N. Y., for a potato 

Robert Wyatt, 171 Broadway, for a fire- 

Newman, Onderdonk] & Capron, No. 1172 
Broadway, for improvement in sliding door 

E D. Bassford, Cooper Union, for silver 
plated ware. 






The trial came off on Tuesday, the 22d of July, on the farm of 
Isaac Sherwood, near West Mount Vernon, about sixteen miles north 
of the city of New York, on the Harlem and All)any railroad. It 
was the most severe test of Mowers, probably, that has ever been 
witnessed in America. As it Avas conducted under the auspices of 
the American Institute, the judges embrace this opportunity to 
congratulate the officers of the Institute, not onl}^ upon the complete 
success of the trial, but on a most glorious triumph of the American 
Mowing machines. 

The meadow selected was covered with heavy <rrass which had 
been partially submerged within a week. Of course, the soil was 
soft and the grass gritty, and in places the water stood so deep that 
it covered the cuttmo^ bars of the machines while passino- throuoh. 
The growth was mainly composed of what is commonly called June 
grass, much similar to Kentucky Blue grass, very fine and close at 
the bottom, and in many cases badly lodged and decayed. Proba- 
bly a field has never been selected for a trial of Mowing machines, 
that presented severer tests than this. In many places there was a 
heavy burden of timothy and other grass, lying as flat as if it had 
been a goose pasture, or a turkey yard. All these considerations 
provided a test for the Mowers such as farmers seldom meet, as sucl> 
fine, half rotten and wet grass is the worst kind of grass to clog. 
But not a single machine showed. any inclination to clog durino- the 
trial, with one exception. 


The first operation required of each Mower" was to cut around the 
field, some 80 or 90 rods, while the judges followed, except where 
the water was so deep they could not without going shoe deep in 
water and mire. The Clipper mowed around first. Every machine 
that followed in order performed its task far beyond our most san- 
guine anticipations. Each machine was required to stop and start 
several times, in heavy grass, without backing the team. No ma- 
chine failed in this last point, with one exception. But the proprie- 
tors of the Clipper that cut the first time around, feeling they had 
not been allowed a fair trial, the judges permitted them to cut 


.aroimd as^ain after the others had all mowed one swath each. The 
result was, less satisfaction in every respect, than an}^ other swath; 
and the machine failed thrice in succession to start in nncut o-rass, 
and it clogged once. The entire work was performed so satisfacto- 
ril}^, that it was difficult to discover any difference. The test requir- 
ing^ each machine to start in standins: a'rass, was a severe one in that 
fine and damp grass. Still, if the knives be sharp, and the team be 
required to start quickly, most machines will start every time. The 
failure of the Clipper was attributed to the driving and not the 


The judges were all well satisfied that the side draft with either 
machine does not amount to any number of pounds worthy of notice. 
In ordinary mowing no side draft could be discovered. In some 
places, Avhere the grass was heavy and down badly, a heavy side 
draft was perceptible; and in some instances, it Avas so great as 
to bend the tono-ue of the mower a little. It is doubtful whether it 
is convenient to build a mow^er that will show no side draft in 
places where heav}^ grass is badly lodged. 


Dynamometers are always graduated with reference to a certain 
speed of the team. The graduated scale on the disk of the instru- 
ment and the index, show the number of pounds draft required to 
draw an implement. The speed at which a team moves is fixed to 
correspond with the graduation of the dynamometer, at 2 J miles per 
hour. If a team moves at a gait either faster or slower than at the 
rate of 2i miles, or 320 rods in sixty minutes, the index will not 
show the correct draft of a machine. One hundred and fifty pounds 
is equal to the power of one horse. This has been fixed by univer- 
sal consent of engineers. If a horse, hitched to the end of a rope 
passing over a puUy one foot in diameter, draw a weight of 150 lbs. 
out of a well as he moves at the rate of 2 J miles per hour, he will 
exert the strength of one horse, or what is called one-horse power. 
Now, in order to arrive at the correct speed for the teams to move, 
as there are 800 rods in 2| miles, the judges measured off 200 lineal 
feet, just one sixteenth of 13-200 feet in 2i miles; and the teams 
were driven over this distance until they could mow 200 feet in one 
minute. This gave us their correct speed. The dynamometer was 
then attached, and the following figures show the result: 

^' Clipper ^^ — Cut a swath 4 feet 6 inches wide; stubble 2 inches 
hii^h; time, 62 seconds in going 200 feet; draft, 270 lbs. (300 lbs. is 
computed equal to the power of two horses). 


''Monitor'^ — Swath, 4 feet 9 inches wide; stubble 1| inches high; 
time 59^ seconds; draft 305 lbs. 

'' BucJceye^^ — Swath 4 feet 6 inches; stubble, IJ inches high; time, 
60 seconds; draft, 250 lbs. 

n Union'' — Swath, 4 feet 6 inches; stubble, 11 inches high; time, 
67 seconds; draft 325 lbs. 

" Huhhard " — Swath, 4 feet 6 inches; stubble 1 J inches high; time, 
62 seconds; draft, 290 lbs. 

One horse mower (Clipper), cut 3 ft. G inches; the horse of 
fair size but strong; it worked well; some side draft; never clogged; 
stopped and started in the grass at pleasure. In such grass and such 
ground, a horse would soon tire out, if the knives cut their full width. 

The time was measured by a stop-watch, with the greatest possi- 
ble accurac3\ The draft was taken where the grass appeared to be 
as heavy as any other in the plot, although there were many places 
where the dynamometer indicated from 400 to 500 pounds on some 
of the machines for a few feet. The grass was hard to cut. This 
accounts for the draft of all the machines being greater than usual. 
On a smooth meadow the draft would have been much less. 


Some mowers and reapers are so constructed that if the cutter bar 
is made to move a trifle faster than the driving wdieel, the knives will 
be choked and the machine stopped. For this reason grass or grain 
cannot be cut equally well, when the team moA^es to the rio:ht or left 
of a direct line. In other words, when cutting around trees, stumps, 
or any other obstruction, in order to have the knives work constantly 
the team must not bear towards the left but a very little. Every 
farmer is aware how important it is that a machine should be able 
to mow well, while the team moves within a circle thirt}' feet in 

Plots were then staked out by the judges, thirty feet in diamctei*, 
and each machine required to mow inside of the stakes, with the 
cutter bar outside of the team. By this test, the knives outside were 
required to cut more than their length at ever}- vibration. Every 
machine operated in a most satisfactorv manner while cuttino- witbbi 
the prescribed circle, Avithout choking or clogging. As drivers, and 
teams also, were unaccustomed to circular mowing, all minor imper- 
fections in the work were attributable to the arcat want of uni- 
formity in the movement of the teams and not in the machines, as. 
some of them shaved the sod nicely, while the outside shoe described 

[Am Inst.] D 


a circle of only twenty feet in diameter. The judges have no hesi- 
tancy in affirming that either of the machines that were entered for 
trial will mow w^ell, when driven with a uniform curvature, within d 
circle of twenty-five feet in diameter, even in heavy grass. 


There was an objection raised to a certain machine because the 
driver was liable to be thrown from his seat, in case the mower should 
strike a tree or stump. The judges think this is not worthy of being 
•considered a decisive point. Mowers are not calculated for cutting 
snags, trees, stumps or stones any more than a scythe or cradle. It is 
the driver's business to avoid obstructions; and if obstructions are 
left in the meadow out of sight, without a stake to apprise the driver 
of them, it is not just and equitable to require manufacturers to build 
machines to mow well, to run easily, and work lightly, and at the 
same time endure the concussion of a battering ram and bear careless 
or drunken drivers over obstructions unharmed. The point of decision 
appears to be: which machine is the best, all things considered, and 
not which machine will carry the driver along with greatest ease. 


The finger bars of every machine on the ground were elevated 
and depressed, and their greatest and lowest angle ascertained by a 
spirit level; and the judges found that the finger bars of either of the 
machines might be driven along the bottom of a slope, with the 
wheels on level ground, and mow well with the finger bar pointing 
up the slope at an angle of seventeen to twenty-four degrees. It is 
seldom necessary to mow a slope so steep as that. They found also 
that the bars could be depressed so as to mow with the knives down 
the slope, at difierent angles, varying from ten to twcrity-nine degrees. 
Either of them would mow as steep slopes" as would be necessary, 
and cut well. 


Buckeye, 13 min. 20 sec. 
Monitor, 13 min. 20 sec. 
Clipper, 13 min. 45 sec. 
Hubbard 13 min. 48 sec. 
Union, 15 min. 45 sec. 


Buckeye, best, A No. 1. 

Monitor, 2d best. 

Clipper, No. 1. 

Hubbard, horses moved too fast. 



Bucke^^e ranked No. 1. 

' Hubbard do No. 2. 

Monitor do No. 3. 

Union do No. 4. 

, Clipper do No. 5. 


The judges, in making their decision, take into consideration the 
mechanical perfection of the various machines. The mechanical con- 
struction of the " Buckeye'' has been brought to. its present perfecti- 
bility by a great expense, on 'the part of the manufacturers, in alter" 
ing their patterns so as to give permanency, durability and efficiency 
to their machine. The naturally weak points have been found and 
made strong, so as to avoid ever}^ possible breakdoAvn. The draft 
has been rendered lighter than any other machine. There is a lead- 
ing wheel forward of the cutter bar, which is one of the original 
patents of this machine, which insures an easy ascent out of a hollow 
Avithout entering the ground, and avoids all possibility of the clog- 
in of of the first knife in runnino: over cut srrass. 

In one instance the fingers of the "Clipper" entered the ground 
and stopped the machine Avhen rising out of the same holloAv that all 
other mowers had passed over safel3\ 

The "Buckeye" is a combined machine and has been long in suc- 
cessful use, and always does its Avork AA^ell, giving excellent satisfac- 
tion. For this reason, as Avell as the superiority of the Buckeye iu 
the various tests, the judges feel AA^arranted in recommending the 
aAvard of the Gold Medal of the American Institute for the "Buckeye," 
manufactured by Messrs. Adriance, Piatt & Co., 165 GreeuAAdch st., 
N. Y. city. 

All of Avhich is respectfully submitted by your committee. 






Gentlemen of the Institute: 

This national exhiljition of the useful arts is a gratifying illustra- 
tion of the happy peace which blesses our country. It also sugo-ests 
one of the greatest elements of our strength in Avar — that industrial 
power which multiplies resources, equips armies and fleets, and sup- 
plies the material for great campaigns. I am happy to meet the 
society under circumstances so favorable to the development of na- 
tional prosperity. The brilliant display of products which distin- 
guishes this exhibition, and the numerous attendance on this occasion, 
equally manifest the habitual appreciation of our population for in- 
dustrial pursuits. This epoch of our history, so novel and impress- 
ive, presents no feature more remarkable than the facility with which 
a nation that has shown itself magnificent in Avar resumes its peaceful 
avocations, disbands its armies, sells its fleets at auction, and only 
disturbs the equanimity of its riwals by the commanding influence of 
a noble example. I regret that my pursuits have not been such as 
to fit me to address 3^ou upon the practical themes most appropriate 
to this occasion. It is only in the most general Avay that I have been 
able to appreciate AAdiat is ncAv and intei'esting in the progress of the 
arts. Of course I have not failed to observe during the period of 
my military service Iioav much the industry, ingenuity and enterprise 
of our people have contributed to augment our resources in war. 
When the Merrimac attacked the Avooden fleet in Hampton Roads, 
and ship after ship of ours reeled and sunk under the staggering 
bloAvs of the rebel monster, and the heroic Morris had fired his last 
broadside from the Cumberland, as he Avent doAA^n Avith her beneath 
the waters, a'ou remember Iioav the little Monitor, ridiculed as a new 
iuAxntion, sneeringly called a "pepper-box," took up the unequal 
combat, and, under the gallant Wordex, drove the rebel ship to her 
hiding place in the harbor of Norfolk, Avhere she Avas soon afterAvard 
ffiven to the flames. You have not for^fotten the mairnificent combat 
between Admiral Farragut's fleet and the Tennessee — one of the 
most extraordinary fights that ever occurred on the Avaters; a single 
ship repelling the crushing bloAA's of a fleet, driven upon her with a 
force that Avould haA^e made a breach in the walls of Sebastopol; a 


siiiale ship receiving unharmed broadside after broadside for more 
than an hour, making no more impression upon her armor than the 
Indian arrows made upon the cuirass of Cortez, until the Chickasaw^ 
under Lieut. -Commander Perkins, herself invulnerable, struck the 
Tennessee a mortal blow with a shot from an eleven-inch gun that 
disabled her rudder and left her helpless and paralyzed, at the 
mercy of her conquerors. The Tennessee was armed with the heav- 
iest British cannon. The more powerful guns of the CJiicJcasaw were 
American, and one of the improvements developed during the war. 
Kor have you forgotten the time when the splendid fleet of Admiral 
Porter was at the point of being abandoned on the Red River, 
owino' to the sudden fall of its waters. Then it was that the irenius 
of Gen. Bailey, after all other expedients failed, devised a dam 
which so deepened the channel by turning all the water of the river 
into a narrow course that the fleet was saved, and the army of Gen. 
Baxks preserved its supplies, and was enabled to retire in good order 
to a tenable position near the base of his operations. Xeed I remind 
you of the memorable exploit of young CusiiixG. who, under the 
orders of Admiral Porter, destroyed the iron-clad Albemarle — one 
of the most formidable ships ever launched — by means of a small 
torpedo-boat, constructed under the superintendence of Rear Admiral 
Gregory, by Chief Engineer AVood, of the navy? This little craft, 
propelled by a small engine, manned by a boat's crew and filled 
with powder, boldly approached, at midnight, her great adversary 
at her moorings within the rebel lines, capturing on her way three 
picket-boats. Steering straight for her victim, her commander and 
crew^ leaped into the water and escaped in a small boat, while the 
torpedo made all headway against the Albemarle, and, at the mo- 
ment of contact, with a fearful explosion, buried her beneath the 
waters on which, a moment before, she had floated in disdainful 

I endeavored, without success, to obtain for this occasion an offi- 
cial statement of the number of mechanics emplo3^ed by the Govern- 
ment in shops, depots and dock yards of the War and Navy Depart- 
ments, at some given period during the recent war. I have no doubt, 
taking into consideration the Quartermaster's and Ordnance Depart- 
ments of the army, and all the nav}^ yards, that the number was 
greater than any one of our armies; greater than the victorious 
army at Waterloo. Probably in all the history of war there can be 
found no parallel to the operations of the American Quartermaster 
General's Department from 1861- to 1865. Nevertheless, there are 
some striking European examples. In preparing for the siege of 
Lille the allies were compelled, owing to the interruption of the 
water communications of the arm}^, to transport from Holland by 


land all their cannon, ammunition and material. Sixteen thousand 
horses were required for the wagons in the train, which was escorted 
by Prince Eugene with fifty -three battalions of infantry and ninety 
squadrons of horse, the main body of the allies being within support- 
ing distance; and although the French army a hundred thousand 
strong, under Marshal Vendorme, lay on the flank of the line of 
march, which extended over sevent^^ miles, it was reported that not a 
gun or carriage was lost. If the trains of the Army of the Potomac 
had been put in motion on a single road toward Richmond, the head 
of the column would have entered Richmond before the rear was out 
of sight of the Capitol at Washington. In the Quartermaster's and 
Ordnance Departments at Nashville, in the summer of 1864, more 
than fourteen thousand mechanics and laborers were employed in 
providing material for the armies operating in General Sherman's 
department. The storehouse of the Commissary of Subsistence, at 
the same post, contained provisions for one hundred thousand men 
for eight months, or twenty-four millions of rations, besides forage 
for fifty thousand horses for an equal period — -that is to say, one 
hundred and sixty-eight millions of pounds of oats, corn and hay. 
These stores, besides vast numbers of troops, and all the sick and 
wounded, were transported over a single track railroad, crossing 
many rivers and trestle-work structures, for more than three hundred 
miles through Tennessee and Georgia, a hostile country, in the face 
of constant attacks from an enterprising and daring enemy. In these 
days of railway disasters show me a board of directors that could 
keep a road in running order, with guerillas menacing every mile of 
the track; scarce a day passing without a bridge destroyed, trestle- 
work buined, trains thrown from the track and smashed by means 
of obstacles placed upon, it: engineers and brakemen shot, every 
train carrying its own guard, every depot for wood and water 'a 
military post; and for all the vast labor on that and many other mili- 
tary railroads l)etween Little Rock, west of the Mississippi, to the 
Potomac, the Quartermaster General's Department was responsible. 
This army of workmen, of which I have only mentioned one or two 
outposts, operating over an area of thousands of miles, was under 
the sleepless and thoughtful e3'e of Major General Montgomery C. 
Meigs, the accomplished chief of the Quartermaster's Department of 
the army. The chief Quartermasters of the two principal armies 
were Major General Rufus Ingalls, of the Army of the East, and 
General Allen, of the Army of the Southwest. I have not alluded 
to the other duties of the Quartermaster General, such us clothing a 
million of soldiers; transporting their subsistence, arms and amnm- 
nition to every camp, from the Rio Grande to the Susquehanna; con- 
structing telegraphs over the whole theatre of war, and keeping 


them in order; supplying horses and forage for the most numerous 
cavalry and artillery ever kept on foot in one army, and providing 
wagon trains always for one side, and sometimes for both sides, in a 
contest that numbered more combatants, and extended over a broader 
theatre of operations, than has ever been maintained by a single na- 
tion. The subsistence department of the army, under the able direc- 
tion of its accomplished chief, General Eaton, is not the least remark- 
able for its admirable administration. Unseen, like the atmosphere, 
nevertheless it was everywhere present with all needful supplies; 
contributing to every success, it is responsible for no failures in any 
campaign. If my time permitted, you might be interested in some 
details of the ne^v ordnance and small arms, originated by Colt, 
Dahlgren, Parrot, Wiard, Spencer, Eemington and others — all 
effectively employed in our military and naval operations. I have 
also to regret that my application for official information on these 
subjects has not been successful, and consequently my impressions 
lack the precision which gives value to facts. In the beginning of 
the war we had very few private armories; the Government relied 
for small arms on purchases it was permitted to make in foreign 
countries. More than a million of muskets were so obtained. Of 
these it is said by the commissioners appointed to investigate and 
report upon their value and quality, that "hundreds of thousands 
have been purchased and delivered, and thousands more are to arrive, 
not one of which last a single campaign, and not one of which is fit 
to be placed in the hands of civilized troops." For such muskets 
the Government paid from eighteen to twenty-two dollars each: none 
of them being interchangable in any of their parts — not even in bayo- 
nets or cones — it follows that when any part was lost or broken, the 
gun was returned to the arsenal for repairs or thrown away. Con- 
tracts were soon made by Secretary Cameron, and by his successor. 
Secretary Stanton, with private parties, for the manufacture of mus- 
kets of the Springfield and other patterns, for carbines, pistols, 
swords, &c., at liberal prices, averaging about $22 for muskets of 
the Springfield pattern. The result of these stimulating influences 
to private enterprise was that about thirty complete armories were 
established, with the most ingenious and efficient machinery, employ- 
ing $20,000,000 capital and 20,000 mechanics, capable of producing 
500 rifled muskets a day, at a cost to the manufiicturer not exceeding 
$8 (gold) a piece complete. So great have been the advantages 
obtained by the use of machiner}^ and the division of labor in this 
branch of manufactures, that the armories of this country can now 
compete successfully with the cheap labor of Europe, while we pay 
to our mechanics those higher rates of wages to which they arc enti- 
tled by their superior skill and their respectable rank in the comma- 


nity. No other nation has ever equipped armies, as we have done, 
with repeating rifles, breech-loading carbines, revolvers and rifled 
artillery; and when it becomes known how superior are the arms we 
make, and the low price for which they can be supplied, we will be- 
come the manufacturers of arms for the world. I can do no more 
than glance at the improvements of the medical department of the 
army; indeed, I can only speak of any of the great staff" departments 
so far as their operations passed under my own observation. The 
construction and organization of general hospitals, the ample arrange- 
ment for field hospitals, the liberal and various supplies for hospitals, 
the unstinted and judicious expenditures for scientific appliances, im- 
proved ambulances, hospital wagons — which are portable apothecary 
shops — hospital cars, adapted expressly with spring beds to carry the 
sick and wounded of the army over railroads; the humane use of 
chloroform; the liberal supply of stimulants; the extensive issue of 
quinine, one of the most expensive medicines, as a preventative — 
these are among the noticeable features of our improved administra- 
tion of the medical service in the army. To all this must be added 
the noble service of the Sanitary Commission, that good angel of the 
army. Always cooperating with the Government, and bringing to 
every battle-field and to every hospital the innumerable gifts of 
American women,, inspired by patriotism or affection; the religious 
offices of our chaplains and of the Christian Commission; the tender 
nursing and pious ministrations of Sisters of Mercy; the organized 
ao^encies of all the State Governments for the relief of their sick and 
wounded; the admirable services performed by Adams' Express 
Company, in delivering parcels from home to soldiers in all the 
armies; and when all is considered — when our record is compared 
with that of other wars— I venture to anticipate that it will be estab- 
lished that no army has ever received to an equal extent with ours 
the benefits of enlightened and beneficent administration. 

Here let me pause to pay a tribute to one upon whom, more than 
upon any other public servant, has rested the vast and varied re- 
sponsibilities which the conduct of our great war imposed. When 
the rebellion declared itself, towards the close of the administration 
of President Buchanan, an eminent law^^er, who had neither held 
office nor been conspicuous as a partizan in politics, was called into 
the Cabinet as Attornej^-General. His presence was instantly felt in 
the vigorous measures taken to enforce the authority of the govern- 
ment. At the critical moment which followed the occupation ol Fort 
Sumter, when it seemed as if the government would yield to the 
audacity and vigor of revolutionary pressure, his fearless counsels, 
his indomitable will, his sturdy, loyal nature, contributed mainly 
to that modification of the pacific policy of President Buchanan, 


"which was folk) wed by measures to resist the further aggressions of 
the insurgents. Toward evening on one of the gloomy days of the 
winter of 1861, the Attorney-General sent for one of the representa- 
tives in Congress from New York, and informed him that, unless the 
public opinion of the North was instantly manifested, the President 
would yield to the demand of South Carolina, and order Major An- 
derson back from Sumpter to Moultrie. It was decided at once that 
an envoy should go to the principal northern cities and announce 
that the President had decided to maintain Anderson in Sumpter at 
all hazards. " Fire some powder," said Stanton; " all we can do 
yet is to fire blank cartridges; a thousand bullets or a bale of hemp 
would save us from a bloody rebellion; the President will not strike 
a blow, but he will resist if he sees the temper of the people de- 
mands resistance; go and fire some cannon and let the echoes come 
to the White House. '^ The next day salutes were fired in New York, 
Philadelphia, Albany and other cities, in honor of President Bu- 
chanan's determination to sustain the gallant Anderson; congratula- 
tory telegrams were sent from prominent men in all these cities to 
the President; the corporate authorities of New York passed earnest 
resolutions of support; several journals, in leading articles of re- 
markable power, indorsed and commended the decision of the Presi- 
dent. The next day the decision was made. The demand of South 
Carolina for the evacuation of Fort Sumter was refused; it remained 
only for the South to recede or make war. President Lincoln was 
inaugurated; war followed. The Attorney-General of President 
Buchanan became, after a brief interval, the War Minister of Presi- 
dent Lincoln. His electric influence was instantly felt throughout 
the army, and all over the country. Commanding Generals were 
ordered to put their columns in motion and attack the enemy. The 
irresolution and lethargy which are inseparable from a defensive 
policy vanished before the universal initiative, inspired by a positive 
and earnest character, who would iieither rest himself nor alVow the 
enemies of his country to rest while the means of attack were in his 
hands. Alternating successes and defeats — colossal yet indecisive 
combats — enormous consumption of treasure — the prol)ability of for- 
eign recognition and aid to the Confederation — increasing hostility 
to the measures of the Adminiitration, finally culminating in sedition, 
riots and revolts — the defiant overtures of aid and comfort to the 
enemy from public journals and public men — these were some of the 
accumulating embarrassments that brought the Union cause to the 
crisis of overthrow. The dauntless heart of the iron Secretary, him- 
self the object of measureless obloquy and hate, never failed. 
To despair he opposed resolution; to a defeated army he sent a more 
successful General; to the mobs he spoke from the mouths of can- 


non; insolent traitors and spies within our lines were silenced and 
secured within the dungeons of the Old Capitol, or within the pon- 
derous walls of Lafayette and Warren. The President was, of all 
men, gentle and conciliator}^ The Secretary of State was absorbed 
in the unparalleled difficulties of our foreign relations. The Secretary 
of the Treasury was laboriously directiuir all the currents of national 
wealth into his exhaustless exchequer. The Secretarj^ of the Xavy 
was building and manning his fleets. The Attorney-General never 
emerged from the mazes of his briefs. It was necessary, nay, it was 
vital, that the undefined and illimital)le powers of Government, for 
its own preservation, should be wielded by a bold, honest and skill- 
ful hand; b}^ that spontaneous concession of authority accorded to a 
self-reliant and commanding character, in all great emergencies, it de- 
volved upon Edwin oNL Stanton, in the darkest hour of danger, to see 
that the Republic suffered no detriment. At times when the idea was 
tolerated that any citizen, durimr the war, miirht assail the Govern- 
ment, as he pleased and with impunity, it became necessary to silence 
sedition and baffle treason by terror. It was fortunate that the Gov- 
ernment possessed a man, armed with power to enforce his will, who 
inspired fear enough to reinforce doubtful authority. Not Richelieu 
himself, when France had no hiding place that could conceal, or 
power that could save one of his victims, was more dreaded than an 
order of arrest signed by the Secretary of War, after the writ of 
habeas corjms was suspended. Whatever may be the final judgment 
of jurists ujDon the legal questions involved in these arrests, the 
eflect was salutary. Traitors, fraudulent contractors, spies, dishon- 
est officials in the service, at length felt there was somebody in au- 
thority to be afraid of. 

Success was inexorabh' exacted from commanders of armies; neither 
winter nor summer, neither heat nor cold, neither storm nor drouth, 
neither distance nor defenses, nor boasted superiority of numbers 
spared'the enemy from attack. At length the events of the war 
developed a General whose genius, educated by experience, as was 
said of Marlborouijh by Bolino-broke, indicated all the attainments 
for supreme command. This great and fortunate leader was no 
sooner recognized than called to the head of all the armies of 
the Union; and from that hour General Grant directed, without 
interference, but with invaluable energy of co-operation from the 
War Department, all the succeeding campaigns to a triumphant con- 
clusion. Look back to the period of despair, during the first j'ear 
of President Lincoln's administration, when leading journals de- 
manded a dictator; recall the despondency which followed the dis- 
astrous termination of the Peninsular campaign in the summer of 
1862; remember the o'eneral discontent and weariness of the stru^- 


glc which preceded the repulse of the enemy at Gettyshiirg; the 
profound disappointment and just indignation felt by the country at 
the failure to pursue and destroy the army of Lee; the sullen menaces 
and the outbreaks Avhich hindered the enforcement of the conscrip- 
tion law: the bloody riots in this city; the undisguised hostility of 
half of Europe; the discouraging doubts and predictions of nearly all 
the world; and, finally, the increasing power and boldness of the 
formidable numbers at home who pronounced the war a failure, de- 
manded an armistice, and advised the acceptance of the best terms 
of peace that could be obtained. It was at this moment that Grant's 
decisive triumph at Vicksburg was announced. Soon afterward he 
was summoned by the Secretary of War, in person, to Chattanooga, 
to retrieve the disaster of Chickamauga. Gaining the great victory 
of Mission Ridge, and opening a pathway to the sea for Sherman, he 
came to the Eappahannock arid brought fortune and final triumph 
to the glorious standards of the Army of the Potomac. What Go- 
dolphin and Marlborough were to the war of succession, what Lou- 
vois and Turenne were to the great struggle of Louis XIV for 
European empire, what Carnot and Bonaparte were to the wars of 
the French Republic, what Pitt and Wellington were to the Euro- 
pean alliance against Napoleon — Stanton and Grant have been to the 
grandest struggle of ancient or modern times for the maintenance 
of authority, order and justice in the government of nations. The 
great war from which the nation is now reposing has made the insti- 
tutions of all the States homogeneous. It has removed from our plan 
of government the element that most impaired its vigor — insufficient 
power to suppress by insurrection sanctioned by the government of 
a State. It has banished from our civilization the reproach of servile 
labor, thus elevating to the rank of freemen all whose honorable toil 
supports in peace the commonwealth Avhose rights they uphold in 
war. Besides the rank Avon by the renown of our arms, the ampli- 
tude of the resources wx have displayed and the constancy shown in 
the conflict, we shall emero-e from one of the most exhaustincr wars 
recorded in history a stronger nation than we have ever been. 

Let us try to avoid the obvious perils which now engage the atten- 
tion of our statesmen and people. Who Avill not welcome and hasten 
the time when the asperity and alienation between the old antaofo- 
nists in the Union shall yield to the kindlier sentiments of common 
nationality, common interests and common destiny? 

The south is now represented in the councils of the nation by the 
President. Thoroughly loyal, honest, al)le and fearless, he of all 
men knows the south, and can be trusted by the whole country. In 
his vast and laborious undertaking to restore tranquility, and bring 
order out of the political and industrial chaos which pervades the 



south, let us give to the President the same generous and confiding 
support accorded by all parties to the statesmen of the period when 
our government was established. When the war of independence 
terminated, the colonies were in a more favorable condition for the 
development of their resources, and for the settlement of their insti- 
tutions of government on surer foundations tlian we find the insur- 
gent States to be at the present time. Let us be guided by the 
President in the line of conduct we shall adopt in our relations w^ith 
the conquered States and people. Let us ratify the amnesty he has 
granted. Let us help him to maintain regular civil authority in the 
subjugated States by the action of their own loyal citizens. Let us 
do all in our power to consolidate our people once more in their 
ancient attachment to the Constitution and the Union. It has been 
almost the uniform error of the successful party in civil wars to per- 
petuate the passions of the conflict by punitory and proscriptive mea- 
sures against the vanquished. Let us avoid this error. If the victors 
are magnanimous, the vanquished will be loyal. The proscrij^tion 
of the Huicuenots cost France a million of her most industrious and 
loyal citizens, arrayed the Protestant powers of Europe Mgainst her 
in long and exhausting wars, and more than a century elapsed before 
the successors of Louis XIV regained the position and power lost by 
persecution. The expulsion of the Moors and Jews from Spain, th-e 
rigor of the inquisition and the sanguinary policy of Philip II in the 
Spanish Netherlands, were followed by the declining prosperity and 
rank of Spain among nations. The cruel legislation of the British 
Parliament has driven two millions of the population of Ireland to 
this country. Austria requires three hundred thousand soldiers to 
counteract the effect of severe administration in her Italian and Hun- 
garian possessions. So long as armed resistance to the authority of 
the Union continued, rather than suffer the humiliation of submission 
and failure, I would have seen the continent laid waste and given 
back airain to the Senecas and Cherokees for hunting grounds. Now 
all is changed. The flag floats unchallenged, unsullied and imperial 
overall the domain of the Kepublic. Every man who salutes it hails 
the ensign of freedom and justice. When the few whose awful guilt 
is beyond the pale of human charity shall have suffered the penalty 
of their crimes, may w^e not say to those who are no longer our 
adversaries, "that w^e hold them as we hold the rest of mankind — 
enemies in war, in peace friends.'' 




At the request of the American Institute, I have come here this 
eveninof to return their thanks to the inventors and exhibitors of the 
various and interestiug* objects presented to public inspection in this 
buildiug at this, the thirty-sixth annual fair of the Institute. I have 
not assumed this duty except after much solicitation, and, in justice 
to myself, I must add upon a \ery inadequate notice. 

Of the many thousand citizens Avho have visited the exhibition now 
closiug, none can have left it without sentiments of admiration and 
pride — admiration at the wonderful variety and power of inventive 
talent here displayed, and pride that it is all American. 

Wonderful variety and inventive power it may be truly said, for 
what have we not here? All kinds of improvements in the manu- 
facture of textile fabrics, steam eno^ines and iire eno-iues, mowinsr and 
reaping machines, marble work, watches, photographs, telegraphs, 
egg beaters, apple slicers, kerosene stoves, tobacco pipes. There are 
improved guns for shooting people's limbs away, and artificial con- 
trivances to replace them when shot off, said to be as good as the 
natural. There are knittin<y and sewino- machines meant to save the 
time and patience of the ladies, and cooking ranges, washing ma- 
chines, clothes wrino^ers, coal lifters and ash-siftino' shovels for the 
benefit of their domestics. All sorts of manufactured products, 
leather, steel, iron, soap, and I know not what else, are offered to 
our attention in incongruous profusion. Side by side we have patent 
projectile shells of interest to soldiers, silver skirts for the fair sex, 
and a portrait of Chief Justice Chase. A catalogue of more than a 
thousand objects connected with agriculture, manufactures, domestic 
life, informs us how busy the American inventive talent has been. 

The relative merits of many of these competing articles are settled 
by the examining judges, and therefore it is neither my province nor 
intention to allude to them save in the most general way. Every 
person Avho visits such an exhibition will of course find particular 
interest in special objects that. have a relation to his own pursuits 
and tastes, and exercising that privilege I have looked with no little 
interest at the self-registering and printiilg barometer of Professor 


Hough, the Director of the Dudley Observatory. Great attention 
has of hite been paid among scientific men to instruments of this 
class; they are intended to accomplish what human skill and human 
patience unaided never could eflect. Consider tlie case of an ordi- 
nary thermometer, and you will see how complicated is the demand 
we make upon it for information; how curious must be the construc- 
tion that will answer? The heat to which we are exposed is inces- 
santly varying; there are temperatures belonging to the day, and 
lower ones at night; there are degrees appertaining to Winter, and 
others appertaining to Summer. If a passing cloud obscures for a 
moment the sun, everything on whicli its shadow falls becomes 
cooler: if a warm breath of air comes from the south, or a cool one 
from the north, the thermometer which measures these conditions 
rises or sinks. It may be truly said that there are no two moments 
in the twenty-four hours in which the heat remains without varia- 
tions. Human skill would be inadequate, it unaided, to follow the 
unceasing changes; human patience would be wholly worn out. But 
the demands of science are not satisfied by looking at a thermometer 
morning and night, or even more frequently registering its degrees. 
A rigorous accuracy demands complete records of every fall and 
every rise, no matter whether insignificant or great, taking place at 
every instant of the day. All this is what instruments such as that 
I am now referring to accomplish. All that I have said respecting 
the warmth of the air applies likewise to its ever varying pressure; 
and it is to measure and record those pressure changes that Professor 
Houirh's barometric instrument is intended. 

It is not alone, then, merely in the industrial and domestic depart- 
ments of life that inventive talent can render service; there is a con- 
stant demand upon it through the urgent wants of Science itself. 
But though this Exhibition and this Institute prove to us by so many 
striking and beautiful examples how active in this respect is the 
American mind, we shall be greatly mistaken if we suppose that it 
completely represents all that is doing or is done. This on which 
you have been looking is only a portion, not tjie whole; it is only a 
sample, an earnest. Never at any previous period of our history 
has the inventive talent of our country been more powerfully stimu- 
lated, or more active or more varied. 

I ma}-^, perhaps, be excused, if I here refer to the construction of 
that great Reflecting Telescope for photographic purposes, which has 
been made with his own hands by one of m}^ sons, Dr. Henry Draper, 
and Avhich has produced photographic representations of the moun- 
tains and valleys, the volcanoes and all fractured surface of our sat- 
ellite, the moon, of a size never before attained — fifty inches in di- 
ameter. I may also be excused if I refer to another application of 


physical science to Art, the production of portraits by photography. 
The fit'st human likeness ever taken was taken by myself in the Uni- 
versity of this city. When the French government in 1839 pur- 
chased of Daguerre his invention of photographic drawing, its appli- 
cations were very limited; the process was adapted to interiors, sta- 
tuary, and architectural subjects, but Avholly unsuited to landscape 
scenery or to portraits. The inventor himself had made attempts at 
applying it to the taking of likenesses, but had given it up in de- 
spair. Soon after the publication of Daguerre's invention in America, 
I made a series of experiments Avith u view of determining whether 
the difficulties could- be removed. Under an impression that the 
human skin is not white enough, the sitter's face was dusted with 
flour. It w\as intended, if this should answer the purpose, to obtain 
from the ladies a knowledo'c of the mvsteries of some of those cos- 
metics which they are said to use for improving their complexions, 
but it was quickl^^ found that the difficulty was not of this, but of an 
optical kind. That difficulty removed, the result was completely 
successful. And now it is estimated that more than ten thousand 
persons obtain a support from that application of physical facts to 
the arts. There is not a town of any note that does not contain its 
photographers. And by no means the least gratifying part of this 
result is, that it has furnished a suitable employment for many fe- 
males. In the present state of our social system, there are few thino-s 
more Avorthy the attention of good men than the wants of this inter- 
esting class of the other sex, who are thrown upon their own exer- 
tion for support. Cut ofi' from those pursuits in which we may with- 
out hesitation engage, they are brought in contact with a harsh and 
pitiless world. Are thei"e not thousands whom nature has gifted 
with the acutest sensibilities, who are constrained by the tyranny of 
society to choose between a servile dependency or inadequately com- 
pensated labor? Whatever is a relief to these, is a social, a public 

But to return to the objects here before us, to the exhibition of the 
American Institute. Much as we may admire all these curious inven- 
tions, these representatives of art and skill, these pumps, and hay- 
cutters and plows, gas-engines, sowing-machines and steam-genera- 
tors, shall we not think of the principle that underlies them all ? 
Varied as have been the intentions of their inventors, can we not 
group them all under one title— means for the economizino- of labor 
— labor-saving machines ? 

Now, in that expression how much is involved, and in the consid- 
erations springing from it how supreme is the interest? At this 
moment the problem of problems in the United States is the prob- 
lem of the Organization of Labor. Look at the South: the events 


of war have left its productive agencies in a condition of thorough 
confusion. Look at the West: the demand for hibor on the Pacific 
slope is so imperative that from the innumerable populations of Asia 
a stream, ever increasing in volume, is setting in. In the last five 
3^ears, the Chinese population of California has doubled — indeed, 
more than doubled — for in 1860 it was reported to be about 35,000, 
now it is affirmed to be not much below 80,000. It is in vain to 
talk about restraining it, it is vain to pass prohibitive laws; they will 
be of no more avail than are laws re2:ulatino: the movements of ofold. 
Labor must be had in the west, and come from where it may, labor 
will be had. It is not merely as domestic servants, cooks, table 
waiters and nurses and laundry men, and gardeners that these China- 
men are wanted; there is far more serious work for them to do. In 
the newspapers of the day observe what is reported about them: 
" The Pacific railroad is being built by Chinese labor; several thou- 
sand Chinamen are now rapidly grading the track through the rocks 
and sands of the Sierra Nevada — without them this great work Avould 
have to wait for years, or move on with slow and hesitating steps. 
They can, by their stead}^ industry, do nearly as much in a day, even 
in this rough labor, as the average of white men, and they cost only 
about half as much, say $30 a month, against $50. Beside, white 
labor is not to be had in the quantities necessary for such a job as 
this. The £:reat success of the woolen manufacture in California is 
due to the admirable adaptation and comparative cheapness of Chinese 
labor for the details. They are quick to learn, quiet, cleanly and 
faithful; they have no ' off- days,' no sprees to get over. As factory 
operatives they receive $20 and $25 a month and board themselves, 
though quarters are provided for them on the mill grounds. Fresh 
vegetables, rice and pork are their main food, which is prepared and 
eaten with such econom}^ that they can live for about one-third 
what the Yankee laborers can. I am quoting from an interesting 
letter of Mr. Bowles, published in the newspapers within a few days, 
and which contains many very valuable statistics. 

You, irentlemen, who are exhibitors and inventors of the mechani- 
cal contrivances in this building, are silently contributing to no in- 
significant extent to the solution of this labor question. One politi- 
cian tells you that if you will give suffrage to the southern freedman 
you will solve the whole difficult}^; his antagonist tells you that by 
so doing ^''ou will accomplish nothing, for that the freedmen won't 
work. Each of us, no doubt, has his own private opinion on these 
matters, but this is not the occasion either to express or examine 
those opinions. It is, however, the occasion for us to observe how 
we stand in relation to this labor question, and how our doings are 
going to bear on it. If it be true that he is a public benefactor who 


makes two blades of grass grow where only one grew before, what 
ought to be our estimate of the value of that man who by ingenious 
machinery of his own invention can do more in one day than his 
neighbor without it can do in a year? And this is no hypothetical 
case; you know well that it is what has repeatedly occurred in the 
development of all our great manufactures, and in the improvements 
of agriculture. 

I published a short time ago a book with the title of "^Thoughts 
on the Future Civil Polic}^ of America," and in it had occasion to 
speak of the Political Force of Ideas. Had space permitted, I might 
also have spoken of the political force of machinery. Improvements 
in machinery are in truth elements of singular political power. At 
the time of the adoption of the Constitution, was it not the expecta- 
tion of almost every well-informed person that the sj'stem of Xegro 
slavery wonld spontaneously, at no very distant period of time, come 
to an end? What was it that disappointed that expectation, and led 
to absolutely the opposite result? It was the invention of Whitney's 
Cotton Gin. 

The Emperor Napoleon, in a comparison he made between France 
and England in the struggle in which he was engaged in the wars 
springing out of the French Revolution, made this remark, " We 
must overpower her in the end, for we have a vastly greater popu- 
lation." In this he overlooked the fact which at last settled the con- 
test, that her steam-engines were representing at that moment a 
population of 30,000,000 of adult men, nay more, men who consumed 
almost nothing and produced everything, men whose only want was 
a little oil and coal, who could do without food and clothino-, who 
were ready to find clothing for the whole world, who could labor 
night and day, who required no sleep, who could not be fatigued. 
It was not the armies of Waterloo, but these iron men whom he so 
strangely overlooked in his calculation, that terminated the contest 
against him. It was through these children of Watt, that after all 
her taxation, all her subsidies, all her extravagance, all her losses, 
all her debt, all the inconceivable fatuity of her politicians, that 
England came out of that deadly conflict richer, greater, more vigor- 
ous and powerful than she had ever been before. 

But we need not go abroad for illustrations; w^e have only to look 
at homo. What was it that enabled our Government to hold many 
thousand miles of coast in blockade? What was it that enabled it 
to hurl upon its enemy vast armies with inconceivable celerity and 
crushing force to; fight with both hands, right and left; to deal blows 
east or w^est at will? What was it that made the city of Washing- 

[Am. Inst.] E 


ton a focus of iutelligencc and force? The electric telegraph and the 

In another very important particular is the state of the country 
interesting to us as mechanical inventors. The prospect before us 
is changing. The America of the future must differ greatly from 
the America of the past. There are men still living who remember 
the thin line of civilized life that lay upon the Atlantic and Gulf 
coasts. It is not so many years ago since Spain was feebl}^ holding 
the Florida Peninsula, where Ponce de Leon had formerly sought in 
vain in the dark and leafy everglades a fabled fountain of perpetual 
life: not so many years ago since the introduction of a strange and 
barbarous piactice into Europe, the smoking of tobacco, insured the 
settlement of Virginia; not so many years ago since the stern, the 
noble old Puritan debarked amono^ the moanins: forests of New Ens:- 
land, in search of a place where he might have freedom to worship 
God. What was but yesterday a thin line of sparsely scattered civi- 
lization, has spread forth into a broad surface. It has extended itself 
over the Atlantic plain, climbed across the Alleghau}^ ridges, de- 
scended into the valley of the Mississippi, and swarms over the 
regions beyond. Thus far its pursuits have been agricultural; the 
products of its industry, grain, cattle, tobacco, cotton. But now it 
has reached the regions in which nature has placed a boundary to 
such avocations; where reliance can no longer be had upon rain; 
where crops are uncertain, or cannot be raised; where there is no- 
thing but sterility beyond — nothing but sterility, so far as surface pro- 
duction is concerned, but boundless wealth is hidden in the strata 
below. The a'old and silver there awaitino- the miner will overthrow 
the existing commercial arrangements of the world. 

American life has hitherto been in the main agricultural. A great 
change is impending; it is destined that we shall hereafter add to. 
those avocations the exploration and appropriation of mineral wealth. 
In these our changing circumstances, what is it that is imperatively 
required to insure to us the full fruition of these boundless gifts of 
nature? Labor is what we want. We want, therefore, labor-saving 
machines; and here it ia that your inventive talent will find full scope 
for its employment. Whatever can stand in the stead of manual 
labor is a sio-nal benefit. 

The Mississippi River, fed by its vast tributaries, and grandly 
coursing its way through an alluvial track often forty or fifty miles 
in breadth, its spring flood rising often to a height of fifty feet be- 
low the junction o-f the Ohio River, its overflow on its western side 
coverino; an area of from ten to fiftv miles wide, throws into insis^ni- 
ficance the far-famed Egyptian Nile. It rudely separates the two 
great industrial divisions of the United States from one another — 


separates them geographically, but binds them together commer- 
cially. The vast mining regions of the AYest, whose untold wealth 
we are only now beginning to discern, cannot be developed and can- 
not do without the fertile regions of the East. Of the great political 
facts ascertained during the civil war, none are of more national 
importance than the military value of this river. Whoever is master 
of the Mississippi is the lord of the continent. Well may Sherman 
say in his letters to Grant, " Come West, take to yourself the whole 
Mississij)pi valley. Let us make it dead sure, and I tell you the 
Atlantic slope and the Pacific shores will follow its destiny, as sure 
as the limbs of a tree live or die with the main trunk. We have 
done much, but still much remains. Time and time's influences are 
with us. We could almost afford to sit still and let these influences 
work. Here lies the seat of the coming Empire, and from the West, 
when our task is done, we will make short work of Charleston and 
Richmond, and the impoverished coast of the Atlantic." 

Such are the words of that great soldier. They will become more 
and more emphatic with every passing day. Every labor-saving con- 
trivance that you can devise, every invention for developing the re- 
sources of the continent, will give them increasing weight. Remem- 
ber, then, while you are occupied in perfecting these products of 
your ingenuity, that you are not only deriving pleasure from the 
gradual completion .of designs in which you take so much interest; 
that upon that completion you will not only obtain the fairly earned 
personal or pecuniary reward that follows your success; but that 
also, beside these individual gains accruing to yourselves, there are 
arising conspicuous advantages to your country; that you are adding 
to its industrial and political power, and aiding in the solution of the 
great problem of the organization of its labor. 

Let the same ingenuity that is here displayed in Parmelee's elec- 
tric locomotive, Chester's electric light, Neeham's pneumatic express, 
Rutherford's splendid photographs of the moon, Brady's pen work, 
Day's new telegraphic instruments, Bradley's new electro magnets, 
Hicks' quadruple steam engine, Andrew's centrifugal streams, Root's 
square engine, Cleaveland's mammoth cloth dryer, Carhart's and Need- 
ham's reed organ — let this ingenuity be directed to the devising of 
machinery required in the culture and preparation of tobacco, cotton, 
sugar, the great products of the Southern States, and the prosperity 
those States once knew will be increased ten-fold. There is an open- 
ing for inventive talent at this moment at the South, such as has 
never occurred before. 

It only remains for me to thank you once more for the pleasure 
and instruction you have afforded us all, by this Exhibition of your 
ekill and ingenuity. 




Gentlemen of the Institute : 

In returning my thanks for the honor you have conferred on me, 
allow me to submit to you a few su2:2:estions relatins: to our associa- 
tion and the ends it aims, or should aim, to secure. 

It is now more than thirty-four years since I, a minor and a stran- 
ger in this city, had my attention drawn to a notice in the journals 
that the friends of Protection to American Industr}^ were to meet that 
day in convention at the rooms of the American Institute — said In- 
stitute being then much 3^ounger than, though not so obscure as I was. 
I had no work, and could find none: so, feeling a deep interest in 
and devotion to the cause which that convention was designed to pro- 
mote, I attended its sittings; and this was my first introduction to 
the American Institute, which I have ever since esteemed and hon- 
ored, though the cares and labors of a busy, anxious life, have not 
allowed me hitherto to devote to its meetings the time that I would 
gladly have given them. 

I recur to the fact that I was drawn to the American Institute by 
my interest in and sympathy with the cause of Protection to Home 
Industr}^ From early boyhood, I had sat at the feet of Hezekiah 
Niles, and Henry Clay, and Walter Forward, audRollin C. Mallory, 
and other champions of this doctrine, and I had attained from a pe- 
rusal of theirs and kindred writings and speeches a most undoubting 
conviction that the policy they commended was eminently calculated 
to impel our country swiftly and surely onward through activity and 
prosperity to greatness and assured well being. I had studied the 
question dispassionately — for the journals accessible to my boyhood 
were mainly those of Boston, then almost if not quite unanimously 
hostile to protection; but the arguments they combated seemed to 
me far stronger than those they advanced, and I early became an 
earnest and ardent disciple of tho school of Niles and Clay. I could 
not doubt that the policy they commended was that best calculated 
to leiid a country of vast and undeveloped resources like ours, up 
from rude poverty and dependence to skilled efficiency, wealth and 
power. And the convictions thus formed have been matured and 
strengthened by the observations and experience of subsequent years. 


Thus was I attracted to the rooms and the counsels of the American 

Gentlemen, it is objected in our day that the policy of protection 
is narrow, selfish, suicidal, short-sighted, while our aims should be 
cosmopolitan and our philanthropy indiscriminate and universal. 
This cavil would make patriotism a mistake — at least, a sentiment to 
be outirrown. I cannot concur in it. Mv heart thrills to the stirriiio- 

*^ Breathes there a man with soul so dead 
Who never to himself hath said 
This is my own, my native land." 

I believe it is our duty to desire and struggle for the welfare, 
growth and greatness of our own country before and above that of 
others. There is a homely old dittj' — British, I believe, in its orioin, 
but if they have no further use for its sentiment, the}^ will doubtless 
make us a present of it — whereof the refrain runs substantially thus: 

*•' For she's the darling of my heart, 
And she lives in our alley.'' 

I concur in that sentiment. I like those I esteem the better if 
they are also ni}' countrymen. But liking them does not impel me 
to hate others. I believe it wise and well to place our aifections on 
that which is near and convenient rather than that which is i emote 
and scarcely attainable. I judge it not well to be always rcachino- 
toward and grasping for the far-ofi'and the inaccessible. I judo-e it bet 
ter to improve the territory we have than to covet that of ourneioh- 
bors — to enrich a farm than to expand it — to develop our own re- 
sources than to absorb those of other nations. 

The policy I advocate for our own country I commend as well to 
others. I regret, and deem it a general misfortune, that all nations 
are not seeking to develop and diversif}- their industrial and their 
mineral resources bv protective lea'islation and bv concurrino- indi- 
vidual, social and political efforts. I hold that the world would be 
richer and all mankind wiser and happier had every nation earlv and 
steadfastly sought to naturalize, develop and perfect all the.useful arts 
on its own soil. Let each buy freelj^ from abroad whatever raw 
material its peculiar soil, climate, topography, forbid it to produce 
advantageousl}' at home; but let these be manipulated audfiishioned 
by every nation for itself. They will thereb}^ promote at once their 
own happiness and the general well-being. I hold that the world is 
this day at least one billion of dollars richer for American inventions 
and discoveries which owe their existence to the partial, oTudo-ino- 
capricious protection which congress has accorded to our manufac- 
turing industry. 

^y]lo can estimate the value to mankind of the yet incomplete 
century of American inventions, commencing with the cotton om ? 


The reaper and mower, the telegraph, the railroad, the sewing ma- 
chhie, the power press — what would the world be without them ? 
Which of them owes its origin to any country which has s^^stemati- 
cally refused or neglected to protect its own manufactures ? Let 
Egypt and xlrabia, let India and China, produce the contributions 
which they, during the last century, have made to human efficiency 
in the field of industrial production, and we will see whether our 
policy or its opposite most conduces to human progress and pros- 
perity. Had the policy which looks to making ours a purely agri- 
cultural nation — to exporting its timber, its cotton, its food, and im- 
porting its wares and fabrics — been uniformly ascendent here, we 
might have shown as beggarly an account of contributions to human 
efficiency as they do. And, had our workshops remained in Europe, 
we might be still plowing with a clums}^, ineffective implement, com- 
posed of wood and iron, instead of tho^steel plow of the present day. 

Yet we are still at the beginning of our course. I hail the steam 
plow as a beneficent and not distant contribution of mechanics to 
the progress and efficiency of Agriculture. Say, if you will, that all 
steam plows, as yet, have been failures — I will not dispute you — I 
only insist that they are such failures as herald and prepare for a 
grand, benignant success. If we have not a good steam plow to-day, 
it is high time we should have one. 

Yes, we must have a practical, serviceable steam plow and that 
soon. Do not tell me that all steam plow's have thus far been fail- 
ures; these failures are my assurance of ultimate and perfect success. 
They are proofs of earnest, persistent effort — such effort as must tri- 
umph at last. The farmer's urgent want to-day is a machine which 
will do for the preparation of the ground what the mower, the reaper 
and the thresher have done for the securing of the crops — a machine 
which will not merely save labor, but render rainy days and winter 
frosts effective in producing ample harvests — a machine, which in 
effect will extend the duration of seed time by making a week of 
favorable weather suffice for what has hitherto required a month. 
We need a propelling force that can be cleaned, oiled and laid 
away in autumn, which, without having consumed or cost anything 
meantime, shall be ready for use the next spring; and I shall rejoice 
if the action of the Institute shall conduce to and hasten its pro- 

I am glad that the Institute has so long and so usefully labored 
for fhe improvement of American agriculture. Its course has been 
a silent rebuke to those who noisily insist that protectionists are so 
devoted to the protection of manufactures that they forget that there 
are other departments of home industry at least as important and 


commendable as that. And I trust all that has been done in this field 
is but an earnest of ^vhat is to be. 

Our agriculture is vet rudimental — I miirht say semi-barbarous. 
Hitherto its progress has been rather in machinery than in processes 
or in average results. Whoever has observantly traversed Europe, 
must know that her average tillage is far superior to ours, and her 
crops larger than ours, Lombardy, Belgium, Holland, Switzerland, 
Great Britain, produce far larger average crops per acre than this 
country does. It is established bv statistics that whereas the averas^e 
wheat crop of the British isles is twice as large per acre as it was in 
1800, the wheat crop of so much of our country, as was then under 
cultivation, is but half as much as it was sixtv vearsao^o. Xew Ens:- 
laud formerly produced all the wheat she required, now she pro- 
duces less than a tithe of her consumption, and nine-tenths of her 
farmers do not errow wheat at all. The rents on the manor of Eens- 
selaerwyck, skiiling our own Hudson river, were formerly pa^^able 
mainly in wheat: now but few of the farms grow any wheat, and 
man}' if not most of them refuse to produce it. I know no other 
country that once grew wheat luxuriantly and now fails to produce 
it; and the difi'erence must be a result of our heedless and exhaust- 
ing cultivation, which calls loudly for reform. ■ 

Any form that ever produced wheat should stand reac'y to pro- 
duce it still; and he is a poor farmer who, having produced a good 
crop of this staple one year, cannot produce a better crop of wheat 
next 3'ear. If the last crop has exhausted the land of some element 
or property required to perfect wheat, science should tell us how 
most readily and cheaply to replace that element, and this is Avhat 
we mean by scientific farming. 

Farmers, like other men, more than most other men, need a know- 
ledge of nature and her unchanging laws. It is the glory of our age 
that such men as Liebig devote their talents and acquirements to 
teachins: them, 

London was for many years the home of an Italian named Mechi, 
who made and sold cheap razor strops. Having grown rich in this 
calling, M. Mechi removed to the country and bought or hired a 
large form, where he resolved to give a fair trial to the most advanced 
theories of chemists and geologists who essayed to shed light on 
agriculture. He has done so for some twenty years, and with signal 
success. His crops are the largest in all England, and his profits cor- 
respond with them. As a sample of his methods, all his abundant 
fertilizers, whether purchased or made on the farm, are converted 
into liquids and diffused over his fields by means of pumps and pipes. 
In this way they are not only far more effective, but they are applied 


just ^vhen the growing plants need either sustenance or moisture; 
and yet I am assured the composting and distribution of his fertilizers 
costs M. Mechi but a penny per load. And this is one result, like 
many others, of his fidelity to the conviction that the best way of 
doing anything is, in the long run, the most profitable. 

Whoever has journeyed through upper Italy, the valley of the Po^ 
must have had his attention arrested by the general prevalence of 
irrigation. Most of the land you see is irrigated, and nearly all of 
this produces immensely. Probably the water systematically applied 
to the surface more than doubles the natural crop. Who ever saw 
extensive and systematic irrigation on the Atlantic slope of this con- 
tinent ? Yet we have millions of acres far more easily irrigated thau 
Lombardy, and whose irrigation could be quite as profitably resorted 
to. When will it be ? 

A word as to our mineral resources. We are now producing 
somewhat less than $100,000,000 of gold and silver per annum from 
our mines, which is more than the annual product of the whole world 
forty 3^ears ago; probably more than was produced in the palmiest 
days of South America and Mexican gold mining. Yet, large as the 
amount is, it is not a beginning. That it will be trebled within the 
next ten years, provided our great Pacific railroad shall meantime be 
completed, few will doubt who have any acquaintance with the facts. 
I trust the attention of the Institute will be given to this vast and 
o-rowino- interest, that we shall be able in some way to aid its devel- 
opment; and that in time the most complete and instructive cabinet 
of American minerals in existence will be that of the American In- 

I would have specimens of the precious metals from every locality, 
but not of these only. There should be some place where the che- 
mist, the prospector, the mine owner, the metallurgist, could com- 
pare critically the iron ore of Lake Champlain with that of Western 
Connecticut and that of Lake Superior, so as to determine wherein 
they agree and wherein they cliflfer. In the first great world's expo- 
sition of products at London, 1851, I went and asked for specimens 
of California gold; but the most eminent authority in British geology 
asked me for samples of our Lake Superior iron, then newly discov- 
ered, and I was able, on my return, to obtain and send them. 

This Institute should possess and preserve a complete collection of 
Agricultural Implements, past as well as present, showing the pro- 
gress made from age to age and from year to year. It would be 
instructive to compare the plows and scythes of the two last centuries 
with those of our fathers and with our own; the mere comparisons 
might suggest some of the improvements of the future. 


This Institute, in addition to its annual fairs, should maintain a 
perpetual fair, — that is,, a continuous exhibition of implements, 
machines, inventions, <S:c. Such an exhibition T\'ould afford a place 
of eveuing resort for our mechanics and apprentices, which could not 
fail to prove instructive and profitable. 

Need I add that the American Institute should have an edifice and 
home of its own — one worthy of its character and history? I should 
feel ashamed if some to whom I have spoken elsewhere of this Insti- 
tute should come here and find it in a hired corner of a building 
devoted to many and various uses. Their impression of our standing 
and influence in New York would do us great injustice. 

This Institute needs an edifice of its own, large enough to contain 
all that it ouo-ht to exhibit and leave room for the transaction of its 
business; and such a structure we shall yet have if we place the 
necessity for it fairly before the rich and public-spirited citizens of 
New York; and this I trust we are about to do. 

I do not ask nor care what property the Institute now has, though 
I know it has some, for I am confident that more will come when we 
show that it is needed and will be usefully employed. Even though 
we should be obliged to resort to the joint-^tock policy, and give 
every one stock for his subscription, still I say the edifice must and 
will be had. 

But let us have a buildinij that will fi.tlv embodv and show forth 
the American Institute; and, to begin with, let us invite competition 
for a design or plan so as to secure one before the close of this 3'ear. 
Then let this be submitted to our citv's rich and noble men, savins:, 
*'This is what we need and must have;" and if one million dollars 
should be required, I am confident that even so much could be found; 
but, if not, let us build a Aving of the edifice w^e need and then say 
to men of wealth: "The completion of our Institute waits on your 

Our country eminently needs the general diffusion of useful, prac- 
tical knowledge, such knowledge as it is our aim to dispense. When 
we consider what such knowledge has already achieved — how locali- 
ties like that whereon Salt Lake Citv now stands, which, a few vears 
since, would not grow^ a peck of grain to the acre, do now, by the 
aid of irrigation, produce in abundance every grain and fruit of the 
temperate zone — when we reflect that there are hundreds of such 
places still lying waste and useless, and that all our National industry 
is equally infantile or chaotic, w^e must feel that the dissemination of 
useful knowledjxe is amouo- the noblest achievements of man. 

Within one hundred miles of this city there lie hundreds of thou- 
sands of acres of deep, rich soil that have contributed very little as 
yet to the conafort and sustenance of man. Sea-side marshes, inland 


swamps and bogs, the sanely plains of New Jersey and Long Island, 
all or most of these may be profitably w^rested from chaos and made 
subservient to man's subsistence and enjoyment, by scientific and 
systematic efiV)rt. They now breed but pestilence and noisome 
insects; they will 3^et afford employment and sustenance to many 
thousands of men. 

Eecent events have opened the Southern States to settlement and 
cultivation by free labor. A vast, genial, naturally fertile region, 
proffers rare opportunities for the cultivation of the grape, the pro- 
duction of silk, and many other industries hitherto confined to the 
Old World. Doubtless a few years will witness vast improvement 
in that quarter. 

We are an agricultural people, yet we import immensely of the 
products of foreign agriculture — of the products of climates and 
soils essentially like our own. We are to-day buying extensively of 
Europe, silks which we might produce at home for less than we give 
for them in Europe; wines which we might make for half their for- 
eign cost; while we send to China and Japan for Teas that the growers 
produce for a sixth, and we might for a third, of the prices we now 
pay for them. If we naturalize the tea plant only, we shall save 
thereby to our country many millions per annum. Let us at least 
resolutely attempt it. 

I would like to say more of the prospective development of our 
mineral wealth. Having traversed the great mountain chains and 
high plains and valleys of our continent, I feel sure that their treas- 
ures of gold and silver exceed all estimate, all calculation. I quite 
understand that gold and silver, like iron or coal, must be paid for; 
that he who digs them from the earth pays usually quite as much as 
though he obtained them by farming or trade; and yet I feel that 
our country is richer for her mines, precisely as she is for her soil. 
They furnish employment for labor, and create markets for every 
other department of industry. As yet, I presume, all the gold and 
silver dug from the Eocky Mountains have cost all they are worth; 
but the Pacific Railroad will reduce the cost of their production one 
half, while opening vast markets for the food and fabrics of our older 

But I detain you too long. Let me close with the hope that, as 
our National resources and industry seem on the verge of vast and 
rapid development, so the American Institute will maintain a high 
place among the agencies whereby that development is insured and 


Rules and Regulations of the Farmers' Club of the American Institute, 
adopted by the committee of agriculture. 

1. Any person may become a member of this Club, and take part in the 
debate, by simply conforming to its rules. 

2. Any member, for disorderly conduct, may be expelled by a vote of the 

3. The minutes of the Club, notices of meetings, etc., shall, as formerly, 
be under the control of the Secretary. 

4. The Club shall be called together Tuesday, at U o'clock P. M,, of 
each week. 

5. A chairman pro tern, shall be chosen at each meeting. 

6. The first hour of the meeting may be devoted to miscellaneous sub- 
jects, as follows : papers or communications by the Secretary, communica- 
tions in writing, reports from special committees, subjects for subsequent 
debate proposed, desultory or incidental subjects considered. 

7. The principal subject of debate shall be taken up at 2 J o'clock, (but 
may be introduced earlier by a vote of the meeting,) and continue until 3 J 
o'clock, unless a motion to adjoiu-n prevail. 

8. No person shall speak more than fifteen minutes on the principal 
subject, unless by consent of the meeting. 

9. All controversy or personalities must be avoided, and the subject be- 
fore the meeting be strictly adhered to. 

10. Questions pertinent to the subject of debate may be asked of each, 
through the chairman, but answers must be brief, and not lead to debate. 

11. Tlie chairman may, at any time, call a person to oi'der, and require 
him to discontinue his remarks. 

12. When any committee is appointed by the Farmers' Club, the mem- 
bers of said committee shall be members of the American Institute. 

13. No discussion shall be allowed that is not connected with the great 
subjects of Agriculture and Rural Improvement. 

Ilaij 2, 1865. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ely in the chair ; Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretary. 

Wh4t Destroys the Asparagus ? 

Mr. Solon Robinson — I have placed upon the table a bunch of asparagus 
roots, each fiber of which appears to have been traversed by a worm from 
one end to the other, entirely boring out the interior. This pest nearly 
destroj'cd my asparagus bed. Is it the work of the asparagus beetle ? 

Dr. Trimble. — No. That insect does not bore into the roots. Tin's is the 
work of a worm similar to those that bore into squash vines. It is some- 
thing new to me ; I know nothing of its history. It is a matter that should 
be investigated. 

Prof. Mapes. — Have 3'ou put salt upon joxir asparagus ? That is a remedy 
for almost all insects. I sow enough every spring to whiten the ground, 
and my asparagus has remained quite healthy. 


Mr. Robinson replied that he liad salted his bed heavily, though none was 
applied last year, which was the second one of the appearance of the aspa- 
ragus beetle. He had never before known the roots to die like these. 

Mr. John G. Bergen said that he had often noticed asparagus dying, but 
supposed it was in consequence of keeping it cut so closely. The aspara- 
gus beetle has been very prevalent on Long' Island for some years, and the 
opinion has generally prevailed that this insect was the cause of the death 
of the asparagus plants. Whatever it is, the destruction has been very 
serious. We have another great pest that some have supposed killed the 
plants. This is one of tlie family of plant lice. Perhaps Ave have a third 
enemy that is more destructive than both of the others. 

Dr. Trimble. — They have a species of melon beetle which does kill the 
plants, root and branch. The asparagus beetle does not. It lives upon 
the shoots, and renders them unfit for use by sucking out the substance, 
and attaching its eggs to them. This breeding operation continues as long 
as the shoots remain succulent. The beetles then hide themselves under 
bark of trees or fences, and remain torpid until spring, when they begin to 
renew their operations. These would not kill the root and utterly destroy 
the bed, as the insect has whose work is now before us. 

The Chairman stated that he had two beds of asparagus at his place at 
Norwalk, Conn. Both of them have been treated alike with manure and 
salt, and last year they were equally productive. This year there is a fine 
show upon one bed, while upon the other he has not seen a live shoot. 

Clearing Swamp. 

Mr. J. C. Staats, New Brunswick, N. J., says ; " I would like to have the 
opinion of the Club upon the following kind of land : Surface soil 2J to 3 
feet, loamy clay, mixed with sand ; under that, clay and sand mixed in about 
equal parts ; underneath these, clay ; it is overflown by the tide, which is 
slightly salt, three or four times a year ; it is overgrown with bushes, white 
clover, stunted fox and black grass, I would like to know the best way of 
proceeding to clear land from which 20 to 30 cords of wood have been cut 
to the acre." 

Mr. John G. Bergen. — Clearing such land will require a large amount of 
hard labor. The only question is, whether it will pay. I have always found 
the best way to dig out stumps is, to do the digging before the tree is cut. 
Attach a strong rope to the top of the tree, and use that as a lever to pull 
up the roots. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — There are various stump machines in use. I saw 
one at work at Vineland, New Jersey, clearing out all the stumps at $30 
per acre. The land had been thickly wooded with pine and oak trees, none 
of them probably more than eight inches in diameter. The roots of small 
bushes and bogs may be pulled out with a small grappling iron, with an ox 
team ; but no land of the character described by Mr. Staats can be fitted 
for the plow without a great amount of hard labor. 

Eemedy for Lice on Cattle — Poultry Disease. 

Mr. H. Perham, Lyndeborough, N. H., wants a remedy for lice on cattle, 
and for a disease of poultry that causes their heads to swell and eyes to 


water, accompanied with a ravenous appetite. Also what to feed hens to 
make them lay in winter. 

Dr. Trimble replied that coal oil would kill lice, but if too much is used 
it will take the hair off. 

Ih. John G. Bergen said the best remedy he had ever found, was high 
feeding and using plenty of roots. In spring, when cattle are turned to 
pasture, the lice disappear. The disease of poultry described is not new, 
but no one has a remedy. 

The Chairman said : I feed my hens in winter with mill screenings of rye, 
as much as they will eat, and twice a week with chandlers greaves boiled. 
I keep my hens in a warm place, the south side of the house being glazed. 
From thirty hens, I averaged seventeen eggs daily during the last winter. 
This much more than paid all expenses. In answer to the inquiry whether 
the quality of the eggs was affected by the food, he answered that he had 
never heard any complaint in consequence of feeding the greaves. 

Prof. Mapes. — I have used chandler's greaves for feeding my poultry, and 
have never discovered any bad effects from its use. 

Dr. Trimble remarked that the natural food of fowls was grain and worms. 
That described by the chairman approached this as near as an artificial diet 
was possible. 

Hops for Family Use. 

Mary B. Cross, Westerly, E. I., says : " If any have better hops, with 
more of the yellow powder which constitutes their chief value — better yeast 
or nicer bread, .than we, I should be very happy to know how they manage 
to do it. To make ours grow luxuriantly, about the roots we put plenty of 
what is brousrht from the stable. If it would interest the Club to know how 
we destroy successfully the insects that injure the hop vine, I will tell them 
with pleasure. To do this, we make a strong solution with whale-oil soap 
in a garden watering-pot, and shower the vines freely. '^ 

To Make Dry Yeast Cakes. 

Mrs. S. Baird, De Korra, Columbia Count}', Wis., says it is necessary for 
those who have not a good cellar to keep liquid yeast, to know how to make 
yeast cakes. My method is to boil a pint of hops in four pints of water, 
fifteen minutes. Have five or six potatoes ready boiled and mashed ; strain 
the hop tea upon the potatoes, and stir in flour until it is as thick as batter- 
When the mixture is cooled to blood heat, add one pint of sweet, light yeast, 
ono table-spoonful of salt, one of sugar, one of ginger ; let it stand till 
light ; then add corn meal, and knead till stiff enough to roll in a ball and 
cut off in cakes, which put upon the molding board to dry. Be sure and 
make your j^east cakes in the spring, before flies come. When dry, put 
them in a tight bag, and they will keep anywhere. Then you can have fresh 
yeast any time b}^ dissolving the cake in tepid water and stirring in a little 
wheat flour, and in fifteen minutes you will have as sweet yeast as you wish. 

Cordial Made from Elder Blossom. 

A bottle of liquor called wine was tasted and generally appreciated, par- 
ticularly by the ladies, which the Chairman stated was made by Mr. Nich- 


ols, of Glen Cove, L. I., from the flowers of elder, (sambuci,) treated in the 
same way that small fruits generally are for the same purpose— that is, 
with water and sugar and fermentation. The juice, being bottled and 
ripened with age, makes a very pleasant cordial. 

Prof. Mapes. — This is a very pleasant drink ; it is not wine, but a cordial. 
I consider it very palatable. There is a great demand for this kind of cor- 


Mr. Solon Robinson. — An English writer produces some strong arguments 
in favor of the cut-and-cover system of plowing a summer fallow. He says : 
" The furrow slice serves as a mulching for the layer below, completely 
changing its appearance and texture. This is of the greatest importance. 
Under such a mulching the land will be enriched by the treasures of the 
atmosphere. Only compare a field so skimmed three weeks ago with one 
that has been lying unskimmed, and you will need no more argument. But 
your readers will say, why not plow deep at once ? For two reasons : I 
want the summer fallow to commence as early as possible. "When cutting 
wheat, for instance, I have all the cocks put up in straight rows running 
the way I want to plow, and the very next day after the cradle scythe fol- 
lows the skimming plow. We can not wait till the wheat may be drawn 
off, for we would lose one week, and the land would bake. Just examine 
the soil on the day of mowing, and then again two weeks later where the 
sun has burned on the naked ground, and 3^ou will be satisfied ; experience 
will confirm j^our observation. This may suffice for the present. It would 
be impossible to give the fields a deep furrow and keep up with the mower ; 
by merely skimming, this can be done ; the deep plowing comes thereafter ; 
the land never becomes too hard for it where it has been skimmed. The 
surface soil, having had the benefit of a fallow, is then turned below, and 
another la^^er exposed to fallowing. This skimming is much preferable to 
the work done by cultivators, for in skimming I turn under all weeds and 
grasses, converting them into manure, while the cultivator makes them into 
hay. This skimming also does not make the land too loose for wheat. I 
will merely add that on clover land we generally omit the skimming, giving 
a deep furrow, directly following the scythe." 

Flotver Seed Distribution. 

The Secretary reports that during the past week he has received flower 
seeds from the following persons : Mrs. Maria B. Dinsmore, Bruce ; Miss 
Susan L. Story, West Windsor, Vt. ; Mrs. J. S. Pelton, Vermillion, Erie 
Co., Ohio ; Mr. Samuel Stainbrooke, Grand Rapids, Wis. ; Miss Clara A. 
Hinckle3^ East Wilton, Me. ; Miss Martha L. Wright, North Stonington, 
Conn. ; Miss Libbie C. Miller, Leyden, Lewis Co., N. Y. ; William R. Prince, 
Flushing, L. I., sends his final contribution, comprising the following : 

Hypericum ascyroides, (Golden Hypericum ;) Ly thrum salicaria, (Pink- 
flowered Lythrum ;) Hibiscus milifaris, (Halbert-leaved Hibiscus ;) Hibis- 
cus pa//ic?t(8, (Pale Rose Hibiscus ;) Hibiscus roseus, (Large Roseate Hibis- 
cus ;) Hibiscus moscheutos, (Large White and Crimson Hibiscus ;) Cassia 


Marylandica, (Maryland Cassia ;) Unmax patient ia, (Alpine Patience Dock ;) 
the most important of all garden plants for early greens, and snitable to 
the coldest climate. Bignonia grandiflora aurantia, (Prince's Golden Big- 
nonia ;) a new seedling from the Cliinese Bignonia, and not one plant 3^et 
existing out of my gardens. 

Mr. Chambers says the applications on hand are sufiScient to absorb all 
this supply, which will be sent off as rapidly as possible. 

Flowery Letters. 

Mrs. n. E. Davis, Danville, Vt., writing for flower seeds, says : " I have 
sometimes fancied that when the angels were commissioned to expel Eve, 
our fallen mother, from Paradise, they were permitted to spare to her one 
of the pure original instincts of her nature, which was a love of flowers ; 
and that when they saw the ' longing", lingering look' with which she said 
* And must I leave thee. Paradise ?' and then turned her anguished gaze 
toward the wilderness to which she was banished — filled with thorns and 
briars — they in pity gave her a few seeds to cultivate, as a solace, when 
far away from her native home. And I can hardly see how even an angel 
could have given anything more delicate and precious than those tastes, 
and with them the means of gratification. I am happy to think that the 
angels' work is still continued by the members of the Farmers' Club." 

Mrs. Eloise Hunt, Heiner's Run, Clinton Co., Penn., says: "My home 
has been for six years in a little rocky basin shut in on every side by the 
Alleghanies, without a neighbor, a church or school, seeing no human face 
for weeks — aye, even months, sometimes — except that of my husband and 
child. Living thus, I have come to love, in a strangely earnest, absorbing 
'wa3', all that is around me. Earth, with its varied growth of trees and 
shrubs, plants and mosses, rocks and water, the clouds, blue sky and stars, 
ever3'thing is beautiful to me ; even the dead leaves and old decayed trees 
and bare rocks are beloved. Tliink, then, how inexpressibly dear the living 
trees and flowers and moving water. T have tame trout six yards from the 
door, that leap above the water to catch bits of meat from my fingers. The 
pheasants make their nests in sight of the house, and sometimes the male 
bird is seen drumming on an old log only a few rods up the mountain side. 
I have planted wild flowers round my doors, and in summer the humming 
birds go through the open house on their visits to the flowers. Strangers 
from the world have said, * How can you exist in this dreary place ?' Their 
eyes do not see as mine, nor can they hear an}^ of the pleasant voices I hear ; 
and so I simply tell them what they can comprehend, ' It is my necessity.' 
My place, which is so lonely to others, is so pleasant to me that I have 
named it Paradise ; and here I will teach my son a love of truth, purity 
and beauty." 

Plants for Names. 

Mr. J. Weston, Saratoga, Winona Co., Min., sends specimens of a beautiful 
wild flower which he says grows upon the hills of that county. It has six 
delicate blue petals, about an inch in length, and three-eighths in width. 


The center is full of numerous bright yellow stamens and pistils, and the 
stem is green and downy. A circle of downy filaments, two inches long, 
surrounds the stem like a calyx, an inch below the flower. In addition to 
the beaut}'- of this flower, it has a value from its early blooming. It is called 
the pasque or paschal flower, which Webster describes as " a species of 
anemone, growing in Europe and Siberia, and usually flowering about East- 
er." This particular plant is known to botanists as Pulsatilla NuttalUana. 
Mr. Weston says: "I will send some seeds to the Club, if you wish, wlien 
they are ripe. Tliey blossom so early that they would be very desirable in 
the gardens. I have no doubt I shall find other kinds this season." 

And we say to Mr. Weston and all others who feel desirous of adding to 
the beauty of farms and gardens and increasing the enjoyment of all rural 
residents, b}^ all means save all the seeds, whether of wild or cultivated 
flowers, and send them to this Club for distribution, directed J. W. Cham- 
bers, Secretary. Postage upon packages under four ounces, two cents, 
marked " seeds only." It must contain no writing or memorandum except 
the names. 

Sorrel — How to Exterminate It. 

^Ir, Isaac T. Whitbeck, Chicago, 111., sends the following communication 
upon the extermination of sorrel from the soil : ''In a recent report of your 
Club, I notice the statement of Mr. Charles Betts, of Burr Oak, Mich., com- 
mending stable manure as an effectual eradicator of sorrel from the soil. Dur- 
ing the last ten j^ears I have been deeply interested in the pursuit of theoreti- 
cal and practical agriculture and horticulture, and, among other experiments, 
I have frequontlj^ noted the efi*ects of different fertilizers, applied to the soil, 
in promoting or checking the growth of sorrel. My observation and expe- 
rience have proved that stable manure and other organic manures, whether 
animal or vegetable, are as efficacious in promoting the growth of sorrel 
and other noxious plants as in stimulating the growth of corn, wheat, oats, 
potatoes, or almost every other cultivated plant. Peruvian guano, so highly 
valued on account of the large constituent per centage of ammonia and 
phosphates of lime and magnesia, has invariably produced a luxuriant 
growth of sorrel v/here the seed or roots were in the soil ; and I think that 
to apply horse manure or guano in sufficiently large quantities to kill sorrel 
would greatly injure, or probably kill, or rather hum up the plants you 
would cultivate. Of all fertilizers that I have seen applied, or ever heard 
of being used on Long Island, and in the New England States near the sea- 
coast, the moss-bunker (a sea fish, millions of which are annually applied 
to the soil) is universally, and I think very justly, reputed as the best manure 
for the production of a luxuriant and heavy growth of sorrel. 

" But the question is, * What icill hill itV I am happy to state that I 
entirely concur with Messrs. Solon Robinson and William S. Carpenter in 
commending lime and salt as effectual in destro^'ing this weed — that is, if 
I may be allowed to add my favorite remcd}^ (potash) to their two specifics. 

** As the roots and germs of the sorrel are quite delicate and tender, and 
as the plant requires but little or no potash, I presume that potash is really 
the safest and n»ost effectual application by which to rid our fields of this 
pest without injury to cultivated plants. The best time to apply the ashes 


is in early spring, just as tlic plant begins to vegetate, when the young 
shoots are very tender, and when the seeds also vegetate." 

Maple Sugar. - 

Mr. W. H. Adams, Benzonia, Mich., writes : " One of j'onr correspond- 
ents advanced the theory that, on account of the drouth, maple trees would 
not yield the usual flow of sap. You requested sugar makers to make a 
note of it. I have, and find tlie run is better than usual ; but there is an 
increased deposit of what I call grit. I should like to know what that is. 
Perhaps some of the sugar makers who write to the Club can tell. It is a 
grayish, sandy substance, which settles at the bottoin of the sirup — this 
year nearly a pound to the gallon. Some call it lime ; but it has fione of 
its properties. I should like to know if it is found in any other sugar mak- 
in<2: reL>'ioii. I never saw it in Minnes(^ta." 

Dlmensions of a Cheese Factory. 

J. H. Carter, Cortland County, N. Y., gives the dimensions of a building 
capable of curing 100 tons of cheese at a time, as follows : the building 
described is at McDonongh, Chenango county : "It is 30 by 160 feet, fin- 
ished with blinds and ventilators, well painted. AI>out 12 feet of one end 
is partitioned off for wood-house and sink-room. Next is a room 30 by 40 
feet, where the cheese is made and pressed. These rooms have a smooth, 
hard wood 'floor, under which runs a stream of water, carrying away all 
filth which would otherwise accumulate in such a place. This room is ven- 
tilated by a tube some four feet square, running up to a ventilator in the 
roof, which has rolling blinds that are opened or closed by cords leading 
down into the room. Tins, together with large sliding windows on both 
sides of the room, gives (jood ventilation, which is verij necessary wlierc 
there is so much steam rising from the warm milk. A large stream of pure 
cold water comes to the factory in earthen pipe. Wagons are unloaded and 
milk weighed under cover. All of the upper floor and the remainder of the 
lower floor is used for curing cheese. These floors are also tight and smooth. 
The rails on which the cheese rest are attached to arms by iron dowels, and 
the arms are bolted to posts, so that the whole weight conies on the posts, 
and not on the floor. It is also arranged so that there can be two tier of 
cheeses, one. above the other. The whey is conveyed through pipes to swine 
at a sufficient distance from the factory not to affect the purity of the air." 

Salt as a Fertilizer. 

Mr. Solon Robinson read from the Country Gentleman some experiments 
with salt as a manure, made by Sweet Brothers, Onondaga county, N. Y. : 
" We first sowed salt as a manure in the spring of 1861 ; mixed three 
bushels of salt with one of plaster, and sowed of the mixture three bushels 
to the acre ; sowed it broadcast, from three to ten daj^s after the grain was 
sowed ; did not harrow or roll afterward. 

" A field of spring wheat of ten acres yielded twenty bushels to the acre, 
while a neighbor's field, merely across the road, of equally as good soil, and 
[Am. Inst,] F 


as well cultivated, did not produce over five bushels to the acre. The ground 
was plowed and the seed sown on the same days. 

'' Another field of our own we partiall}' sowed in strips of one rod in 
width, sowing and skipping alternate strips. The soil in this field was in 
better condition than the first field ; still, taking the whole field, it did not 
yield more than ten bushels to the acre. The six or eight strips that were 
salted were taller, heavier, longer headed, better filled, plumper berry, 
ripened earlier, and brighter straw. The salted and unsalted portions were 
as easily distinguished as the strips in a carpet, and in binding the grain 
behind the cradle, any man could have told the difference blindfolded. 

" In 1862 we tried the mixture on barley, peas, oats, and winter wheat. 
The effect on barley was astonishing. We left a strip of land a rod in width 
across the field that we did not cover. Here the barley was so small and 
thin and crinkled down that the machine could not cut what little thtre was ; 
while the whole field yielded over forty bushels to the acre. 

" Another field on another part of the farm was nearl}' as good, although 
in 1856 it absolutely refused to give us more than ten bushels to the acre, 
and we stopped raising it. 

" On the oats we had no opportunity of testing it with any near us ; we 
salted the whole field, and had the largest crop we ever raised. On peas 
we had no opportunity to test it with others ; had a large crop, but the 
vines grew too long. On winter wheat, thought it did great good, but had 
no chance for a decided test. 

" In 1863 we sowed two fields of barley ; upon the side of one we left an 
acre unsalted, and the crop on this p(n'tion was not half as great as on that 
portion to which the salt was applied. This field was a heavy sod ; the 
other field was the one on which barley and peas were sown the year pre- 
vious ; had an excellent crop, but no particular test. 

" In 1864 we covered two entire fields of barley with the salt and plas- 
ter ; the great drouth seemed to affect one field, the first one sown, but 
little ; but the other one was greatly injured. We had heavier crops than 
our nearest neighbors, but no better than some within a mile of us. 

'* We think that the increase in the value of the straw more than pa^'s 
the cost of salt, as a manure, and its application." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — This fully agrees with my experiments with gait in 
Westchester county. I have often stated that three bushels of salt per acre 
upon an old hide-bound mowing land gave me a ton of good hay. The salt 
at that time cost, spread upon the land, less than ten cents per bushel. 

Prof. Mapes. — The experiment with salt is not entirely satisfactory, be- 
cause plaster was used with it. How do we know but that all the benefit 
might have been derived from that ? I am satisfied myself that salt is a 
very valuable fertilizer. When I first went upon the place where I live now, 
I found a tangled hedge-row of bushes, briars and weeds along^ nearly all 
the fence-rows. I procured dirty salt at five or six cents per bushel, and 
applied it in sufficient quantities to entirely kill all the vegetation. It looked 
as though I had rendered the land wholly barren. By killing the bushes 
and briars I was enabled to break up tlie ground with oxen. I then sowed 
with quick-lime about three times the weight that had been used of salt. 


This counteracted the effect of the salt upon the soil and made it extremely 
fertile, I have experimented with salt for the past twenty years. You can 
not render land sterile more tlian one year by the use of salt. I am sorry 
we have not the time to-day to consider this subject in all its bearings. I 
hope the subject will be taken up at a future meeting". I look upon the salt 
and lime mixture, which I have often described, as one of the most valuable 
things upon' the farm. A bushel of salt dissolved in water to the point of 
satur;ition is used to slake three bushels of lime fresh from the kiln. This 
forms a cheap chloride of lime, which, being mixed with any fibrous sub- 
stance, causes it rapidly to decay. Salt sown broadcast upon the surface 
has the effect to decompose inert fibrous matters in the soil. 

Mr. John G. Bergen said : I tried an experiment with salt upon potatoes» 
using five bushels upon one acre, ten bushels upon another, and none upon 
the third. The result was decidedly in favor of the ten bushels, and this, 
too, upon land near the sea, where we had previously used a great deal of 
sea-weed as manure. With us market gardeners, however, there is one 
disadvantage in the use of salt. The potatoes do not ripen as early, and 
we lose the advantage of first sales at high prices. The vines upon my 
field, heavily salted, remained green and luxuriant two weeks longer than 
the other. I have no doubt the salt is a great advantage to the land in the 
time cf drouth. 

Potatoes Under Straw. 

Dr. Charles Fullerton, Owensville, Ind., says : " The method of planting 
potatoes which finds most favor with us is under straw. But little if any 
preparation is required ; the seed is laid on the top of the ground and cov- 
ered with from six to eight inches of straw. No tending is required. If 
the yield is not so great as in the old method, the potato is generally better. 
The straw subdues the grass and weeds and remains as a fertilizer. Is this 
method to be approved ?" 

This method of planting potatoes has been considerably practiced in this 
State. The plan is worthy of commendation where straw or swingle-tow 
is abundant. 

Dr. F. also asks, " if the sweet potato vines, where the}- grow too luxu- 
riantly, should be trimmed off, and if so, how close ?" One-half the vines 
may be cut away without detriment. Some gardeners alwaj's trim them 
for forage for the cow or pig. 

Currant Worms. 

Henry S. Kidder, Alfred, York county, Maine, says : ''I will give the 
Club my experience in preventing currant bushes from being destroyed by 
worms. I have made it a rule to closely examine all of mv bushes durins: 
the winter, and pick off all nests of eggs that are deposited there from 
which the ruinous worm is hatched. After collecting all the eggs to be 
found, I carry them into my house and burn them. This course I have fol- 
lowed for the last five years, and the result is, I have had no worms on my 
bushes, while my neighbors' bushes, within sight from my garden, have 
been entirely stripped of their leaves," 



3Iay 9, 1865. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ely in the chair; Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretary. 

Poultry Raising. 

The Chairman called tlio attention of the Club to an experiment which 
he had tried in constructing* his hen house, with two distinct apartments : 
one for laying, and the other exclusively for the setting- hens, lie found 
it answered admirably until the egg"S commenced to hatcli, when the other 
hens, attracted by the peeping" of tie chicks, and moved by their natural 
instinct, would leave their own nests and hover around the peeping family. 
The consequence of this natural curiosity on the part of late setting- hens, 
whose eggs had not yet commenced to hatch, was, that the latter became 
cold, and the unhatched chickens died while the setters were trying to ap- 
propriate the fortunate hens' early brood. 

Prof. Mapes. — I have my poultry yard fenced in; it contains about a 
quarter of an acre; the fence is about four feet high, with some of the posts 
ten or twelve feet high, to which several horizontal wires extending around 
the yard are fastened. Hens will not escape from such a yard, for in 
attempting to fly out, they will alight or strike the small wires and fall 
back into the yard. On wood they would readily effect a landing, but can- 
not sustain themselves on the wires, and will never try to fly between them 
without alighting. Such a chicken yard is an economical substitute for the 
expensive structures of wood, lath and boards. I tind that fifty fowls do 
better in this yard than a larger quantity. When poultry is confined, jow 
cannot get the quantity of eggs as farmers do who allow their poultry to 


Mr. Geo. Bartlett. — I once tried an experiment with five hundred fowls, 
but did not succeed. I presume, by the statement of Prof. Mapes, that I 
had too many. Hens, to be profitable, must have a large range, and wood- 
land is the best; that is why the hens of new settlers in the woods are 
most productive. 

Apple Tree Destroyers. 

. Mr. A. Allen, Lawrence, Kansas, sends specimens of insects that bore 
into apple limbs, near the buds, and destroy them. " What are they, and 
are they common ?" 

Dr. Trimble. — It is nothing new, though but little noticed until within a 
few 3^ears. It is similar to the locust borer and oak trimmer. 

Prof. Mapes reiterated his recommendation for every owner of fruit trees 
to use caustic soda for washing the trunk and lower limbs of the trees. It 
decomposes all dead bark, destroys the cocoons of insects, deters the borer 
from laying its eggs, and imparts that clean, glossy appearance to the 
trurdvs and branches which adds so greatly to the beauty and health of the 
apple tree. It will not affect the leaf of the most tender plant, and in this 
and other respects differs from potash, which often destroys both the leaf 
and bark. He had used it in renovating old orchards; it loosened the old 
bark and moss, which dropped off, leaving a smooth trunk, and the trees 
renewed their youth and fertility. It would also destroy the scaly insect 


that occurs on the peach tree, and effectually make away with the catter- 
pillars' nests on apple trees. Heat one pound sal soda red hot and dissolve 
it in one gallon of water. I wash twice a year, spring and summer, and 
my trees are smooth as though wax polished. 

Peach Leaves — Blistered and Curled. 

Dr. Trimble exhibited a specimen of blistered peach leaves taken from a 
tree tainted with the yellows. Its appearance was very different from the 
ordinary curled peach leaf, which Dr. Trimble thinks is generally caused 
by the Aphis or plant lice; but the blistered leaf is only found on the peach 
tree affected by the yellows. He thought the production of plant lice, 
which usuall}^ appear in myriads on the earliest unfolding of leaves, was 
aggravated by atmospheric influences. Trees which were covered with 
these vermin last year, are this year entirely free from them. (Does this 
statement accord generally w-ith the observations of fruit growers? — Ed.) 

Mr. Bergen remarked that according to his experience the curl of the 
peach leaf was not produced by an insect, and he was happy to find that 
Dr. Trimble, who had maintained a contrary opinion, conceded that blistered 
leaves were not thus caused. He did not know why the Dr. distinguished 
this leaf as blistered, but he was positive that it was not at all connected 
with the disease called yellows in the peach tree, for he had devoted many 
years of study to this subject. / 

Mr. E. Williams. — I find this curl leaf upon perfectly healthy peach 

Salt as a Fertilizer. 

Mr. Geo. Bartlett read the following paper on the above subject : 

From 88 to 99 per cent of the substance of all trees and other vegetables 
is made up of the four organic elements, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and 
carbon; the remaining one to 12 per cent consists of various mineral sub- 
stances. The organic portion may all be derived from air and water, the 
mineral matter must come wholly from the earth. When a plant is burned, 
the organic portion passes away in the form of gases, and the mineral 
matter remains as ash. 

The mineral substance of plants is made up of twelve elements, which 
are found in the plant in combination eitlier with each other, with oxygen^ 
or with some metal. These elements are potassium, sodium, calcium, 
silicium, aluminum, magnesium, chlorine, iodine, sulphur, phosphorus, 
iron, manganese. 

The proportions in which these several elements occur in plants vary 
widel}^ with different plants, and in different parts of the same plant; with 
a given part of a given plant the proportions are pretty constant, though 
even in this they are subject to considerable modification by the age of the 
plant, the season of the 3'ear, the composition of the soil, and other influences. 

Two of these elements, chlorine and sodium, chemically combined, form 
table salt. Chlorine occurs in plants in minute traces only, but sodium 
forms a considerable proportion of the ash. It is usually found as soda, 
which is a combination of sodium and oxygen. Chlorine is a green gas, 
extensively used for bleaching. Sodium is a metal lighter than water. Its 


aflSnity for oxygen is so great that if llirown upon water, it decomposes the 
water, combining with the oxygen to form soda, and setting the hydrogen 

Meyen and Sprengel ascertained that salt is decomposed in the leaves of 
plants, the chlorine being given off, and the sodium, combining instantly 
with oxygen to form soda, remaining in the plant. Perhaps the bleaching 
of cloth spread upon grass is in part due to the action of chlorine thus 
eliminated. Tliis decomposition takes place only in the night. 

Soda, resulting from the decomposition of salt, affects the growth of 
vegetation, not only by contributing its substance to build up the structure 
of the plant, but also in two or three less direct Avays. One of these is by 
aiding in dissolving the mineral constituents of the soil. One of the prin- 
cipal ingredients in the ash of plants is silica; this mineral is abundant in 
nearly all soils, but it is not soluble in pure water. By the addition to 
water of potash or soda, its power of dissolving silica is materially increased. 

Soda also exerts a pow^erful influence in dissolving the organic constitu- 
ents of soils; it is therefore a valuable ingredient in cornpost heaps. In 
this application it may be obtained from salt, by adding quick-lime to the 
heap, in about equal proportions with the salt. 

It has been suggested that there is a third action of soda in vegetable 
growth — that curious and mysterious property which some bodies have of 
effecting a combination between other bodies without undergoing any 
change themselves. They perform the part of managing mammas, in 
making matches between others. It is supposed that salt in soda may 
perform this catalytic office within the tissues of the growing plant, but 
there is no positive proof of such action. 

The influences of salt being thus various, and in part nnknowm, it is of 
course impossible for chemical science to determine whether in any given 
case its use would be profitable or otherwise. This can only be ascertained 
by experiments, carefully and intelligently conducted. But there are a few 
facts known which may be useful in giving direction to experiments. 

Both soda and potash are found in the ashes of nearly all vegetables, but, 
as a general rule, soda predominates in the ashes of marine and sea shore 
plants, while potash occurs in larger quantity in the ashes of land plants. 

As districts in the immediate vicinity of the sea shore are watered by 
salt spray, the use of salt in these localities would be less likely to be 
beneficial than inland situations. 

From the different proportions of soda contained in the ashes of various 
plants, it is probable that some kinds of crops would be more benefited by 
salt than others. Among those most likely to be benefited are turnips, 
potatoes, clover and grasses. 

Positive conclusions, however, are to be reached only b}^ experiment, and 
there is perhaps no better subject for a liberal money prize from some of 
our agricultural societies than the best series of experiments to test the 
value of salt as a fertilizer. 

At the conclusion of his remarks, Mr. Bartlett decomposed a sample of 
salt by sulphuric acid: one product of the union being hydrochloric acid. 

Prof. Mapes. — The use of salt has materially increased among American 
agriculturists within the last few years. It may be used, however, to a 


much greater extent with increased profit. Fifteen years ago dirty salt 
could be had in the New York market at four cents per bushel. Tlie re- 
packinf'- of pork, dried and salted bams from tiie South, salted hides, etc., 
the sweepings of ships after being unloaded of salt, were tlie sources of 
suppl3^ At present, however, dirty salt is frequently worth within three 
cents per bushel of the price of clean salt, 

English farmers have better understood the use of salt in agriculture, 
and during the early part of the reign of George the Third, the large 
amount applied to the soil, with the heavy duties charged on its importa- 
tion and manufacture, increased its price to half a guinea per bushel; and 
the illiberal polic}^ of the government in relation to salt nearly induced a 
revolution ; the farmers became so clamorous for relief in this particular 
that the government was compelled not onh^ to take off all duties aud re- 
strictions relative to the importation, but wagons loaded with salt passed 
toll free over every turnpike in England, while American farmers permitted 
millions of bushels to be wasted every year without finding its way to the 

Although large quantities of salt will preserve vegetable and animal 
matters from decay, yet small quantities materially assist deconiposition 
of vegetable matters in the soil or in tlie compost heap. It farther furnishes 
the means of chemical changes in the soil, so as to render soluble portions 
of inorganic matter, without which plants cannot grow any more tiian a 
barrel can be made without staves. Its i?nportance in this respect cannot 
be over-estimated. When treated with lime in the proportions and manner 
described for making the Lime and Salt Mixture, the chloride of lime and 
carbonate of soda are formed, and four bushels of this mixture will in sixty 
days decompose a cord of chips from the wood pile, leaves of trees, muck, 
peat, turf, or other organic matters. In localities where freshly burned 
shell lime can be procured, it should be preferred in the manufacture of 
this compound. 

Salt materially changes the hygrometric powers of the soil, enabling it 
to abstract from the atmosphere large amounts of moisture. When pre- 
pared in the manner we have suggested, — this mixture, or indeed even 
pure salt, — may find its way through the compost heap to the field at the 
rate of five bushels per acre annually with profit. AVhen applied in a pure 
state for the eradication of weeds, insects, etc., it should be sown on the 
surface of the ground in a dry crystalized condition, and it is best to apply 
it thus in midsummer. The dews of a few nights will carry it into the soil 
as a saturated solution. After passing the immediate surface and exercis- 
ing its cleansing influences, it meets the general moisture of the soil and 
is diluted through it. Overgrown fences, foul corners of lots, or indeed any 
piece of ground containing otFensive growths, may be cheaply cleansed by 
dry salting to so great an extent as to render the land apparently sterile, 
removing from it all signs of vegetable growth. This sterility, however, 
will only last during a single season, and the very next spring these salted 
portions are found to be thoroughly cleaned, but very fertile. 

In many parts of our country farms have been destroyed by over-liming. 
Such lands may be restored by a top-dressing of salt — it forming within the 


soil cbloride of lime and carbonate of soda, both friendly to vegetation — 
while an excess quantity of lime in the soil, not so treated, injures its 
mechanical condition, and if in excess largely, does away in a degree with 
the power of germinating the seeds. When foul lands are cleaned by dry 
salting applied in the spring, they may be rendered fertile for fall use by 
a light top-dressing of lime in early September. Dry salt, crushed finely, 
may be used as a top-dressing for grass by first mixing for each acre five 
bushels of salt with twenty bushels of soil, to secure a greater degree of 
division — and then top-dressing with the mixture. 

Much larger quantities of salt than those named have been used without 
injury' to crops; but an annual use of five bushels per acre will be found to 
be quite sufficient in practice. Potatoes may be grown more profitabl^^ by 
a mixture of salt, and particularly of the lime and salt mixture, with com- 
posts used to manure them. 

The lime and salt mixture when applied around peach trees inmiediately 
at the earth collar of the tree, prevents the ingress of the peach worm into 
its cotyledons. "When applied to old pastures it causes the decay of old 
roots and other inert organic matter, while it materially assists in the for- 
mation of new roots and of increased product. 

If the Canal Commissioners of the Erie canal could be induced to take 
off the prohibitory toll charged on refuse salt when removed fiom the salt 
works at Syracuse, Salina, etc., the}' would find that the millions of bushels 
now lying at these points useless, would be spread over the country and 
would thus so increase the amount of agricultural products as to materially 
increase our canal revenue, as compared with its present results. 

In all other countries than the United States, railroads, canals, etc., are 
compelled to carry salt when to be used for agricultural purposes, at the 
lowest rates of freight. As v/e have before remarked, no toll can be charged 
on wagons loaded with salt in England and many other continental coun- 

Mr. John G. Bergen thinks the Professor is mistaken in supposing that 
five bushels of salt per acre has any efiect in destroying insect life. He 
has used ten bushels per acre without any advantage in that respect. He 
thinks some of the insects rather improved by salting. There is no use in 
mixing salt, lime or bone-dust with earth for the purpose of sowing evenly. 
Any man who is accustomed to it can sow one bushel of wheat upon an 
acre as evenly as he could ten. He can sow five bushels of salt more 
evenl}' on an acre than any man can spread a wagon load of manure. We 
sow flat turnip seed broadcast, a pint to the acre; could we do it more 
easily b}^ mixing it with a bushel of sand ? 

Prof. Mapes. — The gentleman's organic penchant for disputation curdles 
his milk of human kindness and blinds his eyes to facts. There is no 
analogy between the sowing of grain and bone dust or salt. Wheat stays 
where you put it and germinates there, but salt and bone are dissolved and 
carried into the soil. Grain, however, as agriculturists all acknowledge, 
is wasted by broadcast sowing; hence the Luis Wecdon system of drilling 
it, and the still more painstaking mode of dibbling it in grain by grain — 
hence also the popularity of drilling machines in this country, as farmers 


find by experience that better crops are obtained from one-half to three- 
quarters less seed, by the even distribution insured by drilling. The same 
principle applies in a still greater degree, for tlie reason above stated, to 
the application of manures. It is well known that if a certain quantity of 
manure is applied to the soil in three doses instead of one, a much better 
result is obtained. Why is this ? Undoubtedly because the distribution 
is more perfect and the manure is appropriated by the growing plant as it 
is required. Before mixing the salt with a divisor, it must of course be 
crushed like the bones, to insure its even distribution. The ground bone 
sold by Peter Cooper is of about the consistency of Indian meal. It has 
been reduced from $50 to $40 per ton. Prof M. explained that it did not 
sell as readily as some less valuable ground bone because it has not a 
strong smell. He preferred calcined bone treated with sulphuric acid to 
render it soluble. In this state it is worth to the farmer four and a half 
times as much as pure ground bone. He knew that a contrary opinion 
was entertained by many who thought they had obtained splendid results 
from wh(jle bones and dead animals; some have a notion that the roots of 
plants will turn out of their way to find a buried horse, and he had heard 
of one gentleman whose roots all traveled towards Cincinnati where they 
kill so many hogs. But he believed in manures which were rendered solu- 
ble so as to be readily appropriated in plant life. 

Mr. John G. Bergen granted that where you have an insufficient quantity of 
seed a divisor may be of advantage. Where j^ou have only two bushels of 
plaster to apply to an acre it can be sown more evenly if incorporated with 
something else. If so small a quantity be applied al6ne, even the best 
sower cannot prevent its showing on the clover. So also flat turnip seed, 
a pound to an acre, if divided with sand, will sow more evenly than when 
scattered without such admixture. 

Ground versus Whole Bones. 

Questions were asked in regard to the best form to apply bones to the 
soil. Members objected to the indiscriminate purchase of bones because it 
is difficult to procure a good article. Mr. Ely had bought bones of Peter 
Cooper, and would warrant them to be pure. These bones are left after 
the manufacture of gelatine from the shin bones and glue from the pates 
of oxen. Prof. Mapes agreed to the value of these bones, and stated that 
they should be prepared for use in the following manner: Treat the bone 
with from one-quarter to one-third its weight of concentrated sulphuric 
acid. It will then be fit to apply to the soil, and five bushels will give 
larger results during the first, second and third years than 250 to 400 
bushels of inch bones. The interest on the cost of the inch bones would 
supply the dissolved bones ready for immediate profitable use each year 
they are required. It was important, however, in order to secure perfect 
division of the bone, to compost it with soil or muck; it being impossible 
otherwise to sow it evenly over the soil. Put it on when you are done 
plowing, so that it shall be near the surface. Thus when the roots are in 
the surface soil you have the bone there; but as the roots go down, the 
bone is also dissolved and carried down where it is wanted. 


Mr. Berg-en objected to Prof. Mapes' views in regard to mixing bone or 
salt with earth in applj'ing it to the soil. It involves useless trouble and 
does not secure as even a distribution as sowing the pure article by hand. 
Neither did he believe that five, ten, or twenty- bushels of salt to the acre 
will destroy insect life. Although not an entomologist like his distin- 
guished friend from New Jersey (Dr. Trimble), yet he thought it quite pos- 
sible that some species of insects might be improved b}' salt. 

Fertilizing an Orchard. 

Mr. W. Bellew, Lebanon, Warren count}^, Ohio, asks how he shall fer- 
tilize an orchard, apple and peaches, where trees are too thick to cultivate 
the soil with any other crop. "Shall I sow clover?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Yes, and neither mow nor pasture it. When full 
grown, turn in hogs or sheep to wallow and trample it dow^n so it will de- 
cay to a coating of manure. 

Cultivating Currants. 

Mr. H. G. Rhodes, Brighton, Iowa, objects strongly to the fashion recom- 
mended by some persons of letting currant bushes grow without any atten- 
tion. He thinks this fruit just as much improved by cultivation as any 
other. He says: "I have succeeded in raising the common red currant 
almost as large, both in bunch and berry, as the cherry currant ones; I 
think better in flavor. My plan is to keep the ground rich, the bushes 
open so that light and air can penetrate, and renew them every two years. 
Let the young plant grow two years before pruning much, and after that 
cut out all old wood that is over two years growth. In that wa}' the 
fruit is always large and the bushes healthy. The ground around them 
should be well mulched with straw or coarse manure to keep down weeds 
and keep in the moisture." 

Rabbits Gnawing Fruit Trees. 

Mr. H. G. Rhodes also gives a novel preventive to prevent rabbits gnaw- 
ing fruit trees: Kill one rabbit to every 100 trees, and rub the trees as 
high as a rabbit can reach, with the blood, entrails and carcass. In the 
event of heavy rains, repeat the operation several times during winter. 
One man can thus rub 500 trees in a day. The writer naively adds that 
perhaps any other slaughtered animal will answer the purpose. 

Insects — The Chinch Bug. 

Mr. 0. M. Colver, Tipton, Cedar county, Iowa, gives the following inter- 
esting" description of the chinch bugs which are so destructive at the West: 
•' The perfect insects that propagate the species have wings and can fly, 
but are seldom seen flying except in the latter part of August. Some of 
them live through the winter in corn husks or leaves, or in straw or prairie 
hay. Last fall I saw, while gathering corn after several hard freezes, 
often near a handful of live bugs between the husks and the corn. A rainy, 
freezino' and thawing winter kills the bugs more than a steady cold one 
with deep snow. I have seen them on the first warm days of spring as 


lively as crickets. They can often be found in considerable numbers when 
the wheat is a few inches high in the spring, but they seldom do much 
damage till after the wheat is headed out. While feeding on the rich 
juices of the wheat from the time it blossoms till it matures, they increase 
with amazing rapidity. Often whole fields of wheat, which only show a 
few small spots injured, are entirely killed within two we(3ks. Chinch bugs 
breed on the ground (and wlien it is dry many of them are in the dust) in 
colonics, sometimes covering one or two square feet to the depth of half 
an inch or an inch with bugs in all stages of development, from the tiny 
red insect to the black bug and up to the perfect winged insect. They 
commence killing the wheat nearest their colony first, but they soon widen 
to feet, rods and acres. The small white spots of dead wheat in the green 
field show their whereabouts. They take their meals in clear hot days 
before it gets hot in the morning and late in the afternoon. They are 
mostly at home in the colony in the hottest part of the da}^, or gathered 
under sheaves of wheat from the heat. Do not cut wheat before it is ripe, 
on account of the bugs, for they only prevent it from maturing, and cutting- 
it will do the same. They are most voracious in their growing state. I 
do not think they breed in oats or corn. So far as I have observed, they 
always attack oats after the wheat is ripe or killed by them, from the side 
next to the wheat. When they go from one field to another, they do not 
commence in spots, but sweep all as they go. I have never se(*n them 
travel forty rods, from one field to another, and do any damage. The you!ig 
bugs, when the wheat is dead, will feed on almost any green thing rather 
than starve. I have seen them kill slough hay. They will propagate in a 
cornfield, in foxtail grass, and where foxtail grass was plenty they might 
breed in sufficient numbers to destroy the corn. I noticed in an adjoining 
field last summer, that of Mr. R. R. McKee, the bugs commenced in num- 
bers of places very early. Another neighbor said to me, ' the bugs will 
soon harvest that wheat.' To my surprise the white spots did not increase 
in size, and the wheat ripened wxdl and made a good crop, Mr. McKee 
told me that he went every day where he could see white spots and stamped 
the little Turks efrectuall}^ By so doing he saved his wheat, except an 
isolated corner that he left for the bugs to experiment upon. That they 
entirely spoiled. I heard of another man that saved his wheat by pouring 
boiling water on them. Mr. McKee says he can save 200 acres himself. I 
would suggest burning the bugs with straw." 

Mr. Colver further sa^^s: "I am very much interested in the discussions 
of the Farmers' Club. Were it not that my time is already too much taken 
up with cultivating a farm of 250 acres, with no help in these war times 
but two boys, one 13 and the other 16 years old, I should be pleased to 
occasionally take part in its discussions." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — And we saj'' that a farmer who can write such let- 
ters as these ought not to be confined to the daily toil of his farm, because 
his information and clear manner of expressing it are both interesting and 
useful to his brother farmers. He has given the most lucid description of 
the chinch bug ever communicated to this Club. 

92 transactions of the american institute. 

Benefit of Bones for Grape Yines. 

Mr. Colver asks the following question: "Is it beneficial to trench 
gronnd for Delaware and other grapes three feet deep, and fill the bottom 
of the trench with bones? A friend of mine dug down by one of his Dela- 
wares tliree feet to an old beef head, and found the fibrous roots extending 
all through and around the head, and the root double the size at the head 
that it was above." 

Mr. Solon Kobinson. — This question is answered in the affirmative. It 
would be decidedly beneficial in planting any grape vines to trench the 
ground and put bones in any quantity in the bottom and thi'ough the soil. 
The same result spoken of has been frequently observed. Bones appear 
to be the natural food for vines. 

Mr. Colver says: "I have two Delaware layers that grow much better 
than those two years older from single eyes," This is often the result; 
yet sometimes the single eyes produce the best vines. 

Time to Cut Timber. 

Mr. L. E. Reynolds, Mendon, 111,, says the best time to cut timber, re- 
quired to be tough and elastic, is from January to June; for durability, 
from July to October, as at that time the wood is more dense than at any 
other season. 

Domesticating Birds. 

Sophronia A. Bonnell says she puts meat in a basket and hangs it near 
a window to which the chickadee birds resort, and also ties pieces of fat 
meat in the shrubbery, to induce them to resort to it, and often feeds them 
with crumbs until they become so tame as to eat from her hand. 


Maij 16, 1865. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ely in the chair ; Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretary. 

Bisbee's Blood-Red Sweet Corn. 

Mr. A, G. Bisbee, Chester Cross Roads, Granger Co., Ohio : " I send for 
distribution by the Club a package of my sweet corn, which I consider of 
a very superior quality, and am anxious to have the members test it. The 
color is its only fault, and that people are willing to waive on account of 
its superior quality. It does not appear very red when just in a fit state 
to cook, wliich is not when it appears large enough, but when fully ripe ; 
not dr}^ but ripe enough to dry for seed. In drying it acquires its red color. 
When the grains are full size, it is so tender when cooked that a man with- 
out teeth can eat it easily. In selecting ears for seed, take onl}'" those that 
are large at the point, with eight rows, and large kernels, and hang them 
up separately, in a dry place, else they will mold and spoil, as the corn is 
so rich it is very difficult to cure. Id does not hybridise like other corn, but 
the form is changed, and more rows on a cob, which is not as well. The 
smaller the cob the better it cures for seed, I have a bushel of dwarf 


broom corn seed which I will distribute to those who desire to send a 
stamped and directed envelope to be filled." 

Mr. Bisbee also sent a bundle of scions of the " Lumis apple," (sweet), 
which were distributed. He siu^s it is one of the best he ever saw. 

The Cock-Chafer. 

Mr. Joseph P. Huinbcl, Martinsville, N. J., sent in " a beetle caught upon 
one of my apple trees, among which they fly in great abundance. Does it 
do any harm ?" 

Dr. Trimble. — This is the cock-chafer, and is what originated the phrase 
" blind as a beetle." It often flies against the side of the house in the warm 
evenings of May and falls to the ground unable to rise. It is called May- 
bug and Dor-beetle. It sometimes injures tender vegetation, and it is the 
parent of that grub which eats potatoes and gives them a rough appear- 
ance on the surface. The grubs also feed upon the bulbous roots of timothy, 
causing patches of it to die, which the cr(nvs discover and congregate there, 
and are then charged by igtiorant farmers with being the cause of the death 
of the grass. So they shuot their real friends and leave their enemies to 
continue their depredations. The blight upon the pear leaves sent in the 
same letter is caused by an entirely differeut insect. 

To Prevent Hens and Dogs Eating Eggs. 

Mr. Isaac T. Whitbeck, Chicago, writes upon this subject : " A lady wants 
to know if there is any preventive for hens eating eggs in the nest. You 
say, ' the best remedy is, probably, feeding them liberally with meat.' You 
are right. I have experimented considerably in poultry-keeping, and I have 
never known hens to eat their eggs if the}' were furnished w-ith a plentiful 
supply of fresh meat and lime. When fowls have not suSicient lime, or 
material to make the shell of tlie egg, no matter how much meat 3'ou feed 
them, they will eat their eggs for their shells, not for the contents." 

Mrs. Cornelia L. Foster, Johnson, Vermont, writes as follows about hens 
that eat eggs : " After a hen has learned to eat eggs in the nest, I think 
there is no way to prevent it but to eat the hen. But she is more ' sinned 
against than sinning,' or she would never think of committing such an out- 
rage. Give a hen fresh, raw meat, cut in pieces she can sw^allow easily, 
and keep, where she can have access to it at any time, lime in the form of 
e^g shells, bone or oyster shells burned and broken into pieces about the 
size of a pea, and she wmII not eat the eggs. But it is with Biddie as with 
other bi2Jeds ; when she is once started in a downward course, it is no easy 
task to reclaim her, and her influence over her a,ssociates is very demorali- 

Another correspondent wants to know how to prevent his dog from eating 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Tliat is an easy matter ; I have cured several, some 
with gunpowder, and some with str^^'chnine ; but as our friend seems to be 
extremely anxious to preserve the life of his terrier, I think I can tell him 
liow to cure it of egg-sucking propensities. Either give him a raw egg to 
eat, or watch when he has taken one, and probably' feels a desire for another, 


then have one soft-boiled or roasted as hot as j'oii can handle it with mit- 
tens. Show it till you excite the dog's appetite, and then clap it into his 
month, and hold it so that he can not spit out the egg until it has burned 
him severely. In several cases I have known this cure prove ellectual. 

Hog Manure. 

A gentleman of Fairfield Co., Conn., inquires to what crops he can most 
profitably apply hog manure. He is answered by the Messrs. Bergen, Prof. 
Mapes, Solon Robinson and several others : To all the cucurbita family. 
Mr. Bergen is a large producer of squashes for this market and prefers hog 
manure to any other. It is deleterious to cabbages, and some persons say, 
bad for pear trees. 

Cheddar Cheese. 

A correspondent wants to know how the Cheddar Cheese, exhibited at 
one of the meetings of the Club, is made. 

Mr. Solon Bobinsoii. — It was from the dairy of Mr. T. W. Collins, Morris, 
Otsego county, N. Y., and the following is his statement of the process of 
manufacture : " Warm all the milk at all seasons to about 90° before intro- 
ducing the rennet. A curd is thus produced of the proper consistency to 
make one cheese at that heat. Use calves' rennet, soaked in cold water, 
with plenty of salt to preserve it. When the curd becomes solid, and the 
whe}'- commences to separate, cut the curd each way with a long knife, 
leaving it in blocks of an inch square ; then leave it half an hour for the 
whev to separate and the curd to toughen ; then break the curd carefully 
with the hand, so as to help the separation of the curd from the whey, gently 
moving it for twenty minutes, and gradually increasing the heat to 96^^. 
The process of drawing off the whey now begins. The milk is heated by 
steam, and the same degree of heat through the season. Keep the curd 
gently moving, in order to retain all of the cream or richness in the curd. 
In from one to two hours the curd will be sufliciently diy to receive the 
salt, which is an ounce to every five pounds of curd. It is mixed in the 
vat, and when sufficientl}^ cool, lift it into large hoops and put it under press 
for half an hour ; it is then removed and ground (in a mill for that purpose) 
into particles as fine as Indian corn ; it is then put into small hoops and 
pressed for two days, turning them once in the time. When taken from the 
hoops they are inserted into scalding brine to form a rind, which is imper- 
vious to flies. If the curd is sufficiently cool, it obviates the difficulty of 
the sticking to the stringer. The weight to be applied is 1,000 pounds to 
every twenty pounds of curd. Annate is used for coloring inside and out, 
and is mixed with butter for the outside. This cheese is sold in market at 
wholesale for forty cents per pound ; size of the daiiy, thirty cows, and 
will produce about two hundred and fifty pounds each." 

Grafting Grape Yines. 

Mr, James Vincent, Tabor, Fremont Co., Iowa, gives the following expe- 
rience in grafting the Catawba into a wild vine : " I cut the stock off square 
about two inches below the surface, and put in the grafts with two eyes 


one at the junction of the graft with the stock, the other just above the 
ground. When they got fairly started, such a growth they made as, to 
state the actual truth, would appear to you incredible. The next year I 
had fruit from them in abundance. I should say that I cut back all that 
growth to three feet of wood on each vine. Tiie berries are quite large ; 
the bunches also, one of thorn having last j^ear one hundred and thirty large 
ripe berries on it. It has been and is a question with me whether the Ca- 
tawba or any other variet}^ being grafted on to the wild stock, partakes of 
any of the qualities of the wild vine. I am rather of the opinion that it 
does, for certainly my Catawbas are far richer than an}' I have ever tasted, 
and there is a richness about our wild grape peculiarly its own." 

Information for Emigrants to Iowa. 

Mr. James Vincent, Tabor, Fremont Co., Iowa, says : •' If anyonew^ant- 
ing information of that country will write a clear statement of what they 
want, inclose a stamped envelope with their ow^n name and address written 
on it, and in the envelope a half sheet of paper on which to write, I will 
endeavor to find time to answer their inquiries, which I shall do with 
minuteness and faithfulness. Our season is backward ; thongh the sun 
shines, the wind blows cold ; the ground is cold, and seeds will not start, 
though the grounu is crowded with bugs read}^ to make their onslaught the 
moment the green leaves appear above ground. Allow n\e to express to 
you my sincere thanks for the highly interesting weekly reports of the 
Farmers' Club." 

Onion Maggots. 

We have two remedies for this pest of all onion growers in New Eng- 
land. Mr. 0. Hutchinson, Chester, Windsor count}', Vt., says : " Copperas 
(sulphate of iron) is death to the onion maggot. Soak the seed in a strong 
solution, and after the plants have been up a fortnight, sprinkle them with 
the solution, say one pound of copperas to a square rod, and once or twice 
more at intervals of two or three weeks, and as often afterward as the 
ravages of the maggot are seen.*' 

Mr. Daniel Woodward, South Ro3'alton, Yt., saj's : " The maggot is pro- 
duced by a fly about the size of the common house-fly and very much the 
same shape, except the wings, instead of being in the shape of a triangle, 
like the house-fly, lay straight and close to the body, v%'hich is of snufl:' 
brown color. This fly (there is never more than from one to three to be 
seen about a bed of onions at a time) is slow and stealthy in its movements 
lights upon the top of the plant, crawls down to the bottom, turns its head 
up, places its two hind feet upon the dirt, and into some little crevice, or 
between the particles of soil in close contact with the plant ; it thrusts 
down a tail or protuberance from its posterior parts, and deposits what 
• appears like fly-blows on fresh meat ; these fly-blows, if the soil and weather 
are favorable, hatch into maggots in a ver}'- few hours, and eat their way 
into the heart of the plant, and the ruin is complete. I have caught the fly, 
and on pressing, it will emit the same nits or fly-blows as I find deposited 
close to ;he onion bulb in the soil, I have watched this process with a 


microscope and seen it in all its stag-es, and it is a settled demonstrable 
fact. Now for the remedy. Knowing that all flies dislike lime, I applied 
it in powder, scattering- it with my fingers in close contact with the plants. 
But little lime or labor is required, only be careful to have the lime in 
close contact with the onions. Broadcast sowing- won't do, I have known 
dry sand used instead of lime, and though it may answer, is not so sure 
as lime, which aids the growth of the crop. After a rain, renew the lime. 
An^'thing that will counteract the work of the fl}^ is the best remedy. 
Scalding the seed, sowing ashes, scalding or soaking seed in tobacco juice, 
will never do any good." 

Flower Seeds. 

Mr. J. W. Chambers, Secretary, reports the receipt of flower seeds from 
the following persons : Mrs. Dr. Pitts, Waterford, Erie Co., Penn. ; Mrs. J. 
K,. Mason, Northfield, Mass. ; Mrs. L. S. Griswold, Spencertown, Columbia 
Co., N. Y. ; Mr. Bruce S. Hoag, Middleport, N. Y. ; Rev. Samuel Griswold, 
Saybrook, Conn., (3d cuitribution;) Mrs. Lucy P. Bice, Woodhull, Steuben 
Co., N. Y. ; Mrs. C. Mott, North Potsdam, St. Lawrence Co., N. Y. 

Mr. William R. Prince has sent in the following, which closes his contri- 
bution for the present 3^ear : Bignonia grandiflora aurantia ; Amorphafru- 
ticosa — Indigo Shrub ; California Lupin ; Elecampane ; Large Flowering 
Hibiscus; Hibiscus syriacus — Snowy Rose of Sharon ; Lobelia Siphilitica 
— Blue Flowered Lobelia; Double Hollyhock, various colors. 

Planting an Orchard. 

A prairie farmer of Madison county, Iowa, says : " I have this spring 
planted an orchard of apples twenty-two feet each way. Would it be advi- 
sable to plant dwarfs on Doucain stocks between the standards to supply 
me with fruit until the others come into bearing ? If so, do all varieties 
do well as dwarfs? if not, where can I procure a catalogue of those varie- 
ties that do succeed ? My pears are planted twenty feet apart ; shall I 
plant dwarfs between them for the same purpose ? Are the Buffalo Berry 
and Tree Cranberry worth cultivating for the fruit ? Which are the three 
most rapid growing evergreens which make large trees ?" 

Dr. Isaac M. Ward replied to tliis inquiry that he would not undertake 
to grow dwarf apples in the spaces between large trees. In the pear or- 
chard the gentleman may plant dwarf pears, and derive some advantage 
while the standards are growing. He has found the Duchesse d'Angoulerae 
and Louise Bonne de Jersey always doing well dwarfed upon quince stocks^ 
and they aie both excellent varieties. Vicar of Winkfield grows well 
dwarfed, but with me the fruit is not valuable. But these three are about 
the ordy sorts I can recommend for dv/arflng. The most rapid growing- 
evergreens are the Wej'mouth pine and Norway spruce. The Arb,-)r Vitte 
is much used, but of slower growth. 

Mr. Solon Robinson, recommends planting peach trees in the apple 
orchard, as they are likely to die off before they would interfere with the 


other trees. The Buffalo berry is not worth cultivating, except for orna- 
ment, and then it is very liable to the attacks of borers. 

Filtering Pipes in Cisterns. 

Mr. D. G. Williams, writes from East Dorset, Vt., that in consequence 
of recommendations of the Club, he put cement filtering- pipes in his cis- 
tern. "We have pumped more than 100 barrels of water from it, and still 
the water is hard, I suppose affected by the cement, of which the pipe in 
part is composed. I have been much inclined to take it out, but before 
doino: so I would be u'lad to learn from the experience of others whether I 
may not expect the water will sometime or other be as soft as if the filterer 
had not been put in, and if so, how soon may I expect it?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson answers: I have had such filtering pipes in my cis- 
tern more than five years. I am not aware that they ever affected the soft- 
ness of the water, first or last and do not understand why they should in 
any case. The walls of my cistern are made by plastering the earth with 
cement, using three barrels of the same kind of which the pipes are formed. 
There must be some other cause with Mr. Williams than the cement pipes 
for makiuo' the water hard. 

Cows that hold up their Milk. 

Mr. AVm. Lawrence, Mendham, N. J., wants a remedy for cows holding 
up their milk. He writes: "I have a cow that I prize very much, one that is 
faultless except in one thing. Soon after the calf is taken from her she 
begins to hold a portion of her milk, and persists in so doing until at the 
end of two months she becomes nearly dr3\ She has done this two years in 
succession. If any member knows of a remedy he will confer a favor by 
communicating it." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — One remedy for this trouble is for the milker to 
imitate with his hands the butting of the calf. It is also advisable to feed 
the cow while being milked. This will sometimes cause her to forget the 
calf for the time being, and the habit of giving down the milk being once 
established she will not fail afterward. 

Canning Sweet Corn. 

Mr. H. J. Shirk writes from Peru, Indiana : "Can some member of your 
Club inform me how to keep green corn in hermetically sealed cans? I 
have no difficult}^ in keeping fruits of all kinds in this way, but have always 
failed in corn. Within a few days after canning the cans swell and burst. 
My neighbors have no better success than myself, yet I now have green 
corn put up in cans in New Jersey as sweet and fresh as when first canned." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Sweet corn and peas are both difficult substances to 
preserve in cans, because the fixed air which they contain cannot be easily 
expelled, and if sealed in the cans in this condition, fermentation and de- 
composition ensue. The impulse of disorganization being given, decompo- 
sition goes on notwithstanding the exclusion of external air. The ten- 
dency of all substances to ferment is prevented by heating to the boiling 
[Am. Inst.] G 


point. In putting up corn, care must be taken that every grain in the 
mass is so heated, else it will communicate its own disease to its fellows. 
Peaches and other fruits are sufficiently cooked by remaining fifteen minutes 
at the boiling point. Liebig says, of some substances, it requires three or 
four hours, after this degree of heat has penetrated to the center of the 
contents of the can, to give them a stability which he calls eternal, that is, 
when the can is opened after a lapse of years, the contents appear as if 
they were only recently inclosed. Color, taste and smell, are unaltered. 
So that all that is necessary to preserve corn is to thoroughly cook it before 

Cut Worms. 

Mr. Charles B. Horner writes from Mount Holly, N. J., information for 
the Farmers' Club about cut worms. He says : "Last year they were so 
numerous with us that they cut off nearly all of our sweet potato plants as 
fast as we set them out, until we took a crowbar and made three holes in 
the earth around each plant, thereby cutting the gjubs cff from the plant, 
for when they tried to get at it they would fall into the holes and could not 
get out again, where they would perish in a few days. They also cut one 
field of our corn nearly clean. One day we tried to take them out of the 
corn hills, and got nearly a peck; but on examining the hills the next morn- 
ing, I found them nearly or ijuite as numerous as before taking them out, 
and I believe rather more so, for in scratching them out we loosened the 
earth in the hills, and they had a better chance to burrow after eating the 
corn. This year I found the grabs were cutting the corn nearly as badly 
as last year, so I took some sticks about four feet long and one and a half 
inches in diameter, and pointed one end of them, making them smooth, 
with which we went over our corn, making holes around the hills, which I 
think will save it ; for on examining what we have so treated, I find that 
they have not since disturbed it, but have tried to do so and have fallen in 
the holes, as many as seven to a hill. The best time to make the holes is 
directly after a rain." 

Mr. Thomas Cavanach, Brookljm. — I have frequently preserved the stems 
of tender plants, subject to the attack of cut worms, by wrapping them in 
a piece of old newspaper. Of course this preventive could not be applied 
upon a large scale, but it is very effectual, and worth knowing b}' those 
who transplant tender garden vegetables. 

Dr. Trimble.- — It is a remarkable fact that cut worms seldom touch re- 
planted corn. It is therefore recommended to sow corn broadcast upon the 
fields a few days before planting the crop. These worms are very trouble- 
some in cutting off melons and cabbages. Dr. Fitch, entomologist of the 
New York State Agricultural Society, has published a very full and inte- 
resting report upon this pest of the farmer, which should be in the hands 
of every one. 

Mr. Adrian Bergen, Long Island. — I have found plowing in the fall, just 
before the earth freezes, one of the best things ever tried, to prevent the 
ravages of cut-worms. 

proceedings of the farmers' club. 99 

Cure for Worms ix Cattle. 

Mr. J. R. Pierce, Arbor Hill, Iowa, says : "Please tell Mr. Xewton that 
corn given to cattle whose backs are full of grubs, is certain death to the 
grubs. Give the corn sparingly at first, say one ear morning and evening, 
and increase the dose to fiftee"n ears three times a da}*, for it is too strong 
food to be fed in large quantities to cattle that are so near starved to death 
as to have their backs filled with grubs. To prevent grubs ever getting 
into your cattle's backs, keep them well fed in a warm stable. You can 
make a very good one on the prairie with marsh hay and rails. I have a 
stable 47 feet long-, which I have used six years, which cost as follows : 
Lumber, 64; nails, 60 lbs.; mowing two days, each 50 cents, $5.60; labor, 
putting on hay, $1.50. In such a stable, with plenty of hay and corn, my 
cattle keep fat and free from grubs all winter." 

Coal Tar and Seed Corn. 

Mr. (jr. F. Saxton, Williston, Vt., says: "Mr. Solon Robinson is mistaken 
in supposing coal tar will injure seed corn. I have used it for five years 
Tipon seed for several acres annually, with perfect success, as follows : 
Soak the seed ten or twelve hours, drain off the water, apply the tar imme- 
diately'" in proportions of half a pint of tar to one bushel of corn, and stir 
until coated equally. If the corn is cold, it is better to put hot water with 
the tar to thin it, as much water as tar, as it will be easier mixing. If this 
mode is followed, I will warrant the seed to grow as well as without tar." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — We are glad to be. set right by a practical man in 
relation to the use of coal tar. We will also state in this connection that 
it is recommended as a good preventive of the ravages of worms and bugs. 
Soaking seed corn is more necessary in wet than dry seasons. 

Dr. Isaac 31. Ward. — It is a fact worthy of notice that the greatest part 
of the corn planted in the first three weeks of this season, which has been 
a very wet one, has failed to vegetate. It is because the seed rotted in 
the cold, wet earth; proving that there is more need of soaking it when the 
ground is in that condition, than when the earth is dry and warm. Soak- 
ing the seed develops the germ, so that its growth continues unchecked. 
When the earth is in good condition the germ starts readily and grows. 

Mr. Adrian Bergen said he always soaked and tarred his corn, and 
believes the tar some protection against crows as well as insects. 

Mr. John G. Bergen said the trouble about using coal tar is, that those 
who have complained of its injuring the seed, have used too much. The 
qiiantit}^ recommended by Mr. Saxton is quite suSBcientfor the purpose for 
which it is applied, 3'et not enough to injure the germ. To obviate the 
trouble of seed sticking to the hands, mix it with dry ashes, plaster, or 

Dr. Trimble recommends always soaking sweet corn that is planted 
after July 1. 

How TO Clean Calf's Head. 

An old friend says : " I want to know how to clean calf s head, which 
makes such an excellent dish when well cooked. Your tripe receipt was 


Mr, Solon Robinson. — I answer this letter for the benefit of our corres- 
pondent and others who may be fond of the same kind of food. The pro- 
cess is exactly that of cleaning a pig. The head must be scalded in water 
at 164° temperature. If much below that, the hair will not start, and if 
much above, and particularly if quite up to the boiling point, it has a ten- 
dency to set the hair fast. When the scald is just right, the hair is easily 
scraped off with a knife that is about as sharp as those commonly used 
upon the table. When clean, take out the eyes, wash the head and hang 
it up, neck down, to drain. Sometimes they are cooked whole, without 
removing the brains, but most people prefer to cut open the head, take out 
the brains and wash away the blood. If the head is cut in two at first, 
remove the brains before scalding. The hair and hoof of the feet is re- 
moved by scalding, and both feet and head are cooked in various ways, 
frequently in a very rich soup or stew. The ears are usually removed and 
boiled separately, because they require more cooking than other parts. 
The tongue is also removed and cooked separately, and served upon a dish 
with the brains. The most simple manner of cooking call's head is boiling, 
and it is sent to the table whole, trimmed with parsley, and served with 
butter sauce, and various kinds of seasoning according to the taste. It is 
also»baked, roasted and stewed. 


3Iay 23, 1865. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ely in the chair ; Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretary. 

Leaf Curlers. 

The chairman presented several specimens of the work of the leaf-curling 
insects. Dr. Trimble said they do this simply for their own protection. Those 
which curl the currant-leaves appear to have sense or instinct be^'ond some 
others, for they leave an opening at each end of the curl ; so, when the 
wren comes and thrusts in its long bill at one opening, the worm slips out 
at the other, spinning a thread by which it liangs until its enemy is gone, 
when it comes back to its nest. If birds were more plenty, we should have 
fewer insects to torment farmers. The great question is how to increase 
our stock of birds. 

Mr. George Bartlett said that he had lately seen a proposition which he 
thought would be effectual. In some new countries it is common to offer 
a premium for the scalps of noxious animals. The proposition was to offer 
a premium for the scalps of all bird-killers. 

Prof. Mapes thought they were frequently of less consequence than the 
birds the}'' kill. He lately found one of these nuisances upon his farm, 
rigged out with gm\ and game bag, strutting about shooting robins and 
chickadees, under the impression tliat he was having a day's sport. 

Mr. Solon Robinson said he should consider it a less crime to pepper the 
back of such a fellow with a charge of fine shot, than he would to fire at any 
of our insect destroying birds. 

Dr. Trimble spoke of the Baltimore Oriole as a bird of great beauty, and 
he had often been interested in witnessing its ingenuity in obtaining its 


food from the cocoons of worms suspended from the trees. Some of them 
are almost impenetrable to its bill, except at the lower end, which the bird 
has learned, and while he sustains himself by one claw he lifts the cocoon 
with the other, holding it in a position where he can easily thrust his bill 
into the tender part. 

Yarn made without Spinning. 

Professor Mapes presented a specimen of beautiful, soft woolen yarn, 
made by a manufacturer named Johnson, near Boston, by a felting process. 
According to his description the process is something like roping, which 
is done by drawing the cotton or wool through a series of grooved rollers 
growing smaller and smaller until the required fineness is obtained. It is 
said, by bringing three of these ropings together during the process, that 
the center one, if coarse wool, can be completely enveloped with a much 
finer quality, by which the fabric is rendered stronger witlioiit sliowing 
any of the coarse wool. Mr. Johnson has also succeeded in felting hair, 
which makes a valuable fabric for many purposes, out of an almost waste 

Loose Bark on Grape Vines. 

The question was lately asked, "whether the loose bark upon grape 
vines should be removed or not?" 

Mr. Amos Dann, Avon, Livingston county, answers that question. He 
says: " I have tried that experiment satisfactorily. For a while tlie vines 
seemed improved, but afterwards the heat of the summer soon caused them 
to crack, and they died nearly down to the root. Of course I have aban- 
doned pulling off loose bark from my grape vines." 

Prof. Mapes. — I have tried a good many experiments upon this matter. 
I desired to make the vines upon my arbor look smooth and more attractive 
than the}^ do with the loose bark hanging, and I removed it entirely, taking 
care not to pull it away where it was still attached to the live wood. I 
did not find any injury resulting. I afterwards treated the vine with the 
caustic soda wash, to keep it free cf dead bark, which furnishes harbor for 
insects, and I found my vines to improve under that treatment. I have 
also treated a vineyard of 1,500 vines with similar results. 

A Wild Raspberry. 

For the information of Mr. James H. Parsons, Franklin, N. Y., who 
lately described a wild red raspberry, Mr. Dann gives his experience with 
one which he supposes to be identical. " It was obtained some years ago 
from the alluvial bottoms of the Genesee River at this place. Mine pos- 
sessed the apparent habits and character of the wild black, except the color 
of the canes and fruit, both of which were red; the fruit inclining to deep 
red, shining like coral and glistening like gems. I extended its culture 
for some three years. Found the fruit somewhat astringent, a little bitter, 
and not agreeable, and I discarded it and exterminated the plants. Shall 
be happ3^ to find Mr. Parsons to have succeeded with his, but I could not 
with mine. I suppose it a species, and not a hybrid. Think it due to his 


well-meant efforts to give him the benefit of my experiments on what 
appears to me to be the same fruit." 

DooLiTTLE Black Cap Easpberry. 

Dr. Trimble. — Last year I was traveling in the western part of this 
State. I spent some time in the garden of Mr, Hodges, at Buffalo, who 
was gathering large quantities of this fruit for the markets in that city, and 
had found them very profitable. I think this a very good berry. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter. — The Black Cap raspberry is far inferior to a 
number of other varieties. I should not recommend them for cultivation 
for market. The season for gathering them is not over ten days, while 
many of the other varieties last six weeks. Still, I recommend it highly 
for family use. The Hudson River Antwerp is the most profitable in this 
vicinity, and Brinckle's Orange is the best for family use. 

Kyanizing Timber. 

Mr. Robinson Barnes, Eldredville, Sullivan county. Pa., wants to know 
" if it will pay to kyanize fence posts in a solution of blue vitriol? Should 
the solution be hot or cold? How long will it require to kyanize a post six 
inches in diameter?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — It will pay, not to use blue vitriol, but many other 
substances, the cheapest of which is probably coal tar. The liquor, what- 
ever is used, does not require heating, though tar w^uld be more active 
hot than cold. The time required may be from one day to thirty. It is 
necessary that the timber should be perfectly saturated with the solution. 
It would be good economy for a farmer to keep a kyanizing vat always in 
operation. For fence posts, it would only be necessary to immerse one 
end. It would be economy for all railroads to kyanize every sleeper and 
bridge timber used. 

Prof. Mapes. — It is green vitriol (copperas) and not blue vitriol that is 
used for kyanizing, though the best substance, as proved by numerous ex- 
periments in England, is corrosive sublimate. But, at present, I fear this 
is too expensive for any farmer; he will have to confine himself to green 
vitriol, white vitriol, creosote, or coal tar. The best and cheapest method 
I have ever found for preserving fence posts is to char the surface and set 
them in a reverse position from the natural growth. My plan is to dip the 
ends in coal tar, and then lay them in a pile, covered with shavings or 
some light substance, which will cause the tar to burn, and very slightly 
char the surface of the wood. Where it is desired to char a large number 
of small sized posts, it would be economical to procure some suitable iron 
vessel to hold melted solder, into which the posts could he dipped, and 
would be instantly charred without diminishing or wasting the metal. The 
durability of posts would be undoubtedly increased by simply dipping into 
a pot of boiling-hot coal tar. I have found the best paint for a piazza is 
made of verdigris and coal tar. I have no doubt it would answer for roofs 
or any other timber much exposed to the weather. 

proceedings of the farmers' club. 103 

Value of Sugar-House Scum. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter. — I want to inquire if any of our outside members 
have had any practical experience with sugar-house scum as a manure. It 
is daily wasted by the ton in this city, and it strikes me it must have some 
manurial value, sufficient to pay transportation to the country. 

Mr. Solon Robinson said that he knew of some experiments made with it 
in Louisiana which did not show that it has any value. It appears to be- 
come very acid, and rather a destroyer than promoter of vegetation. It is 
possible that its character might be modified by mixing with lime. 

Cement Cisterns for Liquid Manure. 

Mr. John G. Morse, Winchester, N. H., sa^^s: " I have a cistern, as good 
now as when new^ which has been in use for holding rain water for twenty 
years. It was made by digging a hole the shape and size wanted, and 
plastering the bottom and sides with cement. Now, what I want to know 
is, will such a cistern answer for storing urine, which is a most valuable 
manure, and particularly so in our barren New Hampshire soil, where no 
crop can be grown without fertilizing. I consider a barrel of urine worth 
as much as a load of ordinary farm-yard manure, and a family of eight 
persons may save from ten to twenty barrels a year. I have used barrels, 
but the hoops decay rapidly, and in winter barrels freeze and burst. If it 
can be stored in a cistern, I think it would pay to build one for that pur- 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Undoubtedly; but it is not necessary to preserve 
urine in the liquid form. You may get all its value by absorbing it at 
once in dried muck, peaty earth, charcoal dust, or even dried sods or loam. 
This may be in a heap on the surface, or in some convenient excavation. 
If you prefer, however, to keep it in a liquid form, there is nothing to pre- 
vent your doing so in a cement cistern. The Secretary observed that he 
knows of one that has been thirty years in use. 

Sugar Corn Preserved by Drying. 

Mr. S. J). Redman, Newfane, Niagara count}--, N. Y., wants to know how 
to preserve sugar corn by drying, as practiced by the Shakers. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — The answer to this question is: Gather the corn 
when in mature condition for table use. Put the ears into boiling water 
long enough to harden the starch, but do not cook it quite enough for eat- 
ing. Then cut it from the cob, spread it thinly, and dry rapidly in the sun 
or a mild oven, or, better still, in a drying-house made for the purpose. It 
is important that the corn should be dried rapidly, as it sours very readily 
when warm and damp, and is thus ruined for use. There is a patented 
process for drying sweet corn without previous cooking. It is done by 
boring out the pith of the cob. The ears are then placed in a drying-room, 
where the air is at such a high temperature that it extracts all the mois- 
ture before any deleterious effect is produced upon the grain. 

104 transactions of the american institute. 

Planting Peach Trees in Grass. 

Mr. J. A. Donaldson, St. Joseph, Michigan, criticises the recommendation 
to grow peach trees in sod land to increase their longevity. He does not 
"see the advantage of tlms growing trees. They may be more tender and 
liable to borers when highly manured and cultivated, and perhaps rather 
more likely to be winter-killed. The trees grown in grass may live more 
years, byt to what purpose? We should estimate the value of a tree as we 
do an individual, not by the length of its life, but by the amount of good 
fruit it yields. Admitting that culture shortens their life, the superior 
size and quality of the fruit, bringing double the price in market, saying 
nothing of the satisfaction of viewing a thrifty orchard, would more than 
compensate a person for the greater expense of more frequent planting." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — We quite agree wnth Mr. Donaldson in this opinion. 
It may be convenient for a lazy man to have one planting of peach trees 
last his lifetime, but his industrious neighbor would nr^t find it profitable. 
New Jersey peach growers are contented to plant orchards for one crop, 
and we do not believe they will accept the recommendation to sow grass 
seed among their trees for the sake of preserving their lives. 

Proper Time for Pruning. 

Mr. E.AV. Allen, Broken Straw, Chautauqua county, N. Y., thinks apple 
trees should never be pruned when the bark starts easily, because it is apt 
to be loosened upon the remaining part of the limb, which often causes it 
to decay. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter said he had never found any ill effects from pru- 
ning when the bark peels, but prefers the latter part of June or early in 
July, at which time it does not start easily. 

Substitute for Hay. 

Mr. Allen wanis to know what is the best substitute for hay; whether it 
is sowed corn, sorghum, millet, Hungarian grass, or oats. He says: "Will 
not an acre of oats, when both grain and straw are fed together, give as 
much feed per acre as grass or either of the above articles?'' 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — No, sir; nothing that was ever planted or sown 
for green or winter fodder will give as much per acre as Indian corn. It 
is a little more difiicult to cure than oats, but not much if the oats are cut 
as green as they should be for fodder. We do not recommend any New 
York farmer to grow millet or Hungarian grass for winter feed, because 
oats are more profitable, and are grown in the same way with about the 
same amount of labor. A few experiments which have been made with 
sorghum appear to indicate it as a valuable forage crop. 

Mr. W. S Carpenter said that one of his neighbors last year kept twenty- 
four head of cattle, from about the middle of July till frost came, upon two 
and a half acres of sowed corn, without exhausting the whole product. He 
believes that fifteen cows could be well kept upon one acre of corn by com- 
mencing to cut it up as soon as it was large enough, or whenever the pas- 


ture failed, so as to keep them in a full flow of milk all the autumn. He 
has already put in one acre on purpose for summer feeding. He thinks the 
evergreen sweet corn the best variety for soiling purposes, though any sort 
that suckers largely is good. 

Mr. Geo. Bartlett said he had tried the experiment with oats, and found 
them not as valuable for a fodder crop as timothy hay, acre by acre. 

Onion Maggot — Another Preventive. 

Mr. D. T. Taylor, Rouse's Point, N. Y., sends us another preventive of 
the terrible pest to onion growers. He says: " Cups or dishes of sweetened 
water placed on the onion bed during the entire season, when the fly is 
depositing its egg which produces the maggot, will preserve the onions 
from the * blow,' and hence from destruction by the maggots. I tried this 
last 3'ear with perfect success. Others have tried it in this town for ten 
years, and the simple remedy has never once failed. In this latitude the 
sweetened water should be placed around among the beds and kept there 
from the middle of June to the middle of July, or even later. Dishes of 
any sort can be used, and molasses is the best for sweetening, while newly 
fallen rain ^ater is the best to use, because it is purer and will keep the 
longest without fouling. Set a dozen cups on a bed of onions of the size 
of a square rod; put a shingle over the cup, run into the ground in a slant- 
ing position to shield it from the rain; if rain gets into the cups, add more 
molasses. Will onion raisers try this remedy for one season, and report to 
the Club in the fall? The principle appears to be that the fly is attracted 
by the sweetened water, of which it fills itself to satiety, and departs with- 
out blowing the onion " 

Mr. Thomas Hayes, East Wilton, N. H,, corroborates the above opinion. 
He says: " I take a pint bottle and fill it half full of rum and molasses, and 
hang it two or three inches from the ground in the onion bed. The bottle 
is very soon nearly filled with flies and millers. If the bed is large, I hang 
up several bottles, and in this way am able to raise onions.'^ 

Preparing Wool for Market. 

A wool grower in Ohio wants us to urge upon farmers the necessity of 
uniformity in preparing wool for market. 

" If all men were honest, we might perhaps induce them to wash wool 
clean upon the sheep, and then it would sell at a uniform price. As it is 
now, wool buyers, who deduct one-third from, unwashed wool, offer a direct 
bribe to roguery, for some men only pretend to wash their sheep, but they 
get the full price of washed wool. If the Farmers' Club, by discussing 
this question, can induce all wool growers to abolish the practice of wash- 
ing sheep, that would produce a uniformity in the preparation of wool for 
market, and it would sell according to its value. I consider washing a 
serious injury to the flock. If driven to a public washing place, the sheep 
are liable to become affected by contagious diseases of other flocks. If the 
weather is warm, the -sheep are often injured by getting heated on the road 
and then being plunged into cold water. If they are wild, they are in- 
jured in the pen in efforts to escape from the catcher. And in no respect 


do I believe the wool benefited by washing it on the sheep. Wool growers 
need your assistance to do away with this foolish fashion." 

Another Ohio farmer says: " My practice was to wash as clean as I 
could in running- water; let the sheep run in a clean pasture five to seven 
days, shearing about the 25th of May, taking pains to do the fleeces up 
nice, tying with small white twine, cutting off all dung and washing the 
tags before placing them in the fleece. Permit me to say I felt proud when 
my wool was carried to market. Now what encouragement had I for all 
this? Why, by great effort I got from one to three cents per pound above 
the market price of wool, a majority of which, if ever half washed, had run 
in fields of black stumps as many weeks as mine had days in a clean 

Poultry Diseases. 

Mr. J. M. Griggs, Jefferson, Ashtabula county, Ohio, says that lime or 
or lye washing the hen-house is the best remedy for the sore eye disease in 
poultry. If the hen-house is dirty and damp they get the disease. 

Mr. J. R. Pierce, Auber Hill, Adair Co., Iowa. — To prevent gapes in 
chickens, keep a clean coop, with quick-lime or ashes to wallow in, and 
feed plenty of coarse meal and sour milk. 

Domestic Bread. 

Mrs. P. Kennedy, Perry, Illinois, gives her method of making bread. 
First the 3'east : " Boil a teacupful of hops five minutes in two quarts of 
water; then mix one pint of flour, one tablespoonful of ginger, two of salt, 
two of sugar, and pour the boiling hot water upon the whole, and stir until 
free of lumps. When milk warm, add half a pint of good yeast, and in 24 
hours the mixture will be fit for use. If desirable to have yeast cakes, stir 
in fine, sweet corn meal, and knead into a stiff dough. If you wish nice 
bread, that will be as good a week hence as to-day, heat enough sour milk 
or buttermilk almost to the boiling point, stirring to prevent curdling, to 
mix with one-fourth the flour you intend to use, which you will knead into 
a dough, and then gradually mix the remainder of the flour with warm 
water or sweet milk. Stir the two kinds of dough together, add the yeast, 
and make a sponge stiff enough to part readily from the hands. When it 
has risen and slightly fallen, mould into small loaves and set to rise, keep- 
ing it quite warm. If rightly made, it will not run over the pans, although 
rising twice their height. Bake very slowly. When thoroughly done, 
wrap in paper and keep in a dry place." 


May 30, 1865. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ely in the chair; Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretary. 

Death of Mr. Jaques Van Brunt. 

Mr. xAdrian Bergen announced the death of Mr. Jaques Van Brunt, of Bay 
Ridge, L. I., an old member of the Institute, who has for many years been 
a regular attendant of this Club, and always took a lively interest in its 


proceedings; and as a mark of respect for his memory, moved that the Sec- 
retary record his death in the minutes of this Club. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter. — I have known Mr. Van Brunt for some years as a 
constant member of this Chib. He was a practical farmer, and raised large 
quantities of fruit and vegetables for the New York markets. I regret 
very much that we have lost so valuable a member. 

Mr. John G. Bergen.— Mr. Van Brunt was a successful farmer and 
market gardener. His farm was kept in great order. He was a very 
modest man, but always ready and willing to communicate the results of 
his experience. The farm of Mr. Tan Brunt was in fact a model farm; one 
of his principal crops was cucumbers. It has been a common thing with 
him for many years to grow about ten acres of this vegetable, one acre of 
which lies well sheltered from the south wind, which is the greatest trouble 
to those who plant cucumbers for the early markets. He has produced, 
year after year, from 8500 to $1,000 worth of cucumbers. He was also 
celebrated for raising fine cauliflowers. 

The motion was unanimously adopted. 

Information for Emigrants to Maryland. 

The Chairman read a letter from Mr. H. Stockbridge, of Baltimore, who 
sent with it a pamphlet of 50 pages, containing valuable information for 
those who desire to emigrate to Maryland, from which the following ex- 
tracts were read : 

The State of Mar^dand has just effected one of those great though peace- 
ful revolutions which divide the world's histor}^ into epochs. On the 1st 
of November, 1864, more than eighty five thousand persons, v.'ho were born 
and had passed all their lives till that day as slaves, became free. The 
persons thus emancipated constituted a large portion of the agricultural 
labor of the State; and the Act of Emancipation, in addition to all minor 
changes, thus necessarily involved the great economical question of the 
system of labor, and all the important results dependent upon the labor of 
the State. 

Nor did this change stand alone. The same Constitution which made 
Maryland free, established also a system of free public instruction for all. 

With the adoption of these radical changes in her institutions, at once 
the cause and the eflfect of the changes themselves, is manifest a new spirit 
and purpose and tendency among the people. 

It was not of course to be expected that the work of a day could oblite- 
rate the attachments, the aversions, the habits of a century. At the same 
time, among those who most earnestly deprecated the changes that have 
occurred, and most zealously strove to prevent them, are found many who 
most cheerfully accept the change as a thing accomplished, and will give 
theit best efforts to make the future prospero<is and happy. 

The feeling is wide spread that the state of society must undergo changes 
as great as the system of labor has undergone ; and that, to a greater or 
less extent, its tone is to be modified, not to say controlled, by the great 
producing class of the population. And the people of the State look there- 


fore with most intense interest to the progress of events, and the develop- 
ments which shall determine the direction of the restless tide of migration 
in our land. The time has gone past when the people of the State prefer- 
red that it should flow past them. They now earnestly desire that it 
should bring no stinted measure of its burden to their doors. In former 
times there was too much reason for the feeling, often expressed by immi- 
grants, especially from the North, that tliey were regarded and treated as 
intr^iders — suspicious characters to be watched. But those times have 
passed, and now whoever comes, bringing either capital or labor, to build 
his home among us, receives a most cordial welcome. We do not know the 
term, "social toleration," which has sometimes been used in this connection, 
but our people accord consideration and welcome to all who come to cast 
their lot with them and be of them. 

The farmers of Maryland have never been believers in the doctrine that 
"ten acres" was "enough, " but on the contrary have been disposed, how- 
ever large their farms or " plantations," to add to them all the land that 
joined them; so that in parts of the State the lands are held in larger bodies 
than can be profitably conducted, and the owners have no reluctance to 
dispose of parts of them; and tracts suitable for desirable farms can readily 
be bought at reasonable prices. Already considerable quantities have 
changed hands, probably not less than a hundred thousand acres within 
the last four months, and indications are not wanting, that with the open- 
ing spring the demand for lands for actual settlers will be far larger than 
ever before. 

The State has an area of about 9,500 square miles of land, while the 
Chesapeake Bay covers more than 4,000 more; and these last are a most 
important element in the resources of the State, for they are productive of 
food beyond much of the cultivated land upon our continent, and at the 
same time they aiford unrivaled facilities of transportation for the thou- 
sands of acres of market gardens which deck the shores of this ba}^ and 
its numerous and prolific estuaries. So frequent arc these estuaries and 
navigable arms of the ba}^ that there are large counties bordering on the 
bay no point of which is more than four miles from a good "landing." This 
enables the inhabitants of those counties, whenever disposed, to raise for 
the markets of Baltimore, Washington, Philadelphia and New York, all the 
more delicate fruits and vegetables, such as are ruined by any considerable 
amount of land carriage. Two hundred miles of this bay, from the place 
of consumption of these products, is practically less remote from the market 
than ten miles by ordinary roads. This great advantage is shared by all 
of the shore counties of the bay, and those which are penetrated by its 
arms, for though the actual sea coast of Maryland is but little over thirty 
miles, the tidewater margin is over 400 miles, and if the islands be in- 
cluded, over 500 miles. The largest vessels which float ascend the bay, 
past St. Mary's, Calvert and Ann Arundel counties to Annapolis, and the 
Potomac river, past St. Marys, Charles and Prince Georges counties to 
Washington. Smaller craft, ranging up to about 250 tons, ascend the 
rivers according to their respective capacities and the requirements of the 
people; the Choptank and its tributaries for 40 miles, the Nanticoke to the 


Delaware lino, the Patnxent for about 75 miles, and not less than fifty 
others are navigable to a greater or less extent. 

The bay is so nearly land-locked, the outlet between Capes Charles and 
Henry being but fifteen miles wide, that navigation is neither difficult nor 
dangerous, and it has long been customary for persons having bay resi- 
dences or farms to have their yacht, pungy or schooner for pleasure or for 
the transportation of their products. These, with the aid of their farm 
hands, they can load at their own doors, navigate to the best markets in 
the country, and return with manures or supplies for their farms, family or 

An almost universal adjunct of every shore farm also is its oyster beds, 
from which at almost any hour in the year may be taken an unlimited sup- 
ply of the most delicious bivalves which the world produces. Fish in 
abundance and of excellent quality are also caught at all points for home 
consumption. Nor is all the richness of this bay drawn from beneath its 
waters. The numerous flocks of wild ducks which frequent its surface and 
breed in its islands and marshes, not less than the abundance and flavor of 
its oysters, its terrapins and crabs, have given a fame to the bay as wide 
as the country. Its canvas back ducks are the pride of the New York 
restaurants, and the hermetically sealed fruits and oysters of Baltimore 
alone, annually amount to $5,000,000. Nor is this to be estimated as the 
capacity of the Chesapeake, but rather as a measure of the size of the 

It would be unfair to leave this subject without mention of the beauty 
of the Chesapeake. A sail upon its waters is never tiresome. Its half 
built forts, its quaint white light-houses on the shore, interspersed with 
iron ones rising from the midst of the waves, the continual whirling and 
plunging of the huge flocks of wild ducks which never desert its waters, 
the constantly varying outline of its jagged shores, dotted by dark lines of 
forest with here and there a handsome homestead; the flitting white sailed 
schooners, the clusters of oyster boats, the hurried dash of the miniature 
steamers — all these joined to the balmy airs that love to linger on the 
Chesapeake, combine to make it one of the most beautiful bodies of water 
in the world. 

Geographically, Maryland is divided into three sections, two of which, 
parted by the Ciicsapeake, are similar in formation, while the third is 
marked by the ledge of primitive recks which runs from the left bank of 
the Potomac, in Montgomery county, north-east to the Susquehanna river. 

The soil of the plain, or tide water district, as it is called, em- 
braces nearly one-half of the territory of the State. This great region (for 
it stretches through Delaware and along the coast of New Jersey, and is 
supposed to have formed the bed of an ancient ocean) is composed of strata 
of the tertiary formation— proven by the fossils found in its cliffs and 
banks. The chalk or cretaceous formation, similarly indicated in New 
Jersey and Carolina, probably underlying more recent deposits— through- 
out the extent of Maryland. In this tertiary formation Maryland is rich in 
deposits of wealth for the farmer; beds of marl, of shell lime, of eocene or 
green sand, being distributed throughout its entire extent. 


The surface of this tide-water district is level, save in the northern part, 
and but slightly elevated above the sea, and its soils are above the average 
in their adaptation to agriculture. The forest growths are mostly oaks of 
various kinds, hickory, chestnut, walnut, gum, cedar, pine and beech. Few 
rocks are found, but some of the mineral deposits are rare. The chromes, 
corundum or emery, and the tripoli, being almost the sole deposits of the 
kind in the civilized world. Bog iron ore is found, and also aluminous and 
magnesian salts. The clays, which have never been developed by expe- 
rienced artisans, are known to embrace the kaolin or porcelain clay, and 
the grey, red and blue clays, which have already contributed to our me- 
chanic arts, in potteries of stone-ware, queens-ware, glazed red-ware and 
bricks. From the pure sands, glass has been manufactured in considerable 
quantities, but hitherto its manufacture has been carried to no great per- 
fection. Red ochre, the cheapest material for common painting, forms sub- 
ordinate beds in the lower cla^^s, and is ground to a fine powder in great 
quantities for the markets. 03'ster-shell lime is produced in large quanti- 
ties by calcining the shells of the oysters annuall}'- harvested, and also 
from deposits of shells found upon the banks of our tide-water rivers and 
creeks. These deposits are known by the name of Indian shells, which 
people seem to have made abundant meals upon the oysters, if we are to 
measure them by tiie quantity of shells remaining. These deposits are so 
far decomposed that they can be applied to the soil without burning or 
sifting. The recent oyster shells are also of great service in making roads, 
for when broken and ground in their natural state upon the highwa^^ the 
surface becomes as hard and smooth as a macadamized road, and is very 

The grains most largely cultivated in this plain are wheat, Indian corn 
and tobacco, with cotton in the lower part. 

Dr. Snodgrass said: This pamphlet, although it appears as a document 
of the House of Delegates, is really the work of M'r. Stockbridge, who has 
not been given the credit wliich he deserves. The committee of the House 
have not given him his just due. The matter is that which he had col- 
lected in answer to an application from this Club for information to persons 
who had written us several letters of inquiry. It is also due to truth that 
I should state that the vote for the new constitution of Maryland was un- 
doubtedly owing to that action taken by this Club, for it awakened the 
land owners of Maryland to the importance of encouraging Yankee immi- 
gration to the State, to enable them to sell out and move their chattels to 
a more congenial clime for slavery. 

Mr. William B. Bond, Baltimore, gives the value of land in that State in 
a letter, in which he describes his own farm of 200 acres, in Ann Arundel 
county, well situated in every respect, highl}^ cultivated, and amply fur- 
nished with buildings, fences and orchards, and valued at §100 per acre. 

How TO Use Hen Manure. 

The Chairman presented a letter of inquir}^ as to whether hen manure, 
in a liquid form, would be the best method of applying it to raspberries 
blackberries, Lima beans, tomatoes and strawberries. 


Mr. William S. Carpenter. — I use it as follows for almost every plant 
requiring manure in my garden. I put from one to two pecks into a tub 
holding about sixty gallons of water. That being stirred, it is partially 
dissolved the first day and the water used. Then more water is added 
from time to time, and the contents stirred, until mostly dissolved, when 
more of the droppings being put in, the process is continued through the 
season. Whenever in drouth it is necessary to water strawberries, we use 
this liquid. I have found by experience that I cannot make my strawberry- 
ground too rich. I use stable manure, bones, ashes, and the liquid made 
with hen droppings. I followed the rules laid down in the books by Par- 
dee and others, of no manure for strawberry plants, until I became ashamed 
of the appearance of my beds. Since I have adopted a different course I 
not only get a great growth of plants but an abundance of excellent fruit. 

Mr. John G. Bergen said that he* fully agreed with Mr. Carpenter in his 
opinion. He has tried the no-manuring system and failed, and he would 
recommend every person who grows strawberries, either for home use or 
the market, to use manure freely. A few days since, while in Washington, 
he visited the experirnental garden under the superintendence of Mr. Saun- 
ders. His strawberries were in splendid condition. The beds were covered 
with stable manure in the fall. Mr. B. said he had never seen finer plants 
or better fruit. 

Barilla Ashes. 

Mr. G. 0. Bobinson, Biverhead, Suffolk county, L. I., asks: "What are 
barilla ashes made of? What is their relative value compared with wood 

Mr. Solon Bobinson. — Barilla ashes are made from a marine plant, for- 
merly much grown in Spain, from the ashes of which a strong alkali was 
obtained, used in the manufacture 6f carbonate of soda. The value for 
manure would be much inferior to wood a&hes. Besides that, they would 
probably be difficult to obtain, as barilla ashes have nearl}^ gone out of 
use since the discovery that soda could be manufactured from common 

Prof. Tillntan. — Common sea salt is first converted into sulphate of soda 
(Glauber salts), and then by an inexpensive process, to carbonate of soda. 
Soda-ash, which is used as a manure in England, is an impure carbonate of 
soda. Barilla, or the ashes of seaweed, has pretty nearly gone out of use. 

Coal Ashes. 

Mr. Isaac T. Smith inquires whether the question has been settled about 
coal ashes being of any value as a fertilizer. 

Mr^ John G. Bergen. — I do not know whether any series of experiments 
have been made in the use of anthracite coal ashes. Some 3'ears ago I re- 
member my father used to put coal ashes on wheat in early spring. He 
supposed there was some virtue in them. I also saw a field which pro- 
duced a great growth of oats after being heavily dressed with coal ashes, 
but I have tried the same thing, and found no benefit. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter is of the opinion that they have no manurial value 


Dr. Trimble said: "I use coal ashes for garden walks, and they appear 
to prevent rather than promote the growth of vegetation." 

Mr. G-eorge Bartlett. — Let us judge by the analysis of coal ashes whether 
they can possibly have any manurial value. Here is an average one given 
by Musprat : silica, 53 ; alumina, 36; sesquexoid of iron, 5; magnesia, 1; 
lime, 2.8; and other unimportant matters to make up the 100. 

Mr. Solon Robinson said: " To begin with, then, here are ninety-four 
hundredths which are not worth carting across the street. There is no 
land in cultivation that has not more silica and more alumina in its com- 
position than soil destitute of either could obtain from a dressing of coal 
ashes. As a top-dressing they would probably be of some benefit to grass 
land; they would answer a good purpose as mulch about plants or trees, 
and it is of some value as a deodorizer in privies. 

Dr. Trimble said, no more so than any other dry earth; not as much so 
as dried loam or muck. 

Downing's Mulberry. 

Mr. G. 0. Robinson inquires if this can be propagated by grafting. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter says, yes, that is the usual mode. Graft or bud 
upon the common white mulberry, or the multicaulis, of which the Downing 
is a seedling. 

A Prairie Plant for a Name. 

Mr. A. Gilbert, Tipton, Cedar Co., Iowa, writes. May 19th: '•'Inclosed 
please find a specimen of a very pretty wild flower, with two radical leaves 
of the plant. It has no cauline leaves; the flowers grow as you see on a 
scape, varying from eight to twelve inches high. Please submit it to some 
of your botanists, and let me know through the Club reports what it is. It 
is very prett}", and if you would like a root, I will send 3'ou one in the fall. 

Mr. Thomas Cavanach. — This is the Dodecalheon Me'dea (x\merican Cow- 
slip). There is another variety which is white. Both sorts are so highly 
prized that they are readily sold by florists at fifty cents each. The Secre- 
tary could easily distribute a few dozen of them if they were forwarded to 
him from regions where they grow wild. 

Farmers' Prospects in Iowa, 

Mr. Solon Robinson read the following interesting letter from M. H. Bi- 
shard, Des Moines, Iowa, May 1 7th: 

"We are having a very late, backward spring; it seems as though the 
cold blasts of winter will ever return. About two good days and three 
bad ones seem to be the monotony from week to week. Snow, sleet and 
cold rains are frequent. Old Jack Frost visits us entirely too late to be 
pleasant. His last visit was on the Ilth ; what damage he has done tb 
fruit, I cannot say at present. Some cherries and a few wild gooseberries 
are killed in this vicinity, but the frost was much harder in other places. 
Farmers are in the midst of corn-planting', a few are done, but the majority 
are only beginning. How easy it seems to plant this year; nothing to do 
but mark out, then mount the planter, and drive along. As j^ou pass along 
the road from farm to farm, you hear the constant click^ click, of the 


planter. There is no better place to use corn-planters, reapers, wheat- 
drills, binders, rakes, stalk-cutters and the many other useful macliines 
than on the vast prairies of Iowa. It is the place to farm with ease. The 
number of agricultural machines sold at this place in the last three years 
is enormous. Every farmer must have his new wagon, harness, corn- 
planter, reaper, horse-rake, etc. They are all out of debt and have plenty 
of money. Every thing they have to sell is high and in good demand. 
Farmers living on the main roads find a ready market at their doors. Many 
sell all they have in a few days after the emigration commences. The emi- 
gration this spring is very large; hundreds of teams fill the roads from day 
to day. People moving, teamsters hauling goods to Pike's Peak, Idaho 
and Salt Lake; ox teams loaded with machinery, people on foot, droves of 
cattle and sheep, all seem destined for the Great ^Yest. We say West, 
here, and when you get to Idaho they say West there; so it seems the 
West is scarcely ever reached. Petroleum is occupying the attention of capi- 
talists at this place. Indications of oil have been found all along the Dcs 
Moines valley. Des Moines is improving fast. Among the many substantial 
improvements now being made, we are to have gas works, water works, two 
new bridges across the Des Moines river, two paper mills, an iron foundry, 
grist mill and the railroads. Every house is filled and many new ones going 
up. A great many farms will be made this summer. Breaking has already 
commenced. Land is not quite so high as ii was in the winter. City pro- 
perty is held at good round figures. Provisions of all kinds are high. 
Butter, 50 cents per pound; eggs, 25 cents per dozen; potatoes, $2.50 per 
bushel; beans, $4; flour, $5 per 100 pounds; bacon, 15 to 20 cents per 
pound. So it costs us almost as much to live at the Capital of Iowa as it 
does in the city of New York." 

Flower Seed Distribution. 

The Secretary reports that he has sent flower seeds to every applicant 
that ha» inclosed to him a pre-paid envelope. The following summary- is 
interesting: There were T,184 letters received, upon which, and the return, 
the postage was over $360. In all, 14,368 envelopes were used. Those 
returned, had on an average four bags of seeds each, making 28,736. It 
required two reams of paper and three quarts of mucilage to mako the bags, 
and it took the labor of one person for over a month to make the bags, and 
write the name of the seed sent. He has also sent out 20 packages of 
Trimble's sweet corn, 150 packages of HilFs, and 50 packages of Bisbee's 
blood red sweet corn. $ 

Potato Pests in Iowa. 

J. A. Campbell, Farmington, Iowa, says: "The red and black turtle- 
shaped potato bugs which infested this part of the country last season, 
have made their appearance again this spring, and threaten entire destruc- 
[Am. Inst,] H 


tion to the potato crop in our neighborhood unless some means can be de- 
vised to destroy them. What does the Club recommend in this case? And 
are they as destructive in other parts as they are here, from what the Club 
can gather from correspondents ?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — We believe, from what we have seen, that the bug 
described by Mr. Campbell and others, as so destructive in Iowa, is entirely 
different from the potato bugs well known in this section. Never having 
Jiad any experience, we can not recommend a remedy. We should like to 
know if dusting the vines with powdered lime would have any effect upon 
the stomachs of the bugs. 

Do Water-Courses Fail in Cultivated Districts? 

Mr. Campbell asks: " Do water-courses fail in cultivated districts?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — It is undoubtedly a fact that streams, which were 

sufficient for running mills while the land was new and mostly covered 

with timber, have so much declined in volume that vast numbers of mills 

have gone to decay all over the New England States. 

Bread Making. 

Mrs. Mary B. Cross, Westerly, R. I., gives us the following bread making 
receipt: She thinks it an accomplishment for any lady to know how to make 
bread, and a great benefit to young housekeepers for the Farmers' Club to 
keep the subject constantly before them. To make bread with yeast cakes, 
she says: " Soak one in tepid water; when it is soft add flour and tepid 
water; stir to paste just before retiring. Next morning early sift flour in 
pan, leaving space in center to pour in yeast, spoonful of lard, a little salt; 
mix with tepid water or milk and set to rise in a warm place, well covered. 
In three hours, knead it on molding board. If you think it at all acid, add 
a half-teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in a little water. To have raised bis- 
cuit, knead in sweet butter, or lard, or cream, and the other half mold into 
a pan for a loaf; let them stand so near the fire that they will keep quite 
warm but not scald, turning them often, until they rise again quite light, 
then bake with a steady fire; you have nice biscuits for dinner, better for 
dyspeptics then than for supper." 


June 6, 1865. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ely in the chair; Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretary. ^ 

Exhibition of Flowers. 

There was a beautiful exhibition of flowers at the Club to-day. Mr. Wm. 
R. Prince, of Flushing, L. I., sent in 100 varieties of peonies, mostly seed- 
lings of his own production; some of them were exceedingly handsome, 
and many of the blooms almost as fragrant as roses. 


Mr. J. S. Burgess exhibited 100 varieties of roses from the gardens of 
his son, Mr. Wm. A. Burgess, at Glen Cove, L. I., including some seed- 
lings of great beaut3^ 

After the meeting, this fine collection of flowers were distributed to the 
ladies present. 

Mr. Burgess urges ever}'^ person who grows roses to plant some of the 
seed every year. It may be put in the ground in autumn, or kept dry until 
spring. He has seen blooms produced when the seedlings were only three 
months old. The young plants are quite hardy, and as easily grown as 
any nursery plant or garden vegetable. Mr. Burgess believes he is the 
first person who grew seedling roses in this country, and his success has 
been all that he could reasonably desire. 

A New Seedling Strawberry — "Gen. Grant." 

Mr. J. S. Burgess also exhibited a very handsom.e show of a new straw- 
berry produced from the SwantoG seedling. It is as large as the Austin or 
Russell, and of similar color and character. It is rather too tender for a 
market berry, but will be a fine addition to the variety for famil}^ use, 
being very high flavored, and so free from acid as to require little or no 
sugar. It has been named the General Grant, and its quality thoroughly 
tested for two ^ears, where it is grown in considerable quantities by Wm. 
A. Burgess, Glen Cove, L. I. If it proves equally hardy and productive in 
other localities, it will certainl}'- become a favorite for general cultivation. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter. — This strawberry is a very meritorious variety, 
possessing a rich and high flavor; it is trul}" an amateur or home berry; 
the flesh is firm and uniform. Mr. Burgess has made great efforts to pro- 
duce new varieties of strawberries. I consider this a great improvement 
on those before raised. It can be eaten without sugar. I hope Mr. 
Burgess will realize from its sale a sum sufficient to pay him for his labors 
in this important branch of horticulture. I have lately heard people talk 
about overdoing the strawberry business. I think that a ridiculous idea, 
while the fact is patent that not more than one family in a hundred have a 
tolerable supply of this luscious fruit during the season. I personally 
know a great many farmers who have not a single cultivated strawberry 
plant in their gardens, and many of those who have them only produce a 
few quarts a year, not one-tenth enough for their own use, and none to sell. 
I think this Club cannot be better ensrao-ed than it has been in a continual 
effort to induce everybody who has a farm or garden to grow as many 
strawberries as their families desire to consume. Mr. Parry, of Cinnamin- 
son, N. J., estimates that more strawberries are produced in Burlington 
county than in an}^ five counties of the State of New York. Mr. Parr^^ is 
picking this season an average of 1,500 quarts a day, and one of his neigh- 
bors a few days since sent to Philadelphia in one day 2,500 quarts of straw- 
berries, which sold wholesale at 40 cents per quart, making $1,000 for a 
single day's picking. There is' nothing in climate or soil to hinder the 
farmers in the vicinity of New York doing just as well as those of Burling- 
ton county, X. J. The variety preferred there is known as French's seed- 
ling. It is quite as early as the Early Scarlet, and almost as prolific as 


the Wilson, the berries of about equal size. It is a very strong grower, 
and the best sort yet tried for field culture in that part of New Jersey, 
where the soil is generally a light sandy loam. The Iowa and Lady-finger 
are also favorites. With me the latter fails and the Russell succeeds, while 
there it is not worth growing. I have one little anecdote to relate of the 
value of a strawberry bed. Last year a farm in m^^ neighborhood was 
bargained to be sold for $9,500. A few days ago it was sold for $20,000. 
I inquired of the seller how it happened that he had been able to obtain 
such an advance. He replied: "Sir, that acre of strawberries sold my 
farm." The purchaser saw them in their finest condition, was so much 
taken with their appearance and the fruitfulness of the soil, that he pur- 
chased the farm at the seller's own price. Even at that it is questionable 
whether it would not have been more profitable for the owner to have kept 
his farm and enlarged his strawberry plantation. I have lately seen a plot 
of Wilson strawberries which have been grown ten years without renewal, 
which will this year produce a quart to the hill. They were planted upon 
drained salt marsh, where the muck was covered with sand, and the prac- 
tice has been to manure them heavily every autumn and dig in the manure 
early in the spring. The runners of course are kept carefully pruned every 
season. The result, which is so very different to my own practice of 
planting new beds every autumn with plants grown the same season, is 
worthy of consideration. 

Mr. John G. Bergen. — I notice in a report recently published that the 
average production of strawberries in New Jersey is estimated at 58J 
bushels per acre, and the price $6 per bushel. In the same report the 
average of blackberries is given at 48| bushels, and $4 per bushel. "We 
frequently see statements of single acres of strawberries producing 200 
bushels, and I think one man who wrote to us last year, giving the actual 
measurement and product of a small plot of gTOund, made it upon the rate 
of 700 bushels per acre. In my opinion, if we can depend upon the New 
Jersey average, the product will be more profitable than almost any other 
farm crop. In m}^ own practice, I do not generally depend upon more than 
one year's crop, from each planting. In some new ground I have seen the 
vines produce well for five or six years. In distributing the new seedling 
upon the table among the company, the Chairman particularly requested 
them to notice the extraordinary density of these berries. They were ap- 
parently twice as heavy as some others of the same size. Scarcely one of 
the largest could be found with any cavity in the center. He took great 
pleasure in moving the question proposed by several members of a vote of 
thanks to Mr. Burgess for producing and bringing to the notice of the Club 
this valuable new variety of strawberries. 

A vote of thanks was also given to him for his fine show of roses, and 
to Mr. Prince for his beautiful exhibition of peonies. 

Currant Worms. 

Mr. Henry S. Kidder, Alfred, York county^ Maine, sends gooseberry 
leaves, upcn which he says: "I found on the under side what appeared to 
be a cluster of worm eggs, but as I had never seen anything of the kind 


before, was unable to tell what they were. Can any one tell what they 
are, and will they injure the fruit?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — We fear from the appearance that Mr. Kidder has 
got the destructive currant worm so common in Central New York, where 
it has nearly destroyed all the currant and gooseberry bushes, and whence 
the seed has been somewhat widely distributed by nurserymen in that 

What Ails the Pear Trees? 

Mrs. "Wilhelmina D. Wilder, Ipswich, Mass., says: "We have several 
fine Bart'ett pear trees in our garden which have been there about twelve 
years. For a number of years they bore very well indeed. The fruit was 
very large and fair, but for the last two or three years the pears have not 
been good for anything. The trees look finely, and were very full of blos- 
soms this season, but, on examining the young pears, we find them covered 
with ugly bugs and blighted as those I send. I also inclose some of the 
insects, but am afraid they will be so injured by sending that j^ou cannot 
tell what they are. Can you tell us any remedy for them? and do you 
think these insects cause the blight? I think that these which I send are 
young insects which have been hatched upon the pears, as I saw earlier 
in the season larger ones of the same shape and darker color. The soil of 
our garden is rich, and perhaps may be rather too much shaded. If you 
can give us any information on this subject we should receive it very 
thankfully, and value the Farmers' Club and its communications more than 

Mr. John 'Gr. Bergen. — It is difficult to say what has caused the blight of 
these pears, whether insects or atmosphere. I notice Mr. Carpenter always 
attributes his failures to the east wind. I inquired of Thomas W. Field the 
other day what was his prospect for pears. He replied: ' Oh, I shall have 
none, it has been so'^ wet.' Last year I heard the failure attributed to 
drouth, I find that a good many of mine drop every year, no matter what 
the weather. I hope, however, that somebody who reads Mrs. Wilder's 
letter will be able to answer her inquiry. 

Dwarf Pears. 

A frie?id in Brooklyn writes as follows to the Farmers' Club: "' He who 
plants pears, plants for his heirs,' reads the familiar proverb; but nothing 
is further from the truth. One year ago last fall I sel, among others, 
several Duchesse d'Angouleme dwarfs and some Bartlett standards, medium 
sized trees, and thc}^ now have from six to twelve pears each on them, 
after picking off many blossom buds and some fruit. I shall not let them 
ripen all these, though the trees are growing vigorously. By the way, 
the Bartlett should never be dwarfed on quince; it comes into bearing 
early enough on its own roots, and does better every way. 

Renovating an Old Sod. 

Mr. Joseph Hayward, North Bridgewater, Mass., gives the following 
account of his method of renovating an old sod: " I once plowed for half a 
day an old sod of at least sixteen years' standing, and the next half day 


with the team and plow turned the sod same side np it was in the first 
place. The time of plowing was the 1st of August. The result was that 
in a short time during the following autumn the piece thus worked could 
be distinguished from the surrounding previously like sod, for its extra 
green, as far as the eye could see it, and the crop was increased the next 
season from six cwt. on the unplowed to thirteen cwt. on that thus worked, 
per acre, and the quality of the hay was much improved. This experiment 
was without the application of manure or seed. A trial of plowing and 
new seeding the like old sod, without manure, bad twice proved an utter 
failure, subjecting me to seed the ground twice, and then there was no 
increase of crop above its original state. This experiment was far better 
to me than the application of 400 lbs. of Peruvian guano per acre, to sod 
in like condition, both for the first season and the durability of the improve- 
ment, the effects being quite apparent for four years. 

"What I wish to ask, is: Is there any implement by the use of which I 
can produce the like result and move over the ground but once? Was the 
thin coating of soil with which the sod became smeared by the plow of any 
service to its fertility? Why was it that a sod thus treated was something 
of a success, while the plowing and new seeding was an utter failure; 
there having been no application of manure in either case; yet the new 
seeded having subjected me to seed twice, as I have before s<"ated?'' 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — I believe the same result may be produced by the 
use of the subsoil plow run in furrows two feet apart, which would involve 
only about one-fourth of the labor of the two plowings. Indeed, we have 
seen the most valuable results from such treatment of old sod ground. 
There is no doubt that the dressing of earth given to the grass added some- 
thing to the success of the experiment. I have seen very remarkable effi^cts 
produced upon grass land by spreading wash from the roadside, the greater 
portion of which was nothing but sand. 

Osage Orange Seed. 

The Rev. David Dimond, Brighton, Macoupin county. 111., says that 
"b'jshels and bushels of the oranges might be collected here every fall, 
and nurserymen would find it profitable to do so. Getting the seeds out of 
the orange is hard. Probabl}^ there are scores of fruit bearing trees in this 
county. No doubt there are hundreds of miles of hedges in the country, 
some of which through neglect are 12 to 20 feet high. The tree, though 
not a native, is well naturalized here. N. Chalacomb, Trumbull, 111., haa 
a tree which produces hundreds of oranges every year; and he has grown 
seed often, but not for the market." Probably Dr. Thompson of CarroUton, 
111., could furnish the seed. 

The Chinch Bug in Illinois. 

Mr. Daniel F. Rogers, Waltham, La Salle county. 111., gives the follow- 
ing description of the ravages of the chinch bug in that section: 

"The question so often discussed, and to the satisfaction of the wise, 
settled, whether it was, or not, folly for western farmers to expend so much 
time, l^ibor and fertility in grain crops, and so little in raising cattle, sheep. 


&c., — the latter, the successful 'mixed husbandry' of the older States — is 
by present indications to be again and finally settled by individuals left out 
of former discussions of the matter. The chinch bug, so admirably de- 
scribed by your Iowa correspondent, has come to be a power in the land, 
and threatens to put a stop for the present to our ruinous system of crop- 
ping. Let me add a bit of personal experience with these reformers to the 
facts of Mr. Colvin's letter. 

" There never was a better show for wheat and barley than we had 
here the 10th of June last season, and no more paltry crop has been har-/ 
vested since we were a town. Many farmers did not get their seed. No 
sadder ruin in vegetation -ever was seen than these noble grains, just nod- 
ding with half-filled berries, gradually shrunken and bleached to utter 
worthlessness by this insatiable little savage. In passing by a field of 
barley where they had been at work for a week, I found them moving in 
solid column across the road to a corn field on the opposite side, in such 
numbers that I felt almost afraid to ride my horse among them. The road 
and fences were alive with them. Some teams were at work mending the 
road at this spot, and the bugs covered men, horses and scrapers till they 
were forced to quit work for the day. The bugs took ten acres of that 
corn, clean to the ground, before its hardening stalks — being too much for 
their tools — checked their progress. 

" Mr. C. says they do not pass over wide spaces of ground from one field 
to another. Here they have learned that trick. They came from a wheat 
field adjoining my farm into a piece of corn, stopping now and then for a 
bite, but not long. Then they crossed a meadow 30 rods into a I6-acre lot 
of soro, and swept it like a fire, though the cane was then scarce in tassel. 
From wheat to soro was at least sixty rods. Their march was governed by 
no discoverable law, except that they were infernally hungry, and went 
where there was most to eat. Helping a neighbor harvest one of the few 
fortunate fields, early sown — and so lucky! — we found them moving across 
his premises in such numbers that they bid fair to drive out the family.* 
House, cribs, stable, well-curb, trees, garden, fences — one creeping- mass 
of stinking life. In the house as well as outside, like the lice of Egypt, 
they were everywhere; but in a single day they were gone. Fortunately 
they are daintier than some of their fellow devastators, or they would have 
made a famine. Their choice is either wheat, barley, sorghum, Hungarian or 
foxtail. Sorghum is their delight and they destroy it utterly. Oats and com- 
mon grasses the}^ take at one pinch. Corn they never have injured to much 
extent here, except in rare cases. Our last winter was cold and dry. These 
pests lived over and could be found wherever an old rail, log, or a loose 
stone, or bunch of cornstalks, and they are all about, though in limited 
numbers to-day, limited compared with last July, for like the foremast of 
a ship these are a ' little for'ard of the main-hatch " — still they are at work 
for the first time, at this season of the year, we have ever known them to 
be. Fields of barley and wheat not eight inches high are being plowed 
up and planted to corn, the bugs having sucked the tender blades dry as 
chaff, and very possibly every wheat field in our neighborhood will share 
the same fate, for on careful examination we find their work going on more- 
or less in every field. 


" It is a serious matter, and will no doubt stop the sowing of small 

Mr. J. Orr, Postville, Allamakee county, Iowa, says: "The chinch bug- 
cannot be termed a flying insect, though it does spread its wings and is 
carried forward by the wind. They are usually worse upon late-sown wheat, 
but last year they reversed that order. After eating the early wheat, an 
epidemic appeared among them, and at harvest all the little hollows were 
filled with dead bugs, frequently a pint in a place. Mr. Colvin is of the 
opinion that they do not breed in oats, but they certainly did here last 
year. I found them", away from any wheat eighty rods, from the tiny red 
coats up to the full grown. Wheat is their favorite, but it is my opinion 
they will breed in any of our cereals if not disturbed. As we cannot de- 
stroy the chinch bugs the question is: Shall western farmers continue ta 
raise wheat weighing fifty-five pounds per bushel, selling it for second or 
rejected .quality at reduced prices, or shall we turn our attention to some- 
thing else? Beef, pork, wool and horses, pay well at present^ and, in my 
opinion, always pay the farmer as well as wheat, which he carts a long 
way to rlfarket, selling, on an average, at sixty and seventy-five cents per 

'•'A country so well adapted as this is for corn-growing, with an abun- 
dance of good pasture and meadow land is well adapted to stock raising, 
and the sooner the farmers get into the business, the sooner they will escape 
the annual vexation of seeing their crops destroyed by chinch bugs,'^ 

Tent Caterpillars. 

Mr. D.. B. Waite, writes as follows from Springwater, N. Y., May 30: 
"I wish to ask tlie Farmers' Club what we are going to do with the tent 
caterpillar or apple tree worm; I never saw them more numerous in this 
section. Some farmers (not fruit raisers) who have old orchards of un- 
grafted trees in this neighborhood let these pests have their own head year 
after year. I can and do destroy those hatched on my own trees, but my 
nearest neighbor who is greedy for "more land" has an orchard of untrini- 
med, ungrafted decaying trees just across the way, who has not killed a 
worm in thirty years. What can I do? The maples in the highway along 
my land are covered. Fences have become a thoroughfare and worms have 
taken possession of everything. I have spent two-thirds of my time for 
two wrecks killing them on my young orchard of pear, peach and cherry 
trees. Why dont they disturb plum trees? 

"Can't we get a law passed the next Legislature compelling an owner 
of trees to destroy or pay for destroying these 'varmint!' Wild cherry 
trees are numerous in some sections, and on these are bred enough to ravage 
the orchards in the vicinity. I dug mine in my meadows up by the roots 
and cut them down in other places, and have set out maples which I like 
much better. " 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — This is certainly a most serious question which the 
farmers of this State have got to meet squarely or give up all hopes of 
growing fruit. We know orchards in Westchester county which are nearly 
as bare of foliage as the trees were in winter. Something migiit be cfi'ect- 
ed by law, if it could be enforced, but unless more generally observed than 


the cattle law, dog law, bird law and others made for the protection of 
farmers, it might as well never have been passed. As to destroying wild 
cherries to get rid of the caterpillars, that is a mooted question. Tliey 
resort to those trees in preference to any others, and can there be easily 

Worms Destructive to Strawberries. 

Mr. 11. M. Dunbar, Elkhart, Ind., gives the following account of some 
other pests : "We are troubled with a small light green worm, about one- 
third the size of the cut worm, which is using up completely the straw- 
berry; it begins on the leaves and eats them full of holes. My strawberry 
plants have nothing left but the stems. Our cherries have their leaves 
black with a small bug, about the size of a pin head, and many very small 
bugs of a reddish brown cast. I notice on the same trees brown ants, and 
these are on no trees but those having bugs on their leaves.^' 

Grapevine Destroyers. 

Mr. D. Horton, Pittsfield, Loraine county, Ohio, writes, May 26: "In- 
closed please find specimens of worms that are destroying my grapes. 
They are entirely new to me — will the Club name them ? They made their 
appearance about the 20th inst., and at this time are hard at work." The 
specimen appears to be one of the span or measuring tribe, of a yellowish 
gray color, with six bands around the body, and with short legs at each 
end. It is entirely different from a very destructive worm now operating 
in this neighborhood. This is a very handsomely colored fellow and a vora- 
cious eater. They are now about a half-inch in length, but in four weeks 
will be from two to three inches, and a third of an inch in diameter. It re- 
quires constant attention to save the vines from entire destruction. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Mr. Horton will find in "Fuller's Grape Culturist'^ 
descriptions and illustrations of nearly all the pests of grape growers, be- 
side an abundance of other useful information. 

Fruit- Growing in Oregon. 

Mr. Alfred B. Collver, writes from Coos River, Coos county, Oregon: "I 
have an orchard of 8,000 trees, apple, pear and plum. I shall have most 
likely, 12,000 to 14,000 bushels of fruit. The fruit and vegetable districts 
of Oregon and California would be under lasting obligations to any one 
who has a steam-dryer and would give a description of the best one they 
know of, with apparatus and fixtures for drying fruit for the market. I 
have seen accounts of dried pumpkin flour. Could apples and other fruit 
be prepared in the same way ? Could clean white potJitoes be made into 

iMr. Solon Robinson. — Yes, to both questions. But we believe it has not 
been found profitable. Potatoes can be so well kept in their natural con- 
dition that it is not profitable to treat them by any costly preparation. Ap- 
ples also are kept in a natural or dried condition. But there is one prepa- 
ration of apples which our Oregon friend could use with great profit to 
himself whenever the price of fruit falls low enough in that country to 


make it an object. This is the preparation of gelee de pomme by Borden^s 
patented process of condensing the juice of apples into one-seventh the bulk, 
making- it the consistence of well-prepared currant jelly of most delicious 
quality, highly valued as a condiment upon the table, and in various pre- 
parations of cookery, and it can be reduced to the condition of cider almost 
instantly by adding water. In its condition of jelly it will keep as long 
as desired in any climate. 

June 13, 1865. 

Mr. Nathan C. Ely, in the chair; Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretary. 

Insect Enemies. 

Mr. J. Fenton writes from Chautauqua county, N. Y. : "I consider it one 
of the most important questions that can be discussed by farmers' clubs 
how to prevent the destruction of crops by vermin. About the 20th of 
May I discovered a new insect enemy depredating upon the apple trees. I 
noticed several trees of four years' growth, after setting, had been visited 
by something eating away the lower leaves, similar to the common apple 
tree worm that nests in the older apple and cherry trees, but could discover 
nothing of their whereabout. I visited the trees several times, and noticed 
others attacked in the same way, but with no better success. Finally I 
examined around the roots of the tree, and soon discovered the miscreants 
nicely burrowed under small chips, stones or leaves, out of the sun's influ- 
ence. I immediately set to work and hoed all loose turf, stone, grass, &c., 
from around the trees, thus exposing a goodly number of worms, which I 
destroyed, and at the same time dug the dirt up fresh for some distance 
to attract the birds. By the next day I had a score of robins, wrens, bobo- 
links and ground birds engaged in the cause. It was amusing to see them 
take turns in watching and devouring the worms from early dawn till 
dark, until there was not one to be found. I discovered the habit of these 
worms was to ascend the tree in the evening, doing their work of destruc- 
tion in the night, then dropping to the ground and hiding during the day. 
They are about one and a half inches in length and about three-eighths of 
an inch in diameter, of a light green, with scattered small dark red spots 
along the back, surface of the body smooth, with no hairs like the common 
apple tree worm; will curl up when disturbed like the cut worm; are more 
voracious than the common apple tree worm. Birds appear to be very fond 
of them. Surely the birds are the farmers' best servants, and should be 
protected. There is also a small striped red and black bug, about the size 
of the striped vine bug, which is intent on destroying my bed of sage. It 
feeds at all hours of the day on the lertves, eating- a portion from the top 
side and sucking the sap, causing the leaf to curl in from the edges, form- 
ing a shelter for them, in which they may be found till the leaf becomes 
dry, when i\\Qy leave for another and repeat the same process. They are 
quite shy, and will dart around out of sight when approached; thus the 
birds do not have a fair chance at them. I have tried lime, wood ashes, 
hen manure, &c., but of no avail." 


For cut worms one member recommends the use of plaster. When to- 
matoes or other plants are set out where they are liable to the attack of 
cut worms, put a small handful of plaster close around the stalk. If rain 
falls it will be necessary to renew the application. 

Birds — How to Increase the Stock. 

Mr. A. W. Warren, Charlotte Centre, N. Y., thus answers the question 
how to increase our stock of birds: " It is to plant trees and shrubbery. 
A creek passes through my lot which sometimes docs considerable damage 
by washing the banks. To remed}'' this in a way most likely to save my 
garden, I planted willows along the bank must exposed Iw freshets, and 
made a fence of posts and boards* in the creek to protect the willows until 
suflSciently grown. Back of the willows a row of maple trees was planted. 
The birds, in great numbers, have taken refuge in the trees, and are a real 
source of profit by destro^^ing insects in the garden, and of pleasure by 
making the air vocal with their sweet music. I believe the stock of birds 
may be everywhere increased by planting trees and shrubbery to give 
them shelter." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — There is no doubt of this fact, and there is no doubt 
in the minds of all who think upon the subject, that unless we do protect 
and increase our stock of birds, we shall cease to produce food enough for 
the people. A few years ago there was a great hue-and-cry against the 
sparrows, and they ^were destroyed by the million. Farmers then found 
that they had destroyed their best friends. In this countr}^ we have not yet 
learned that fact, and therefore the members of this Club are earnest and 
constant in their efforts to preserve the birds. 

Dr. Trimble. — I have lately had a striking illustration of the advantage 
of protecting birds in a visit lately made to the Insane As^'lum, west of the 
Schuylkill, at Philadelphia. There are about fift}^ acres, with a great num- 
ber of trees, both natural and planted, and for twenty-five years no gun has 
been allowed to be discharged upon the premises, except by myself, for the 
purposes of dissection. In the first part of the season birds do consume a 
portion of the cherries. Probably of a large portion eaten by them, each 
contains a maggot. To ascertain the food of the grackle (crow blackbird), 
I shot two of them, and examined the crops carefully without finding a 
single cherry. They leave the asylum grounds to get their food of insects 
in other localities, as the birds are so abundant that they have absolutely 
subdued the insects to such a degree they cannot get their living without 
going abroad to seek it. The consequence is that almost everything grown 
there is free of insect deprediftion. 

. Dr. Isaac M. Ward. — I have at my place near Newark, N. J., about 
fifty acres inclosed uppn three sides by an evergreen hedge for a screen. 
There must be about 500 trees, and in these almost ever^^ bird common to 
the country may be found at the nesting season. I allow no guns upon 
the place. I do not even allow the men to scare the birds, and I am reap- 
ing a rich reward in my exemption from insects. It is said that birds do 
not eat curculio. I do not know that they do, but I know that I am getting 
rid of them, and I can attribute it to nothing but the protection of birds. 


They do eat a few of the first cherries, but I grow enough for birds and 
men. I do not allow them to be driven from the trees; let them eat, they 
are entitled to them. They are my best friends, and of great assistance 
to me. 

Mr. George Bartlett thinks robins have a natural instinct for cherries. 

Mr. Solon Robinson thinks a part of the instinct is certainly for the 
worms. He has noticed that all prematurely ripening cherries contain 
"Worms, and of these the birds are most fond. Sometimes they are very 
busy about the trees as long as they can find worm cherries, and not 
troublesome afterward. 

Dr. Trimble.— One of my neighbors, between the 5th and 9th of June, 
gathered from one Imperial cherry tree 250 pounds of cherries, which sold 
at 40 cents pe.' pound. He estimated that there was at least 50 pounds 
remaining upon the tree at the time of the great rain of Saturday, which 
seems to have produced a general blight upon the cherry crop, rotting all 
that were ripe. 

Dr. Isaac M. Ward said: I have soma fifty trees of the same variety, 
which, growing in grass, are about two days later than those spoken of by 
Dr. Trimble. I had just begun picking my crop, which was selling whole- 
sale at 30 cents per pound, when the blight came upon it, spoiling the 

Mr. Charles Downing said he had experienced the same difficulty with 
his early cherries; all rotted in one day. 

Earth Worms — How to Destroy Them. 

Mr. Morris Southwick, Busti, Chautauqua county, N. Y., inquires: "Can 
any member of your Club tell me how to destroy angle worms in my gar- 
den? I can pick up a quart in a few minutes, consequently the earth is 
hard and lumpy. I should be thankful for a remed3\" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Here it is. Salt, at the rate of five bushels per 
acre, spread upon the ground earl}^ in the spring. Another plan is to sell 
the worms. Thej' bring a high price in New York market; not, liowever, 
in the original shape; they are first converted into fat poultry. Chickens 
are exceedingly fond of such worms. One old duck will pick up a quart 
quicker than you can, if you will loosen the earth so as to give her an op- 
portunity", and every duckling would daily consume the equivalent of its 
own weight. We think in one experiment that was tried, a man in Mas- 
sachusetts found that a young robin would consume thirty worms or thirty 
feet of worms per day. Moles are also enormous eaters of earth worms. 
It is some question, however, which are the greater nuisance, the worms 
or the moles. We somewhat doubt the statement of Mr. S. that his garden 
is hard and lumpy in consequence of the earth worms. The received 
opinion is that they loosen instead of harden the soil.* 

A Pest Upon Pear Trees. 

Mr. Southwick says: "Our dwarf pear trees and quince bushes are 
every year covered with small blackish snails, one-third to one-half inch 
long, which destroy all the leaves in a few days. I would like to know a 


remedy for this pest. To-day I noticed anotlier that is new in Chautauqua 
county — a green worm, three-fourths of an inch long, with black specks 
upon its body. It is destroying our currant and gooseberry bushes. I 
notice one bush (May 25) nearly bare of leaves. I have seen a dozen upon 
one currant leaf Is this the famous currant worm of Central New York?" 
Mr, Solon Robinson. — We think it is one of them, as there appear to be 
two or three varieties equally destructive. 

Remedy for Currant Worms. 

Mr. Southwick may probably find the following information useful to 
him. It is communicated to the Rural Neio Yorker, May 24, by H. Stanton, 
jr., Syracuse, N. Y.: "We have recently made an important discovery 
here which we wish to make public for the b(?nefit of everybody in general, 
and their currant bushes in particular. The ravages of the terrible currant 
worm can be completely stopped, and the enemy destroyed, by the simple 
application of road dust. We tried it last year with perfeck success, and 
the same this year so far. Gather the dust when it is dry and fine, and 
keep it for future use. As soon and as often as the worm makes an attack, 
sprinkle it on and throw it up under the leaves so that it will adhere to 
both sides. Th6 best time is when the dew is on in the morning. Remem- 
ber, road dust from the street or highway. Try it." 

Cut Worms in Wisconsin. 

Mrs. M. Matott, xAnson, Chippewa county, Wisconsin, sa3's: " Cut worms 
exist here in such numbers that almost everything we have in the garden 
is destroyed by them. Unless we can find some remedy, we must give up 
the attempt to grow anything. They are particularly destructive of onions. 
I have been unable to grow any for three years, jiotwithstanding- I have 
tried ever}^ known remedy. I should be particularly obliged to any mem- 
ber of your Club who could give me one. If j'ou undertake to kill them 
you will find it next to impossible, at least that is the case with me, who 
have no husband to assist me, as he is doing service for his country in the 

The Army Worm in Missouri. 

Mr. Stephen Blanchard, Oregon, Holt county. Mo,, sends specimens of 
one class of the army worm which has marched over various sections of the 
country at difterent times, consuming everything in its course. Mr. Blan- 
chard says the ground at times is almost covered with them. That was 
June 1, which was earlier than they generally appear. He wishes to know 
how to prevent their ravages. He says some people have kept them out of 
their gardens by building fires or ditches across their path. This is the 
only method we know. We have seen them pretty effectually kept out of 
a wheat field by making a deep furrow across their line of march, and 
drawing a log through that every day to crush the worms with which it 
becomes filled. 

Dr. Trimble. — I do not believe that this is the regular army worm. It 
appears to be a new pest. 

126 transactions of the american institute. 

The Crows — Are They Friends or Enemies of the Farmer ? 

Mr. Southwick says: " I see some of your members are friends to crows. 
I just wish they had what we can spare. I would willingly pay my share 
of a general crow tax of 25 cents a head if our Legislature would pass 
such a law. I can count 50 to 100 daily as I plow and sow my fields. 
About the only way we can keep our corn in the ground is by placing a 
man with a gun in the field, and then in tlie fall again they come in for 
their share as though they had the first claim." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Well, Sir, do you know whether all this army of 
crows are friends.or foes? Perhaps instead of having to give them a share 
at harvest, you would have no share for yourself without their -assistance 
in the spring. They do not come upon your fields while you are plowing 
for mere idle pastime; they ct)me for food, and that too of insects which are 
really great pests to the farmer. We can tell you of a cheaper way than 
a man and a gun to keep the crows from pulling up your corn. Sow 
broadcast upon each acre about four quarts of corn soaked nearl}'- to the 
point of sprouting. They will pick that and go off without looking lor 
other grains in the ground. 

Rose Slugs — How to get Eid of Them. 

Dr. Trimble. — I have lately discovered how to get rid of rose slugs. I 
spread a newspaper under the bush, and with a stick of the size of a walk- 
ing cane, gave it a dozen or more gentle taps. I then found fifty of the 
slugs upon the paper which had been jarred off in exactly the same way 
that I jar off curculio from plum trees. I have in hand a letter from Mr. L. A. 
Harwick, Hermon, St. Lawrence county, N. Y., with an animal in a box 
which he thinks produces the currant worm, because it was found upon a 
currant bush where the grubs are at work. This animal is a Cecropia, and 
I assure Mr. Harwick that it has no more to do with the production of the 
currant worm than it has with the production of any other animal upon his 

To Cure Grubs in Cattle. 

Mr. Southwick says that one of his neighbors, Mr. George Stoneman, 
-father of the noted cavalry general, prevents grubs in his cattle by salting 
their backs. I'he other cattle lick it off. 

A Pickling Recipe Wanted. 

Mr. J. H. Northcott, Mechanicsburg, 111. — " I desire to know if any 
member of the Club knows of a method of making wholesome and good 
pickles from cucumbers put up fresh in vinegar, that will keep them of the 
natural color." 

Mr. Solon Robinson — We think that Mr. N. asks too much. Cucumbers 
will not keep green without the addition of some substance which will not 
add to their value even if not positively deleterious. When you see them 
ver}^ green and handsome, as exhibited in glass jars at the grocer's, you 
m.ay generally take it for granted that they have been treated with the 
poison of copper in some form. "Some persons steep the leaves of grape 


vines, peach trees, parsley or spinach in the vinegar to give it a green 
color, and sometimes a little alum is added. There is no practical benefit, 
however, in trying to make the pickles green. The best way is to preserve 
the cucumbers in salt, and freshen them in small quantities as wanted for 
use, and eat them without attempting to recolor them. 

About Manures. 

Mr. Wm. W. Guild, Walpole, Cheshire county, X. H., " wants to know 
what to do with earth taken from under a barn which was built fifty-four 
years ago. I have made it into a compost heap. Shall I spread it on my 
moist, or wet grass land about the middle of September ? or shall I keep 
it till another spring and use it as a fertilizer for grain crops, and how ? 
My land is warm and dry, most of it, and good for grass and grain." 

Mr. Solon Robinson.— We think the greatest value would be obtained 
from such manure by spreading it early in the spring upon grass land, or 
if taken out later in the season, upon the stubble after mowing. As it pro- 
bably contains a large percentage of niter, it is well suited to grass or 
grain, and will not be improved by piling or composting. If spread at 
once, the niter is dissolved by the rains and carried to the roots of the 
grass. It would undoubtedly be a valuable manure for corn, applied at 
the rate of a small shovelful to the hill, at any period of the growth. 

Mr. Thomas Cavanach. — I have produced astonishing results by the use 
of guano water, barnyard drainings, chamber slops, and the drippings from 
privy vaults; but care is needed in their application. The best season to 
apply them is when the plants are growing most, say from the middle of 
May until July, though the waterings may usually be continued with profit 
through July. During this period the roots are in a condition to take up 
the liquid nourishment and store it away in the rapidly increasing growth. 
But the caution we wish to convey is this: Do not overdo the matter, or 
"kill with kindness." The danger is not so much in frequent applications 
as in using them too strong. All the liquids alluded to should be diluted 
■with four to six times their bulk of water before using, unless they are 
mixtures made very weak at first. 

Hops — How They may be Preserved. 

Professor Samuel R. Percy, New York, happening to be present, was 
called upon by the chairman to give the Club some information about his 
process of preserving hops. Dr. P. stated that his attention had been first 
called to this subject by a gentleman who came to consult him as a chemist, 
to ascertain whether any method could be devised for making an extract 
of hops which would preserve all their fine aroma and value to the brewer. 
He ascertained that in the condition that they are usually sent to market, 
they deteriorate in value one-third the first year, and the third jeav become 
utterl}^ worthless. He found that they were also exceedingly liable to 
contamination from odors of any other substance stored near them. He 
related cases where men had been pecuniarily ruined in the shipping of 
hops on board of vessels where they were affected by bilge water. One 
man in Connecticut had one hundred bales which he sent — ninety-eight by 


a schooner and two by railroad — and obtained nearly as much money for 
the two bales as for the ninety-eight. The doctor has experimented with 
samples from nearly every hop-growing district in the world. He finds 
the hops of England the best, and those of Connecticut River valley nearly 
equal. He thinks improved cultivation would make them quite so. He 
has ascertained from brewers that they have some years bought hops at 
ten cents a pound and the next year had to pay fifty-five; yet no one dares 
to lay in a stock, because he knows it is impossible to preserve their good 
quality. After a series of experiments, conducted with great care and 
considerable expense, he has at length met with success, and found that 
all the value of fresh hops can be preserved at such a moderate expense 
that for shipping purposes, transporting long distances, and the saving in 
storage, it would more than pay all the cost of the preparation. The pro- 
cess is by first steeping the hops until all the value is extracted, and then 
mixing with that solution some foreign substance in which to embody and 
preserve the hop extract, and afterward evaporating the water in an ordi- 
nary vacuum pan, the process being exactly the same as that by which 
Borden's condensed milk is made. When this condensation is perfect, it 
produces a semi-fluid extract of hops about the consistence of honey, which 
contains every virtue originally possessed by the hops, and which will 
keep any number of years without the sh'ghtest deterioration when put in 
air-tight vessels, in which it may be transported or kept for use until re- 
quired for the brewer. The best substance to combine with this extract is 
barley sugar or glucose, though he has been perfectly successful in com- 
bining it with common West India molasses. By the use of a small quan- 
tity of sal soda in the operation, all of the lupulin, gum or oily matter of 
the hops is rendered soluble in water, and this is not objectionable in the 
beer, as salt is always used by the brewer, and if necessary, sal soda could 
easily be converted into salt by the addition of muriatic acid. Without 
the use of glucose or molasses, the extract of hops cannot be condensed, as 
the gummy substance would adhere to the pan and burn, and even without 
that difficulty could not be preserved. Sugar is one of the best things 
known for preserving any substance. The sugar preserves the extract of 
hops as well as that of fruit. We have already proved that beer made of 
this extract is excellent in quality, and keeps better than that made from 
fresh hops. Mr. Miles, one of the oldest and most trustworthy brewers of 
this city, thinks by age this beer will become a kind of malt wine. The 
greatest benefit, however, likely to accrue to the farmers of the country, 
arises from the fact that by the aid of this hop extract we can grow annu- 
ally ten millions of pounds of hops for exportation. It will also be a great 
utilizer of waste by enabling farmers or hop merchants to save all the loss 
by deterioration of the crop from one year to another. By largely increas- 
ing the production of hops and by saving them from decay, we shall in- 
crease the profits of the farmer, while we decrease the cost to the brewer, 
and thus lessen the temptation to adulterate his liquor with cocculus Indicus 
and other deadly drugs, hundreds of tons of which are imported into Eng- 
land, and in spite of all parliamentary enactments, find their way into the 
brewers' vats, and produce the very worst kind of intoxicating liquor. 
There is certainly no beverage used by man that is more wholesome and 


life sustaining than pure malt liquor, such as good old English home- 
brewed ale. There is no secret in beer making; it may be made in almost 
every family, as easily as tea or coffee, particularly by the use of the hop 

Cure for Black Leg. 

Mr, Hugh J. Edwards, Utica, Wis., says the most simple remedy he has 
ever tried to prevent the black leg, is to cut their ears so they will bleed, 
as soon as convenient after they are dropped. 

Agriculturist Strawberry. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter, exhibited fine samples of the Agriculturist straw- 
berry, some of which weighed, three strawberries, 2| oz. He has now 
seventy sorts growing, and thinks these best of all. The Wilson, although 
called acid, he is not willing to give up, but will give up the Triomphe de 
Gand. The Russell and Buffalo are both good large sorts. Downer is 
good for home use, and French's Seedling earliest of all. He wishes once 
more to caution all strawberry growers not to work without manure. 

Dr. Ward said : We have been cautioned not to use manure, and to 
be very careful not to disturb the roots in the spring. 

Mr. Isaac Winaus, one of the best strawberry growers in New Jersey, 
finds great advantage in running a subsoil^plow between the rows, which 
thoroughly loosens up the soil, and in garden culture I find a great advan- 
tage in stirring- up the soil with a fork and manuring freely. 

Mr. Solon Robinson exhibited leaf and fruit stalks of Robinson's Seed- 
ling, 12 to 18 inches long. These he said, show the effect of manuring 
and working the land. They are grown among grapevines where the soil 
is thoroughly worked and manured without regard to the strawberries. 

Harmony of Color. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Ladies who plant flower gardens should carefully 
study the laws of harmony of colors, else the}^ will lose half of their labor 
in effect. Man}' a rich flowering plant or shrub is rendered almost worth- 
less, by want of suitable surrounding-. The most pleasing effect is not 
produced bj^ a variety of tints, as much as by the harmonizing effect of 
those in close contact. The law of harmony needs to be understood iu 
arranging bouquets, or vases of flowers, as well as in all house ornaments 
and dresses. 

''M. Chevruel, the Government superintendent of the dyeing department 
of the great Parisian manufactory of the celebrated Gobelin tapestries, has 
recently delivered a series of lectures at Paris on complexions and colors, 
full of valuable hints to our ladies. We quote: "The pink of the complex- 
ion is brought out by a green setting in dress or bonnet; and any lady who 
has a fair complexion that admits of having its rose tint a little heightened, 
may make effective use of the green color, but it should be a delicate green, 
since it is of importance to preserve harmony of tone. When there is in 
the face a tint of orange mixed with brown, a brick-red hue will result 
from the use of green; if any green at all be used in such a case, it should 

[Am. Inst.] I 


be dark. But for the orange complexion of a brunette, there is no color 
superior to yellow. This imparts violet to a fair skin, and injures its 
effect. A skin more yellow than orange has its yellow neutralized by the 
suggestion of the complement, and a dull white effect imparted. The 
orange skin, however, has its yellow neutralized, and the red left; so that 
the freshness of complexion is increased in dark-haired beauties. Blue im- 
parts orange, which enriches white complexions and light flesh tints; it 
also, of course, improves the yellow hair of blondes. Blue, therefore is 
the standard color for a brunette. But the brunette who has already too 
much orange in her face, must avoid setting in blue. Orange suits nobody. 
It whitens a brunette, but that is scarcely a desirable effect, and it is ugly. 
Red, unless when it is of a dark, to increase the effect of whiteness by con- 
trast of tone, is rarely suitable in any close neighborhood to a lady's skin. 
Rose red destroys the freshness of a good complexion; it suggests green." 

These rules may be profitably applied to all planting of flowers, or arrang- 
ing them when grown, as well as in selecting suitable colors of dress and 


June 20, 1865. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ely in the chair. 

Cheap an© Durable E-oofing. . 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — The expense of making a good durable roof upon 
farm buildings is one of the greatest blocks in the way of farmers who 
desire to make improvements, and almost all devices for making cheap 
roofs have proved objectionable in some respect; so that a discovery that 
bids fair to obviate all these difficulties is of immense importance to the 
whole country. I am so well convinced that Mr. Wm. L. Potter, Clifton 
Park, Saratoga county, N. Y., has accidentally made this discovery, that 
I have solicited his agent to come here and show some specimens and give 
a statement of facts that this Club might have the honor of making them 
known to the world. 

Prcf. S. D. Tillman. — We shall certainly be very much indebted to the 
discoverer and to all who make known any plan that will cheapen roofing, 
not merely in the first cost, but in quality and durability. There is no 
subject of so much importance for discussion by a farmers' club. The best 
manner of making roofs is attracting great attention in Europe. One of 
the Prussian societies has lately offered two prizes for the best essays on 
this subject. The composition now exhibited to us is a mixture of coal 
tar and pulverized slate stone, which, after exposure to the sun and air, 
gradually hardens into an artificial stone. Coal tar and sand have been 
used previously. Coal tar has also besff mixed with various other sub- 
stances, but I have not before seen the composition now presented to us. 
From the specimens shown I am prepared to say it will probably answer 
all the purposes required, if it is placed upon a foundation of strong cloth. 
While the country was new and heavily timbered, and shingles cheap, no 
one thought of the difiSculties in the future. I am glad this matter has 
been introduced. 


Mr. James M. Allen, Fredericktown, Ohio, then exhibited numerous 
specimens of wood, paper, cloth and felting, coated with slate of various 
thicknesses, so firml}'^ adhering to the substance that it cannot be detached, 
and apparently so indestructible that it cannot be affected by fire or water. 
The wood ma^^ be burned to a coal, but the slate remains. The whole 
secret of the application is so simple that an}'- common mason or plasterer 
can make a slate roof without a crack or joint bi the whole surface; and 
some that have beon several years in use in Saratoga county appear to 
improve by age. 

The discoverer of the process is a Yankee, of course — the owner of a 
grist mill, founded upon slate rock. Whittling a piece of it one day, he 
guessed that he could make something of the flour, and straightway he set 
the mill at work. Then he began experimenting to see what his slate 
flour was good for. He found by mixing it with raw coal tar, to any de- 
gree of thickness, either for the brush or trowel, that it adhered firmly to, 
and in a short time hardened into a firm sheet of slate. You might burn 
away the wood, the slate remained. If spread upon a roof, exposed to a 
hot sun, the tar would not liquefy and run off, it only evaporated slowly 
and a slate remained. Of all other substances tried, nothing equaled this 
slate flour. The whittling Yankee was then satisfied that he had made 
a discovery, and one worthy^ of a patent. It is for the public to determine 
its value. A ton of this slate flour, put up in six barrels, can be sold for 
$6. I will estimate the value of two barrels of coal tar at S4. This is 
material enough to cover 17 squares {10x10 feet) of roof. It should be put 
upon felting, as wood shrinks and swells, which would cost, say 35 cents 
a square, S5. 95; tacking it on roof, $2.50; putting on the composition, 
$4.25, making a total cost of 17 squares of finished roof, $22.70; to which 
add cost of freight of materials to any locality. The cost of a gravel roof 
is $7 to $10 a square. The lowest cost of tin, $12 a square, and for good 
tin, $15 to $17; and one made of slates about the same, though requiring 
stronger wood-work. It is not necessary to have the felting saturated 
with tar at the mill, indeed it would probably be better for this mastic 
slate roof to use the felting untarred, as it is cheaper and more convenient 
to handle, and can be bought in this city at 4J cents pt3r pound. It is 
made of old woolen rags and other fibrous substances, somewhat in the 
same way that paper is made. One of the first experiments made b^^ Mr. 
Potter was to spread the mastic over an old shingle roof upon his saw-mill. 
This was three years ago, and that coating is better to-day than it was at 
first, and e'ffectually resists all the influences of the sun's ra3^s, and is 
impervious to rain, snow and ice. Here are specimens of lath and shingles 
from Mr. Potter's first experiments, with the mastic firmly adhering, almost 
incorporated into the fiber of the wood. About the thickness of pasteboard 
upoii the outside has become petrified to its original hardness of slate. The 
interior retains a degree of toughness given it by the coal tar. From this 
rate of progress in hardening it would appear to require about ten 3^ears 
to petrify a coating of one-fourth or three-eighths of an inch thick, and 
that it would then be as hard and fragile as sheets of slate of the same 
thickness from the quarry. It will then be a perfect sheet of slate the 


-whole size of the roof, without cracks, joints or scales. If you build a jfire 
upon the mastic, after it has been spread but a few days, it hardens with- 
out otherwise affecting it, even if you continue the heat until the wood is 
entirely charred. Here are specimens which have been hours in a coal 
fire. You may mix the composition thin, and put it on with a brush, and 
the wood will be covered by an impenetrable coating of slate. For a roof 
it is mixed thick and spread with a trowel, working from the ridge to the 
eaves. The coal tar must not be cooked, as it is for gravel roofs. The 
composition of any thickness is immediately adhesive and impervious. It 
is non-expansive and non-combustible. In its green state, if fire were 
applied, it would burn out the oil, leaving the slate solid as you see in this 
specimen. If you build a fire hot enough upon the roof, you may entirely 
char the boards, but cannot ignite them unless 3'ou increase the fire suflS- 
cient to make the slate red-hot; and although this artificial slate is com- 
posed of the finest grains of flour, no process has yet been discovered by 
which they can be separated from the tar so as to make them fall apart, 
crack, or separate in any degree. 

Killmer's Attachment to Plows. 

Killmer Bros., Schoharie county, exhibited a model of a plow with an 
attachment, which they have patented, by ^eans of which broom corn 
stalks, sowed corn, rye or tall weeds can be turned under and completely 
covered. The improvement consists in the manner of attaching a chain 
extended from the evener on the plow beam, which drags down whatever 
msij be standing just forward of the furrow slice. At their request a com- 
mittee was appointed, consisting- of Messrs. Solon Robinson, John G. Ber- 
gen and R. H. Williams, to witness a test of the practical operation of the 

Kinds of Fruit for Michigan. 

Mr. Wm. Bryant, Hudson, Lenawee, Mich., says: "I have just returned 
from the army, a wounded soldier, and have engaged in the fruit business. 
Will the Club te^l me what is the best, earliest and most profitable market 
cherry? Also best plums and dwarf pears?" 

Mr. John G. Bergen. — It is quite impossible for us to answer here what 
will suit best there. The Imperial cherry has proved very profitable as an 
early sort, though it and several other kinds have rotted terribly this year. 
All of the finest cherries appear most subject to disease. In a series of 
years I have found the old Black Heart or Black Eagle the most profitable 
of any that I have grown. This year the Ox Hearts and May Dukes have 
all rotted. 

Mr. Peter G. Bergen. — I have found the Belle de Choisy a most excellent 
cherry which does not rot, but there is one important objection to it when 
grown as a market fruit; it is such a shy bearer. I have found the Black 
Kentish the most hardy and the most profitable of all the varieties that I 
have grown. Of plums, probably the Green Gage would be the most trust- 
worthy for the gentleman, and for pears, Duchess d'Angouleme and 
Beurre Diel. 

proceedings of the farmers' club. 133 

Curious Results of Hybridization of Indian Corn. 

Mr. James P. Mallory, Cooperstown, III., would like to know the true 
theory of the hybridization of corn. ''All farmers know that sorts mix — 
Init how? If we ask the question we are told that it is caused by the pollen 
blown from the tassels upon the silk of the ears. If so, why are not the 
results uniform? To illustrate: I have four fields lying in a square. Last 
year the southwest corner was a wheat field ^ the northwest, pasture; the 
northeast, ten acres of white corn; the southeast, ten acres of yellow corn. 
On the east of these cornfields is a heavy growth of forest, with forest 
trees also on the north. The white corn upon the north side of the field 
was badly mixed with yellow, while that upon the south side, and imme- 
diately adjoining the yellow field, was not badly mixed. Can the Club ex- 
plain to me the cause of this singular mixture," 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — It is a case of easy explanation. Owing 
to the shelter of the forest, the white corn upon the north side of the field 
was more advanced than that immediately adjoining the field of yellow 
corn. At the exact right time a south wind prevailed which carried the 
yellow pollen upon the silk of all the white corn that was in condition to 
receive it^ and that is why the north part of the field was more mixed than 
the south part. Cases frequently occur where adjoining rows of corn are 
not mixed. It is because the pollen and silk of the respective rows are 
not in unity of time, without which no hybridization can take place. 

Fish Breeding, 

John Sa«ford, Porterville, N. Y., wants to know if the Club can tell him 
how to introduce brook trout into an artificial pond, 

Mr. Solon Robinson.- — In the first place purchase a book upon artificial 
fish breeding, which you can obtain of any large bookseller. If that is not 
sufficient, visit Dr. G-arlick, Cleveland, Ohio; Mr, Robert L. Pell, Ulster 
count3% N, Y.; Mr, Ains worth. West Bloomfield, N. Y.; Messrs. Treat & 
Son, Eastport, Me.; Mr. E. C. Kellogg, Hartford, Ct., all of whom are 
practical fish breeders. 

Eggs by Railroad, 

Mrs, Mary J. Doming, !Florissant, Mo., answers the question whether eggs 
will hatch which have been transported by railroad, by the following per- 
sonal experience: *' Several years ago, my husband's father, wishing us to 
have a particular breed of chickens — the Bolton JGreys — brought two 
dozen eggs from Stockbridge, Mass., to this place, sixteen miles west of 
St. Louis. Of these eggs about one-half hatched. They were packed in 
a box, closely filled with bran." 

Cure for Gapes in Chickens. 

Mr. G-. Albert Lonas, Shaker Village, Albany, N. Y., gives the following 
sure cure, or rather prevention of gapes in chickens, which he says he has 
proved by a number of years' experience to be entirely infallible: 

"Take four parts of common lamp oil, two parts of petroleum oil, and 
one ounce of origanum; mix, shake well; apply a small portion under the 
wings and on the breast of the mother hen the first night after leaving the 


nest; no more need be done. If any one realizes, what I have stated from 
this, I hope he will, in return payment, do me the favor of giving his next 
poor neighbor a chicken for his next Christmas dinner." We hope who- 
ever profits by the recipe will not forget to make payment as directed. We 
should like to know if the remedy proves equally infallible with all those 
who may try it, and if so we shall not despair of every poor man having a 
chicken for his Christmas dinner. 

How TO Kill Apple Tree Worms. 

Mr. S. P. Snow, Amador, Wapello county, Iowa, describes a kind of 
measuring worm which made its appearance in that section last year in 
great numbers, and destroyed the fruit and foliage of thousands of apple 
trees. He ha^ now discovered how to destroy the worms, and wishes 
everybody who reads these reports to have the same knowledge. He says: 
"A slight tap upon the limb and thousands of worms spin to the ground 
upon threads^ and start at a jumping gallop for the body of the tree, where 
their progress may be arrested by the application of soap, molasses or tar, 
until they can be destroyed by the handful. This slight amount of labor 
may save thousands of bushels of apples to the farmers of any section 
infested with this pest." 

Destructive Potato Bugs. 

Mr. Snow gives the following description of the potato bugs which have 
so infested the West for a few years: " There is a species of striped, black 
and yellow bug, shaped like half a pea, half an inch long, infesting our 
potatoes. We go over our half acre every few days,, taking a quart o-r two 
at a picking. They lay a dozen or two of yellow eggs a tenth of an inch 
long, which adhere to the potato vine, and soon hatch and produ-ee full 
grown bugs in a few days. I may be wrong in this, bu»t appearances 
strongly favor it. Their wings are hard and shiny; they seldom fly." 

Mr. A Storrs, Springville, Linn county, Iowa,, says: "I &end enclosed in a 
vial a male and female potato bug', also some of the eggs. I have found large 
numbers of the lady bug sucking the eggs of the potato bugs. It is the young 
brood that do the most mischief. The only way to grow potatoes is to go 
over the ground every day, or at farthest every two days, and destroy the 
eggs. By this and the assistance of the lady bugs we hope to get rid of 
the pest. Permit me to thank the Club for their earnest defence of the 
little birds. They are surely the farmers' best friend. And let me say 
through you to those living on the prairies?, if you would have birds you 
must plant groves. In addition to your own comfort of having your house 
protected by a grove, it will call the birds around your dwelling, adding a 
very great attraction to your home for every lover of the beautiful, to say 
nothing of their utility. We live some two miles from the timber, yet 
with a little labor bestowed every year in planting trees, we have called 
about us quite an army of little songsters; and it is amusing to see them 
pick the worms from the trees. Our cotton woods were attacked by a 
green worm that ate off the leaves. The martins found it out, and these, 


with blackbirds, catbirds and robins, soon used up the worms and saved 
the trees." 

Mr. Storrs makes an earnest appeal for the prairie hens as among the 
best friends the farmer has in the feathered tribe. He says they arc ac- 
cused of eating grain in autumn, but if they do, it is very sure they eat 
great numbers of insects, for their broods are all raised at a time when 
there is no grain for them to feed upon. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — This method of planting an orchard is the true one 
for Iowa, or any bleak western State where there is no timber to protect 
the fruit trees. I know an orchard which has borne every year the last 
six, with the trees planted the above distance apart. Apple trees in this 
State should never be cultivated after July, as the thrifty growth of the 
wood splits the bark." 

Mr. Kiilmer inquired about the effect of washing the trees with ley. He 
was fearful he had used it too strong. 

The Chairman said that the recipe was a half pound of potash to a gal- 
lon of water. He has some trees which show very smooth bark which 
were washed eight years ago. He added lime and cow-droppings to the 

Mr. R. H. Williams thought the only benefit of the latter two ingredients 
was to wash them down to the roots. He had whitewashed trees without 
any benefit. He would apply everything of a fertilizing nature to the soil 
at some distance from the tree ; never allow a plow to come within four 
feet of it. It is a rule with potash boilers that three gallons of strong ley 
will make a pound of potash. He prefers to prune young apple trees so as 
to make a low, spreading head. 

Ashes for Small Fruits. 

Mr. Reed inquires whether unleached ashes would be good for currants, 
gooseberries and other small fruits. In answer to this, several members 
of the €lub reply that unleached ashes are beneficial upon ever}^ plant cul- 
tivated upon the farm or garden. They may be applied at any season and 
in any moderate quantity ; and upon corn at the rate of half a pint to the 
hill, they are worth as much per bushel as the corn is when grown, for a 
ha.lf pint will increase the yield more than that measure, besides a large 
addition to the fodder. 

Currants and Raspberries in Orchards. 

Mr. David J. Bell, Otoe county, Nebraska Territory, wants to know if 
currants, raspberries, etc., can be successfully cultivated in orchards, and 
if grapes and strawberries can be grown in lat. 41° and 42°, where the 
country is open prairie, and the soil sandy. In reply, currants, raspber- 
ries and strawberries, can be profitably grown in an orchard while the 
trees are small. Plant them in rows with the trees, and if the rows are 
far enough apart to allow plowing upon each side, you may plant one row 
ill the middle. To grow any fruit successful U^, you must keep the ground 
thoroughly cultivated, and not let it becoaie exhausted by a grain crop.. 
Unless the land is naturally very rich, if you undertake to grow any other 


fruit with the apple trees, j^ou should use manure liberally. Grapes and 
strawberries can both be grown successfully upon the open prairie very 
much further north than 41 and 42 degrees. 

How TO Preserve Orchards from Decay and Death. 

Mr. Nathan Shotwell, Elba, Genesee county, N. Y., thinks the cause of 
the present appearance of decay and death in so many orchards is owing 
entirely to neglect and bad management. He thinks a majority of orchards 
in that county have that neglected appearance; some are not pruned at 
all, others are carelessly haggled and large limbs left with protruding 
stumps that cannot heal over. Orchards are plowed and the roots torn; 
and many farmers who have access to leaves, muck, saw dust, he, never 
mulch their trees, nor remove the rough bark, which furnishes a harbor for 
insects. It should be scraped off with a hoe, and the tree washed with 
strong ley. An old orchard, planted by my father, still in vigorous growth 
and bearing, has not been plowed for thirty years. It has generally been 
pastured with swine till apples began to ripen; manure frequently put to 
the roots of the trees, destroying the toughness of the sod and making the 
soil loose and spongy; and the scions (the last year's growth) that were 
large enough for grafting, have nearly all been removed yearly for more 
than forty years. I believe removing the young scions had helped mate- 
rially to make the orchard to bear profusely. In grafting an orchard^ 
hearing kinds should be selected. Many kinds of delicious apples are 
sparse bearers to raise for market. Khode Island Greening, Roxbury Rus- 
set, Baldwin, Ribstone Pippin, &c., are among the be&t bearers in Western 
New York. 

Fence Posts. 

Mr. Joseph Workman, Hayesville, Ashland county^ Ohio, who says be m 
a Pennsylvania -clodhopper, 80 years old, and has had a great deal of expe- 
rience in the durability of charred wood, has come to the conclusion that 
although charcoal is indestructible, a charred pest will decay sooner than 
one not charred at all, because timber when scorched absorbs and holds 
water more than it does in its natural state. Mr. W. has found by expe- 
rience that posts set top end down remain perfectly sounds while those 
butt end down rot off at the surface. 

Horse Shoes. 

Mr. Workman recommeuds horse shoes to be made broad, thin^ and flat 
as possible, and the foot pared fiat, so as to have the soft part supported. 
He says: '* I adopted this plan 40 years ago, and have since not had a lame 
horse, except one pricked in shoeing." 

Blind Staggers in Horses, 

A New Hampshire farmer says: " Quite a discussion has been going on 
in some of our papers this spring in regard to the plants called * horsetails ^ 
(Equiseta). A sort of paralysis or staggers has prevailed quite exten- 
sively among the horses of this State and Northern Massachusetts, which 
The New Hampahire Journal of Agriculture stoutly maintains to be caused 


by 'horsetail' in the haj^ while The Massachusetts Ploughman as stoutly 
maintains the other side of the question. Will the Farmers' Club have the 
kindness to inform us whether the plants in question have ever been known 
to possess poisonous qualities, or to injure horses or other animals in the 
manner indicated, or in any manner ? My own idea is, that the scarcity 
and enormous price of hay and consequent poor keeping, will sufficiently 
account for the trouble, without calling in the aid of these silicious weeds.'' 

Mr. Solon Robinson. ^I do not quite agree with this correspondent that 
the disease in question is caused by low diet. The disease is similar to 
that which affects other stock, and is about as likely to attack those in 
good condition as it is those which are half starved. Some animals, swine 
for instance, when attacked, appear to be affected with vertigo, whirling 
and running madly around until they at last fall. When horses are 
severely attacked, they are at once taken with trembling in their hind legs, 
throw themselves back upon them as if frightened by something before 
them, and reel and stagger, for all the world like a drunken man. They 
are usually costive, and their blood appears thick and dark colored, in 
some cases too thick to flow from the veins. The disease has been ascribed 
to low feeding and high feeding, to overwork and no work, to indigestion 
and to poisonous food. In our opinion it would be just as reasonable to 
charge human dyspepsia to horsetail in the hay as it is to charge to it the 
cause of blind staggers in horses. 

In cases we have seen there was no appearance of disease until the 
animal was suddenly attacked. In other cases apparently the same dis- 
ease takes the form of paralysis and comes on gradually. "We should like 
to hear from some of the readers of these reports whether the plant known 
as horsetail (Equisetum) exists in all localities where the blind staggers 
are known. It is possible that the disease now prevalent in New Hamp- 
shire is caused by some part of the horses' food. If so-, it is a very good 
reason for their growing better food, and if the land is insufficient to pro- 
duce an abundance of better food for horses, we would respectfully suggest 
that besides the great West, there is a very large tract of country known 
as Dixie lately o})ened to settlement by enterprising Yankees, We don't 
know whether the blind staggers in horses prevails there; we know it does 
in men, and that they eat inordinate quantities of a very poisonous weed. 

The plant which is supposed to produce the disease of the horses in New 
Hampshire grows usually upon low intervals or around pools, and seldom 
upon upland. It flourishes best in a rich, sandy, loam}^ soil, where the 
roots can extend to wat^r. It is common upon streams that overflow. Its 
usual height is only five or six inches, with dark bluish leaves, resembling 
the foliage of white pine, and as a whole, bears some resemblance to a 
dwarf pine tree. It is better known in some sections as pine-weed than it 
is as horsetail. To a botanist, it is a very pretty interesting plant. In all 
of our experience, and all we have ever read or heard upon the subject of 
staggers in horses or other farm stock, we have never been able to fix upon 
any one thing as the cause, without directly finding some incontrovertible 
fact to upset the theory. In the present case there is this fact, that the 
horsetail plant has been known ever since the country was settled, and was 


then probably as much consumed as now; but the disease now attributed 
to it is comparatively of recent origin. 

Osage Orange Hedge. 

Mr. Keuben Reed, Livingston, Iowa, ogives the fullowing directions for 
growing Osage orange hedge: 

*' If you intend to plant this fall, the ground should be prepared now; 
where you' want your hedges, throw five or six furrows together (back 
them up, as we farmers term it); should weeds grow up, back up again 
just before the seeds mature; in the fall, say about 1st of October, open a 
trench with a narrow shovel plow four inches deep, drill your Osage orange 
seed in this trench, cover with well pulverized soil from four to five inches 
deep (the seed should be about one inch apart); in the spring, when up, 
thin out to two and a half inches, keep well hoed and clean of weeds. In 
the fall before hard freezing begins, cut down to three inches in height, 
cover them well with straw, long manure, or any material to protect them 
during winter; the next spring the covering should be removed from im- 
mediately over the young plant; it will serve to mulch the plant during 
summer; in the fall cut down again if you want it thicker. Osage orange 
has a long tap-root; in transplanting from nursery beds this tap-root is 
severed; hence some four or six years generally is required to obtain a 
hedge that will turn stock, the plant being greatly injured by cutting the 
tap-root. Let those intending to plant hedges tr}'- the method I have de- 
scribed, and I will insure a hedg'e, good and thrifty in three years, in any 
of the western and northwestern States. This is no theory, but the bona 
fide experience of an old farmer who has miles of hedge and has never 
failed on this method." 

Orchards in Iowa. 

Mr. Keed gives the following recommendations about an orchard: "Plant 
your apple trees 12 feet apart each waj-; in Mty, with small corn plow, 
run three furrows on each side of your apple tree rows, turning the soil 
toward the trees; the balance of the soil between the trees let it remain 
undistuibed until the weeds have well grown; with a large plow in August 
turn these under, they will enrich the soil; raise no potatoes, vines or any 
kind of crop in your orchard; what those crops take from the soil is so 
much deducted from your fruit trees." 

Low Priced Fruit Baskets. 

Mr. John Churchman, Burlington, X. J., exhibits the latest new pattern 
of a cheap fruit basket. It is one of the many contrivances that have been 
made since this Club recommended baskets made of shavings of wood, so 
cheaply that it would not be necessary for the consumers of berries to re- 
turn the baskets to the berry growers. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — The plan of this one is right for that purpose; the 
price is not. They are charged at $12.50 per one thousand for quarts; $10 
for pints. Whenever they can be made and sold at half these prices, the 
public will accept them. The form is a shaving just wide and long enough 


to double round and buckle, forming the four sides of a parallelogram box. 
It has slots cut in each end to receive tongues formed upon a piece that 
makes the bottom. These being buckled in, the box is ready for use. They 
must be put together while the stuff is wet. 

For transportation the stuff may he put up in flats, and costs only three- 
fourths the sum of made up boxes. The objections that parties interested 
make to all these cheap boxes, not intended to be returned, is this: They 
say as the crates must go back they might just as well go full of the boxes 
or baskets as to go empty. The advantage which the advocates of cheap 
baskets contend for are, first — that the baskets are always new and always 
clean, that the difference of weight and cost of freight will soon pay the 
difference between these cheap boxes and one that is more permanent. A 
person who is au fait upon that subject, suggests that if the baskets do 
not cost the consumer more than half a cent apiece, the}" will always be 
worth that for various uses, and at last pay cos^s for kindling wood. Mr. 
Churchman gives the weight of one hundred of his boxes at 9| lbs., while 
one hundred of the old square boxes weigh 50 lbs. He therefore thinks it 
cheaper for the fruit-grower to use the box only once. lie also thinks that 
fruit always sent in clean boxes will acquire a reputation that will com- 
mand a price enough higher to pay the cost of new boxes. 


June 27, 1865. 
Mr. Nathax C. Ely in the chair; Mr. Johx W. Chambers, Secretary. 

Caustic Soda Wash for Fruit Trees. 

Mr. A. H. Mills, Middlebury, Yt., thinks there must have been some error 
in the directions given for preparing caustic soda, so often recommeaded 
by Prof. Mapes as a wash for fruit trees. Mr. Mills says the directions 
were to heat sa! soda red hot in any iron vessel. Prof. Mapes said, "a 
piece of old stovepipe will do." Mr. Mills says: "I procured my sal soda 
of a druggist, hunted up a piece of stovepii^e, put in my soda, and laid it 
on the fire, when whew ! the water began to pour out of both ends of mj' 
stovepipe, and I had to 'fly around' to get it off before it all ran away. 
After this, TsHien any one talks to me of heating sal soda red hot, I will ask 
them to try their hand on a piece of ice first, and if they succeed with that, 
they ma}^ then try the soda with reasonable hopes of success. This is my 
experience with soda wash. If any other experimenter wishes to try it on 
I have no objections, and it is one of that class of hoaxes that cost but 
little, so go in, friends ! Seriously, however, I think there must have been 
some mistake about it-^ but I used what has always been known here as 
sal soda. There is the bi-carbonate of soda, w^hich will stand heating; but 
that is not sal soda, neither is it what was recommended. It seems, then, 
I followed directions and failed. Why ?" 

Mr. Solon Kobinson. — I am satisfied that I reported the directions as 
given. I cannot tell why the gentleman failed. 


Prof. Mapes. — Mr. Mills has given an account of his failure in 
heating sal soda in a piece of old stovepipe. If I did not give 
directions sufficiently definite before, I will do so now. Such an article is 
often used in chemical laboratories for similar nurposes. It is no better 
than a cast iron pot, but is sometimes more convenient or accessible. But 
it cannot be used in the manner in which I presume it was by the person 
who wrote the letter. It appears probable he put the sal soda into the 
piece of stovepipe and laid it flat upon the fire. Of course heat would 
cause it to sputter, and froth, and run away almost as readily as a piece 
of ice. I will now tell him how to proceed. In the first place, beat one 
end of the pipe flat and double it over, and bury that end deeply down in 
the fire, the pipe standing upright; then commence putting in the sal soda, 
a little at a time, and continue to add gradually, and it will finally cease 
to effervesce, after expelling all the water and carbonate acid, and is then 
proximately caustic; and when mixed as directed, one pound to a gallon of 
water, makes an alkali far better than potash, because it will not burn and 
injure any living plant, while it lias the effect to decompose the dead bark 
of the trees upon which it is applied, and destroy insects and their nesting 
places. An alkali made of potash might be equally serviceable, but if it 
happened to be a little too strong, would be injurious to delicate trees. A 
wash made with lime is only beneficial so far as the alkali is concerned, 
while the carbonate of lime which coats upon the bark in the form of white- 
wash is positively injurious. 

AiLANTus Silk-Worms. 

Mr. C. H. Kenncy, Springfield, Vt., says: "Having recentl}^ come into 
possession of some of the ailantus silk- worms of China {Atlacus Cynthia^ 
according to Drur}^), and their favorite food being the ailantus, I wish to 
inquire of the 'Farmers' Club,' whose reports are of great value to the 
farmer, what common name the ailantus has in this country, and also if 
some of the members could furnish me some' seeds if I sent for them. 
Should the Club wish I will inform them of my success with the w^orms." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — The common name of the tree is Ailantus; its 
more exalted name is " Tree of Heaven.'* Its seeds are so abundant in 
autumn all around New York that the offer of a dollar a bushel would soon 
produce enough to load a wagon. We shall be glad to hear of the success 
of the silk-worm which feeds upon ailantus leaves. 


A correspondent at Oberlin, Ohio, wants to know how to prevent the 
attacks of horse-flies. He has tried boiling hickory'- leaves and washing 
horses wnth the water, as recommended so often in the papers. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — -The recommendation has not been to use hickory 
leaves, but walnut, which in New England would be understood to mean 
some one of the hickory (carya) family, and in Ohio, black walnut [jiiglans 
nigra). Which is the article, or how to use it, I have never discovered. 
Mr. Williams said the mistake was in boiling the leaves. Hickory leaves 
should be macerated in cold water, and that wash upon the hair leaves an 


odor offensive to the flies. If they are boiled, the odor is dissipated and a 
coloring matter is extracted. 

Rose Bugs. 

Mr. John Dixon, Foxborough, Massachusetts, wants the Club to inform 
him what he shall do with the rose bugs which are so destructive in his 
neighborhood. "They are now, June 24, destroying the leaves of the 
cherry trees." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — There is no remedy against this insect but untiring, 
persevering manual labor. If rosebushes, spireas or rhubarb, are grown 
near cherry trees, grapevines, or other things upon which the rose bugs 
prey, they will take first those more favorite plants, and can then be 
gathered by hand, shaken into a pan of water, or jarred off upon a sheet 
spread upon the ground, gathered and put into the fire. 

A Discussion upon Insects. 

Dr. Trimble opened half a dozen packages, containing specimens from 
various parts of the country, particularly the destructive potato bugs of 
Iowa, and specimens of the lady bugs which destroy them. 

Mr. A. Storrs, Springville, Linn count^^ Iowa, says that ''a red spotted 
bug, which is found upon the potato vines, and supposed by 
some persons to be one of the destructors, does not eat the vines, but sucks 
the eggs of the striped bug, which is the real enemy. To prove this, I left 
one piece entirely uncared for, and from present appearances (June loth) 
the spotted bugs, commonly known as the lady bug, will destroy the striped 
ones to such an extent that they will do but little harm.^' 

Mr. Norman Matteson corroborates Mr. Storrs about the parasitical 
character of one kind of bugs fopnd upon the potato vines. He says: 
" The destructors begin their work as soon as the sprouts appear above 
ground. From 20 to 50 yellow eggs are depo.sited upon the under side of 
a leaf. Thes^ eggs are sucked and destro3^ed by the other bug which I 
have heard called lady bug, and have often seen them very numerous close 
around the roots of large apple trees. The only wa}" we can grow potatoes 
here is to go over the field every day and destroy the egg>i found upon the 
leaves. Can the Club give us any remedy? The crops in Iowa are gene- 
rally healthy and bid fair for a good yield, except where the potatoes may 
be destroyed by these terrible pests." 

Dr. Trimble said, "You see here that lady bugs are the farmer^s best 
friends. They never do him any injury, for they do not live upon vegeta- 
ble food, and they should always be carefully protected." 

Mr. John G. Bergen, who is a very large grower of squashes for the New 
York market, having sent in 180 bushels one day last week, contended that 
lady bugs do prey upon his squash vines, and therefore it is a great mis- 
take to eay they do no harm. 

Dr. Trimble said that the trouble with the gentleman is that he donH 
know squash bugs from lady bug's. There is quite a variety of the latter. 
You see these from Iowa are very different in their appearance from those 
common here. 


Here is a letter from Milford, Del., inclosing* " a specimen of an insect 
of the fl}^ species, that is a scourge to peach growers in this section. It 
stings the young peaches, they bleed and rot, and when the insects become 
more numerous, the Delaware crop will be a total failure." This insect is 
simply the curculio, nothing else — the}'- will get used to it by and by. 

The Chairman said: "A writer in one of the agricultural journals speaks 
of the curculio as a friend to the peach-growers of southern Illinois; it 
thins out the crop, sothat the remaining fruit comes to greater perfection." 

Dr. Trimble. — Here is a letter and a box from western New York, in 
which a gentleman inclosed a leaf with a leaf-eating worm. Here is the 
remainder of the leaf, the fleshy part all consumed, and here are the cast- 
ings of the worm, but there is no worm, or other remains of one. It could 
not have escaped, for the box was hermetically sealed. What has become 
of it? At first I was puzzled to know, until I found in the debris this 
lively little chap which was probably hatched while the other was feeding, 
and in due time fell upon and ate him up bodily. It is thus that one insect 
constantly preys upon another. I wish the people of western New York 
had something to eat up all their worms, for I never saw amy country so 
bady infested with tent-caterpillars. They seem to have taken complete 
possession of the orchards, and if the people do not destroy the worms, 
they will destroy the trees, for no orchard can live long that is annually 
denuded of its leaves. I saw also in Wyoming county, swarms of the 
seventeen-year locust. Here are some of the twigs in which the eggs are 
deposited. They will hatch in about sixty days, and the j'^oung insects 
drop and fall to the earth, in which they remain until ready to emerge 
seventeen years hence. The parents live above ground upon the trees 
about three weeks. 

Ants Destroying Strawberries. 

Mr. C. S. Rust, Fulton, N. Y., sa^^s "he cannot grow strawberries in 
consequence of the multiplicity of ants which make their nests among the 
roots of the vines. He has tried various things without success, such as 
whale oil soap, tobacco, kerosene oil, sulphur, white hellebore, cayenne 
pepper, snuff, ashes and salt. The latter came near killing the plants, but 
did not kill the ants. What shall I do? Must I succumb to the little pests? 
Please bring the matter before the Club. My soil is the reverse of sandy." 

Grapevine Destroyers. 

Mr. George W. Smith, writes to the Club, " in hopes to learn of a 
remedy for the small green worms, about a quarter or one-eighth 
of an inch long, which have taken complete possession of the 
vines, stripping them of all foliage, the flowers soon wilting. There is 
also a small bug on the honeysuckle, which, when squeezed in the hand, 
stains it as if dyed." 

Currant Worms. 

Mr. C. G. Boardman, Vermillion, Oswego county, N. Y., gives the fol- 
lowing observations upon the currant worm, which of late years has been 
so destructive in the central part of the State. He says: 


"As soon as the leaves appear in the spring, a fly — of about the size of 
the common house fly but more slim — commences operations by laying its 
eggs along the stems on the under side of the leaf. I have counted as 
many as 75 of these little eggs upon a single leaf. These soon hatch, and 
at first are of a whitish green color, but grow darker as they increase in 
size. They soon fall and disappear in the ground. (They may be found 
by sifting the earth under the tree.) In the course of two or three weeks 
they come out as flies. This reproduction is continued until every leaf is 
destroyed. The remedy that I have successfully used this season is this: 
Dig up or cut away every bush that is not easy of access. Keep the top 
open, that every portion of it may be inspected. Visit them every day 
and pick off and destroy the leaves that have holes in them — they indicate 
the presence of the enemy. To prevent their attack I wet the bushes with 
liquid hen manure, being careful to apply it to the under side. For apply- 
ing it a bush or some large leaf may be used. While the bushes are thus 
wet I dust on powdered hellebore, being careful to apply this also to the 
under side of the leaves. For applying it a bush or some large leaf must 
be used. Care should be taken not to inhale the dust, as it is poisonous. 
I have also used the liquid manure and hellebore on melon vines with per- 
fect success. Not a bug ventured near. Of course it must be applied as 
often as it is washed off by rains. The white, not the black, hellebore 
should be used and may be obtained at the drug store. 

To Destroy Cut-Worms. 

Mr. 0. S. Hobbs, Randolph, Pa., says: "During the months of July and 
August, at which time they appear as ' millers,' make bonfires on warm 
evenings, into which thousands will rush from every quarter. Then keep 
glass jars partly filled with lees of wine, sweetened vinegar, soap-suds, 
&c., all over the land; attend to them once a week, emptying the millers 
and renewing the bait. This treatment, if generally adopted, would soon 
make cut- worms scarce.'' 

''All Bee Moths may be destroj^ed by placing glass jars near the hives 
partly filled with sweetened vinegar, water, lees, &c., during the summer 
season. This method is worth more to the apiarian than all the patent 
hives or preventatives ever offered to the gullible public. 

"Elders. — Cut them several times during the season, and especially 
during the month of August, and in two years 'Elders' will be minus. 

"This rule is applicable to all trees, shrubs, plants, &c. Even the 
Canada thistle will yield To persistent ' treatment,' and no other is recom- 

'■'Strawberry Wine 'is little better than sweetened rain-water,' saj^s S. 
Robinson to the Ft^rmers' Club. I will send you a bottle next fall, trusting 
that such contradictions will not prove unpalatable." 


144 transactions of the american institute. 

Coal Ashes Valuable as Manure. 

Mr. L. W. 0. Beam, Croxton, Ohio, gives a very definite answer to the 
question whether coal ashes are valuable as manure. He says: " lu the 
spring of '62, I plowed up an old meadow somewhat of a clay soil — after- 
ward hauled out and spread on a part of it coal ashes; planted it in corn 
and found that where I used the coal ashes I had at least double amount 
corn; in '63, had the same result in wheat; in '64, I cut a crop of clover off 
of it in June, and still it doubled: but in the fall of '64, which was very 
wet, the difference was most marked. I have no hesitation in saying that 
I had five-fold on that part, as it was lodged on that, w^hile on the other, 
not five feet distant, there was scarcely anything, it being dry after the 
first crop was cut. The sa^me result was perceptible where coal ashes had 
been applied some years previous." 

Peach Trees in Connecticut. 

Mr. William Griffin, West Granby, Ct., gives us the following letter 
about peach trees in Connecticut: 

'• Why can we not raise peaches in New England as formerly? We had 
plenty of peaches when I was a boy, and we had cold winters and spring 
frosts then as often as now. Trees were set on new land, and in old fields, 
on the hills and in the vallej^s, in gardens, and by the fences, rocks and 
stumps, and the peach crop hardly ever failed. I have seen a peach tree 
on a high hill in an old barren field that had borne delicious fruit for fifty 
years, and till within a few years there were many trees in the old fields that 
had been growing nearly as long. Has the climate changed, or are the trees 
less vigorous; for now peach trees in this region are mostly dead, and we 
can make them live but a few years at best, and seldom bear fruit while 
they do live? They do best on high grounds and in soil not very rich. 
Last winter was called a cold one, though the mercury in the thermometer 
did not fall lower than ten degrees below zero. The peach buds on low 
lands were killed; on high ground they were not. Several years ago I had 
a peach tree that I neglected to trim, so that one branch lay on the ground 
and was covered with snow during most of the winter. That branch bore 
fruit the next summer; none others did. One of my neighbors had a large 
tree, one branch of which was split down from the trunk by an ice storm, 
lay on the ground and was covered with snow. The following season it 
was loaded with peaches, while there were none on any other branch or 
tree. About thirty years ago there was a snow storm and frost one night, 
when fruit trees were in blossom. The woman witli whom I boarded did her 
washing the daj before, and, for want of a clothes line, spread her clothes 
on the currant bushes and peach trees in the garden, where they remained 
until the next day's sun had dispersed the snow and frost. The bushes 
and branches that had been covered bore fruit; on all others the fruit was 

A Jersey Strawberry Crop. 

Mr. S. B. Nichols, Hammondton, N. J., gives us the following results of 
the strawberry season at that place: "Season, fore part favorable, with 


plenty of rain — last two weeks dry and hot, berries scalded on the vines 
and ripened too quick. Picking' commenced 20th of May and ended 12th of 
June. Season ten days earlier than last year. Kind marketed mainly 
Wilsons. Average crop to acre 00 bushels. Average net receipts fifteen 
cents per quart, deducting freight and commission. Amount shipped daily 
from 75 acres, 300 bushels for 18 days. Some fields have done better. I 
received $180 net proceeds from about one-quarter acre of Wilson's. Our 
Lawton and Dorchester blackbeny vines are loaded with fruit, and the 
prospect now is that we shall have a very large crop. Picking of black- 
berries will commence about the 1st of July. Red and black raspberries 
have been ripe several days. The rosebug is troubling some vine3'ards 
badly. Have seen no mildew this season. Peaches, a fair crop. Apples 
and pears much blown off. " 

Osier Willow. 

Mr. R. H, Arnold, Honeoye, N. Y., asks the following questions: "Will 
any member of the Club give me the following information respecting the 
osier or basket willow? Is there a sufficient demand fur it to make the 
growing of it profitable? Will it grow well on wet, rich, low land? How 
far apart should it be set? What time of year should it be cut?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — We respectfully refer Mr. Arnold and other anxious 
inquirers about osier willow to Colby Brothers, Waterbury, Vt. We can 
briefly state however, that the demand is sufficient to require a very largo 
importation, and we know of no reason why it should not be as profitable 
here as it is in Europe. It will grow upon wet, rii:h lowland, and should 
be set two to three feet apart. It should be cut in Autumn. 

Pear Blight. 

Dr. Isaac M. Ward said: "I am sorry to be obliged to announce that the 
pear blight has at length made its appearance in New Jersey. We don't 
fear the caterpillar and other insects, but we dread the appearance of the 
blight- We lost our cherry crop this year by some atmospheric influence, 
and about the same time I discovered the blight making its appearance upon 
my pear trees. It was first seen upon the Doyenne d'Ete. There is a 
crop of worms now making its appearance which are different from the 
caterpillar, equally or more destructive, but if taken in time can be easily 

Mr.John G.Bergen said: "We have not been troubled with blight upon Long 
Island to any extent, for the past ten years. Last year I noticed it in the top 
of a Belle Lucrative which stood in the midst of my orchard. I know that I 
ought to have cut away the limbs atfected immediately. This 3'ear I saw more 
blight upon the same tree. The wind prevailed from the south, and other 
trees in the line of the diseased one to a distance of 75 feet north were 
very soon after attacked. The kinds most liable seem to be Glout Morceau 
and Belie Lucrative, and to some extent the Bartlett, the Louise Bonne de 
Jersey and Diichesse are not affected. 

The disease appeared on the first tree about the 1st of June. I find a 
[Am. Inst.] J 


gummy substance upon the limbs when first attacked, and where that runs 
down the limb the blight is sure to follow. I fully agree in the recommen- 
dation that farmers should destroy all the caterpillars that make their ap- 
pearance upon the trees; but unless all do it simultaneously it will not be 
very effectual. I destroyed them very carefully one j^ear upon my orchard, 
and the next year they were worse than ever; afterwards without cause, 
they seemed to nearly disappear from the whole neighborhood. There is a 
higher law than man's that regulates the insect tribes. 
Adjourned to July 11. 

July 11, 1865. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ely in the chair; Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretary. 

The table to-day was finely ornamented by a collection of flowers, brought 
in by Mrs. Doyle, one of our lady visitors. Among them we noticed some 
specimens of Clematis, remarkably^fine, the flowers being nearly two inches 
in diameter, of a purplish or niauve color. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter. — The Clematis exhibited by Mrs. Doyle is a very 
fine variety, and I take this occasion to highly commend this class ot plants 
to the attention of all lovers of flowers, as they are hardy and can be grown 
upon any spot large enough to obtain root hold. 

Mr. Solon Kobinson observed that he had one planted where there was 
not over a foot square of rich earth, in a hole of the rocks, from which it 
grows and climbs beautifully around one of the posts of the piazza, and is 
always much admired by those to whom the Clematis is not familiar. 
Mrs. Hallock said that some of the native varieties growing wild 
are very pretty and worthy of cnltivation. Sometimes they grow over 
stone walls, their blue and white flowers interspersed. 

Wilson Early Blackberry. 

Mr. John S. Collins, Moorestown, Burlington, N. J,, made an exhibition 
of the Wilson Early Blackberr}^ so named from having been discovered by 
a Mr. Wilson of that county, and because it is earlier than any other known 
variety of high blackberry. From the first to the last ripening is only 
about two weeks, and they are all off before the Lawton is ready. Next 
year Mr. Collins will have 25 acres of this sort growing for the Philadelphia 
market, from which his place is eastward about nine miles. 


Mr. E. Williams, Montclair, New Jersey, presented some beautiful speci- 
mens of Cherry and Versailles currants, for the purpose of showing the 
difference between the two, which he said he did for the particular benefit 
of Mr. Robinson, who had stated that he had never been able to discover 
any difference, having received his from two celebrated nurserymen, one 
under the name of Cherry and the other Versailles. 

Mr. Robinson, having tasted the specimens, said mine are all like this sort. 

Then, said Mr. Williams, yours are all Versailles, which I consider much 
the best. Mr. Williams also presented a limb of the cluster gooseberry. 


loaded with healthy fruit. It is an American seedling, highly recommended 
for its hardiness and fruitfulness. 

Flour of Bone. 

Professor Mapes presented specimens of bone dust, ground in Boston by 
the Boston Milling and Manufacturing Company, by some new process, 
finer than he had ever seen bones reduced by any other mode of grinding. 
He would consider 15 bushels of this bone flour better for the first five 
years than 50 bushels of coarse bone. Half-inch bones will last 40 years, 
and of course, until they are decayed, are of no value to crops. He cautions 
farmers against buying bone sawings, as he has seen them of 90 per cent 
vegetable ivory, which is of no value as a fertilizer. 

Downing's Fruit Garden at Newburgh. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter gave some interesting particulars of a recent visit 
to Charles Downing. With only seven acres inclosed, part of which is 
pastured, and ample room allowed for roads, buildings, lawn, etc., he still 
finds space sufficient to grow more than 1,000 varieties of apples and pears. 
Of course, many sorts are engrafted upon one stock. He also has about 
100 sorts of grapes, and all the varieties of currants and raspberries of any 
value, and some that are quite worthless. His object is to test everything, 
and to obtain a personal knowledge which sort is really valuable. He 
looks upon Brinckle's Orange as one of the best raspberries known to cul- 
tivators. Mr. Carpenter thinks that a seedling produced from that by Mr. 
Downing shows a marked improvement. Mr. D. does not think the black 
and yellow c&p raspberries worth}^ of cultivation. A new currant called 
Fertile de Palluau is considered better than Cherry or Versailles. Of white 
currants. May's Victoria is ahead. The value of a currant crop to fruit- 
growers, Mr. Carpenter thinks, is not sufficiently appreciated — that an 
acre will give greater net returns than an acre of any other fruit. He 
recommends Mr. Downing's garden as a model for all cultivators. By order 
and system, it is kept free of weeds with a remarkably small amount of 
labor. As a rule, the whole surface is stirred after every rain, and no 
weeds are allowed to get a start so as to produce seed. 

Curing Clover Hay. 

Mr. II. P. Cobb, Northville, Michigan, sends a specimen from the bottom 
of a mow made last year, which is as bright and sweet as though just 
taken from a cock well cured in the field. "The secret of it," says Mr. 
Cobb, " is thorough, perfect curing before putting it up. These stalks 
were dry enough to break easily when carted, and no one can have good, 
sweet clover hay through the year who does not cure it in the same per- 
fect manner." 

Mr. R, H. Williams fully indorses this opinion. He would rather have 
the hay lie spread upon the ground two or three days than cocked sooner. 
The theory of caring hay in the cock is worse than moonshine. 

Mr. William S. Carpenter says that the whole question rests with the 
weather.. In a cloudless sky and light dews, hay maj^ be kept spread until 


it is entirely dry. For his par-t, he prefers curing in the cock to curing in 
rainy weather spread upon the surface. 

Mr. George Bartlett said tlie secret of the nourishing quality of Califor- 
nia hay or grass, dried where it grows, is that no rain falls in that climate 
during the haymaking season. 

Prof. Mapes considers the hay-tedder one of the most valuable machines 
lately invented for the farmer's use. 

Report on Killmer's Plow Attachment. 

The committee appointed two weeks ago to witness the patent improve- 
ment of Killmer Bros., Barnville, Schoharie county,N. Y., of an attachment 
to the plow^ for the purpose of plowing under weeds, broom-corn stalks, 
&c., made the following report: 

The undersigned, members of a committee appointed to examine and re- 
port the result of an exhibition of the Dractical working of the Messrs. 
Killmer Bros, improvement for plowing under corn stalks, grass, weeds, 
&c., beg leave to state that on Monda}^ July 3, 1865, according- to appoint- 
ment, we met the Messrs. Killmers at Flatbush, and witnessed a trial of 
their improvement, among weeds iriid grass. The trial was not so full a 
test as we could have wished, as there was not growth enough for a severe 
or full test of the capacity and execution of the chain attachment, 3'et the 
working, so far as we could judge under the circumstances, was very 
favorable, and we deem it entirely worthy of a trial by those who are par- 
ticularly interested in the attainment of a successful mode of burying ivith 
a plow the refuse product cf the broom-corn and other crops that it is par- 
ticularly desirable to turn under without leaving any portion of the stalk 
above ground. The action of the main chain, when properly attached and 
regulated by the smaller guide chain or strap attached to the plow handles, 
seemed so to act as to completely sweep under the furrow all standing 
grass, stalks or stubble, while the fixtures are extremely simple and easy 
of application. Respectfully submitted, 



The Wheat Midge. 

We are sorry to hear from Mr. E. S. Stone, Wabash, Ind., that the wheat 
in that section is seriously damaged, and some fields entirely destroyed by 
the wheat midge. ^Ir. Stone inquires : " Is ground where the crop is now 
infected liable to be worse affected another year than ground that has no 
crop on this year? Is wheat good for seed that is aitected (I speak of the 
sound grains among the affected ones) ? Is wheat injured thus good for 
stock ? 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — To this we must answer that no wheat should be 
sown upon land where the midge prevails this year, nor in its immediate 
vicinity. Do not use wheat for seed from an infected field upon any con- 
sideration whatever. Procure your seed from a healthy region at what- 
ever cost. We do not know that any injury will result to stock fed upoa 
grain thus affected. 

proceedings of the farmers' club. 149 


Mr. N. Thorne, Westerly, R. I., says : " I should like to know from the 
Farmers' Club the proper time of year to make a raspberry bed; whether the 
plants can be set out in Aug'u&t or September (like strawberries), and get 
a growth started for next year." 

Mr. John G. Bergen said, in this vicinity I would only recommend April. 

Mr. AVm. S. Carpenter said that if he could not plant in xVpril he would in 
May, and this 3'ear he had been very successful with canes planted in June. 

The Ciiairman said he planted a lot April 20 of Lindsley raspberries, at 
which time the canes were full of leaves, and now they are loaded with 

Mr. E. Williams said he planted a lot last May which had been taken up 
and heeled in for sale and kept in that condition until full of leaves and 
then planted, but it did not seem to check the production of fruit. 

3Ir, R. H. Williams thinks that unless raspberries are planted early they 
will not be productive next year, because the fruit is produced upon wood 
grown the previous season. 

Improved Black Cap Raspberries. 

Mr. W. B. Peck, Croton Landing, N. Y., saj's: " I have grown this variety 
of raspberries for the Xew York market for five years, and have never 
known them objected to on account of the color ; and they do not, as Mr. 
Carpenter says, ripen all at once. Last 3'ear the picking season lasted 
from June 29 to July 23, during which time there was no rain, and as a 
consequence, the process of ripening was more rapid than usual. 

The bulk of my crop has been grown on land hardly fit for corn or pota- 
toes, and the labor bestowed in cultivating was not near as much as is 
required for either of those crops. 

" On good deep soil, not in a high state of cultivation, I have often 
gathered two quarts from a bush at a single picking. It is perfectly 
hardy, and does not propagate from the root, in both of which respects it 
differs from all raspberries which are good enough and productive enough 
for market. 

"Large quantities of these berries are grown in central and western 
New York, and sold in the large towns along the Xew York Central rail- 
road, and across the lakes in Canada ; and though in those localities they 
bring onl}^ about one-half the price the}^ do in New York city, yet it is 
asserted that they afford an enormous profit," 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter thought the Black Caps sell for only half price of 

Mr. E. Williams said he sold his at Newark at the same price — 40 cents 
a quart; at home he sells them at 30 cents, and gives purchasers their 
choice of several varieties. Many prefer the Black Caps; they are the most 
hardy, productive and profitable. 

Mr. George Bartlett said; " And for me and many others the most whole- 

150 transactions of the american institute. 

Raspberry Leaves as a Substitute for Tea. 

A Brooklyn housekeeper says : *' A member of 3"oiir Club recommended 
very highly the leaves of raspberries as a substitute for tea. As I have 
given them a fair trial, I offer to others the benefit of my experience. I 
carefully stripped the leaves of young shoots and cured them as nearly as 
possible after the Chinese mode of curing tea leaves. I then mixed them 
half and half with good Japan tea, from which the breakfast beverage was 
made, and each member of the family partook of one cup, but none were' 
•willing to try the second, and thus ended our experiment to lessen the 
grocer's tea bill. The decoction had entirely too much the flavor of herb 
drink, but exactly that of some clicap teas which we have purchased during . 
the recent high prices, from which I concluded that the art of adulteration 
was known before it was published in the report of the Farmers' Club. I 
remember the gentleman who recommended the raspberr}' leaves said they 
should onl}^ be mixed with imported tea of the very best quality. I would 
make an addition to that recommendation that they be used in only the 
very smallest possible quantity. I think then, if the decoction is well 
made, the beverage would be pronounced delicious, and a saving could 
undoubtedly be effected by using the pure article in smaller quantity with- 
out reducing its strength by adulteration. Diluting tea with raspberry 
leaves to make it go further is very much like diluting milk with Croton or 
pump water." 

Stone or Gravel Houses. 

Mr. E. W. Hubbard, Delphi, Carroll county, Ind., says: "Like many 
others, I come to the Club for advice. I wish to build a dwelling of stone 
or gravel, provided there is any phan of doing so without incurring the 
expense of furring out the walls and lathing and plastering. Can a stone 
or gravel wall be built and plastered upon both sides without dampness 
resulting? Can you refer me to anybody or book for information, for which 
I should be willing to pay liberally?" 

Mr. Solon Rcbinson. — I can refer you to no other than the august body 
of the American Institute Farmers' Club. I think some of its members, 
outside or in, will be able to give the desired information, and if so, with- 
out pay, as we hold ourselves entirely above asking any recompense for 
what we pretend to know. For one, I know that it is a very difficult mat- 
ter, if not an impossibility, to build a stone or concrete house which will 
be entirely free from dampness if the plaster is laid directly upon the walls. 
Moisture arises from the earth, through a sort of capillar}^ attractive pro- 
cess, up the walls, frequently four feet from its surface. Sundry attempts 
have been made in building stone, brick or concrete walls to prevent this 
ascent of moisture. If a durable, perfect, non-conducting substance could 
he inserted, it would prove effectual. Wood answers the purpose, but, 
unfortunately, it will decay. Sheet-iron has been used, but that is not as 
eternal as granite, besides it is rather expensive. I hope the new roofing 
material mentioned in our last report may prove a cheap substance to pre- 
vent moisture in walls. I recommend all walls, whether stone, brick or 
concrete, to be made with a hollow chamber from top to bottom, and for 


my own part I would not live in a stone house that had Tiot a wcll-plastercd 
wall furred out from the stone. Whatever the expense of the first outlay 
might be, it would be cheaper than the loss of health occasioned by the 
coldness and dampness of the walls. 

Mr. George Bartlett inquired if much of the dampness of stone houses 
did not arise from condensation of the moisture of the atmosphere. 

Mr. Robinson replied: undoubtedly, but that would be measurably cured 
by the hollow walls. 

Mr. R. H. Williams said: concrete houses are very fachionable in Hara- 
mondsport, N. Y. They are cheap, durable and good. It is, however, 
always considered necessary to fur the walls. 

The Cha'rman said that he made a building, 50x85 feet, a 16-inch brick 
wall, laid in hydraulic cement upon a concrete foundation forming the 
basement, which is covered with cement plaster, and it is as dry as any 
room need be for almost any purpose. 

Elder Blossoms. 

Mr. J. Marvin, Sennett, N. Y., wants to know if there is any market for 
elder blossoms. "They are so abundant. I could soon gather several 
hundred weight if it would pay." 

Mr. Sulon Robinson. — We think there is no market. They are used in 
a domestic way, to a small extent, to make a sort of cordial, misnamed 
elder-blossom wine. They are macerated in cold water, strained, and sugar 
added at the rate of three or four pounds to the gallon; then the liquid is 
fermented, and afterward bottled, and when it is three or four years old is 
a rather harmless, pleasant sort of drink. The berries are ve^y largely 
used for manufacturing- an intoxicating beverage called Sambuci wine. 

Dr. Snodgrass said there was a market in the city for elder blossoms 
with the dealers in botanic medicines; he could not say to what extent. 
The medical value of elder blossoms consists principally in the sulphur 
which they contain. 

Hens — To Prevent Sitting. 

Mr. Duren, Woburn, Mass., says: "Shut them in a tub with about two 
inches of water in the bottom. If that does not cure them, after allowino* 
them to roost one night, treat them to the water remedy another day, and 
they will be glad enough to stand on their feet." 

Rat Traps. 

The same correspondent recommends as preferable to all ether contri- 
vances for catching rats, the old fashioned wooden box-trap. He has 
caught at cue spring a mother and ten young ones. " Last fall I caught 
two old ones and seven or eight half grown, and since that I do not tliink 
there has been one on the premises. I always keep it set with a nub of 
corn and a little bran strewn about the floor, when there are any indications 
of their being about. The box should be two feet long, fourteen inches 
wide, and ten high, opened when set at both ends. It should be tin-lined 
or nailed thickly to prevent the rats gnawing out. Any farmer's boy can 


make such a trap; and it is nice sport for boys and dogs to open the trap 
in a close room, or into a deep hog-shead with water in, the bottom and a 
small island in the center, for the possession of which they will fight 

Cure of Wen or Wolf on a Calf's Throat. 

Mr. James Vincent, Tabor, Fremont count}^ Iowa, says he effectually 
cured the disease known as wolf upon a calf's jaw or throat by excision. 
Cut the skin transversely and flay it from the tumor carefully, and dissect 
that from the skin; then sew up tlie cuts of the skin. It was necessary to 
cut some stitches two days afterward to let out the accumulated pus. Mr. 
V, says he has cured caked bag in cows by bathing frequently with cold 
water. He thinks it equally good and more convenient than to use it hot. 

Information for ExAiigrants to Iowa. 

Mr. Vincent furnishes the following information to the Club for persons 
intending to emigrate to Iowa : 

" Western Iowa is in mj^ opinion healthy. We have good water, and 
plenty of it, though the wells we dig are from 30 to 100 feet deep, generally 
about from 50 to 05 feet. We do not wall up our wells any higher than is 
necessary to escape the water. Sometimes not more than six or seven feet, 
generally about 10 or 12 feet. In the counties on the Missouri river there 
is more timber than in the counties east of us, and it decreases in quantity 
until you approach the Desmoines river. What we have on the Missouri 
is chiefly cotton wood, a very rapid grower, large, and of very inferior 
quality ; still we are almost dependent upon it for building and fencing. 
We have the diiferent kinds of oak, black walnut, elm, bass-wood, hickory 
and some sycamore. Rock is not very abundant. For a country of this 
age we are poorly supplied with mills. We ought to have three times the 
number we now have. At present we are pretty much in the same situa- 
tion when we come from mill as the boy was, who, on his return, told his 
father that he had a little flour and a thundering big bag of bran. If we 
had more mills, I think the quantity of flour in a grist would vary from 
what it is at present. Orchards are just coming to bearing, and apples, 
plums and grapes promise well. Peaches none. We have nurseries, but I 
do not feel compelled to say that the varieties you get are the varieties 
you call for. What you get, however, are good trees, if they do'not ulti- 
mately disappoint as to variety. Clover and timothy have not been raised 
sufficiently to state anything certainly about them; the former probably 
will tare better than the latter. We have plenty of prairie grass, which is, 
in the opinion of some, superior to tame grass. 1 cannot see it ; however, 
it is our staple grass, and makes' very good winter feed. It is said that 
horses starting west, which have the heaves, get better as they feed on 
this hay, because it is cleaner from dust, which the heads of other grasses 
retain. Wheat is a sure crop, though greater some years than others. We 
raise none but spring wheat. Prices vary. It has been down to 40 cents 
per bushel; now ii is $1.25. Corn is sure, and while there may be as good, 
we hardly think there can be better. I have heard it estimated that the 


entire cost of raising corn here does not exceed 10 cents a bnshel. At 
prices varjnng* from 50 cents to $1 a bushel, this may be considered a payino;* 
crop. Cattle and horses are hig'h at present. Good cattle have been sold 
at 8250 a j^oke ; horses, $350 to $450 a span. But these prices cannot be 
maintained, nor are these the prices of any but the best. Sheep raising* is 
more of a business than two years aj^o, and it is on the increase. Our 
prairies are well adapted for it. 

" In respect to society, I suppose we ought to consider it good; but it is 
capable of* improvement. I have been asked in respect to religion. To all 
such I will say, that we have a very large stock of it out here; we are not 
in pressing need of any more; but, if persons emigrating to the west w^ill 
import a pure Christianity, vce greatly need tliat. Religion is what men 
use to cover up the darkest deeds. Under its cloak they will Me to you, 
cheat 3'ou, defraud you, persecute you, and say all manner of evil against 
you. We need no more of it; "we prefer to invite men of a high moral char- 
acter, as approaching more nearly the true christian character. To such I 
would say come w^est; bring yowY christianit}^ with you; do not be frowned 
down by any religious corporations which you ma}'^ find in existence ; but 
endeavor, as fast as possible, to establish Christian societies wherewith to 
bless your neijjhborhoods. 

" We have our common or district schools for the most part in full opera- 
lion, and they are well attended. The inhabitants of western low'a are 
chiefly from the eastern States. At present we have no railroads. Ere 
long we expect to see the road from Rock Island and Davenport completed 
to Council Bluffs. It is completed as far as Grinnell. This will come 
through Mills county, one of the best and most thriving in western Iowa, 
and to wliich emigrants will do well to look. Unimproved land is in abun- 
dance. Government land there is none. As to prices of improved and un- 
improved land, it varies so much that there is no price that can be set as a 
rule. Those desirous of purchasing should come and rent for a year, rais- 
ing enough, but leaving themselves time to look around. Don't tell any- 
one that you have any mone}^ unless it be some one wdio has no interest 
in knowing any further than that he may be disposed to serve you without 
shaving you. 

'• In respect to the time of coming west, I find that most speak of coming 
in fall, late, or in the winter; a good time to come, but a very bad time to 
get what they need. Emigrants had better make a small sacrifice now 
while they may, than put off until that time and then be forced to make 
heavy sacrifices. When they must have things, the}' will find plenty of 
men who will charge them five times the value of what they bu}^ and then 
insult them into the bargain by telling them that they do it to accommo- 
date them. My counsel would be to make some sacrifice now, while jovl 
can choose where to make it. Come out west early, as soon after harvest 
as possible. Be on the ground as early in August as 3'ou can. You then 
will have some time to choose where to stay during the winter, and having 
decided, can at once go to work and make comfortable provision for your 
families and stock. Hay you can have for cutting and putting up, while 
by coming in fall late, or worse 3'et in spring, you can get none but at ex- 
orbitant prices*and in insufficient quantities. 


"In Page, Taylor, Montgornerj, x\dams, Cass and Adair counties, land 
can be obtained cheaper than in those counties on the river. The land is 
quite as good, the climate as healtliy, but there is less timber. To those 
who can unite and settle together, and for a while get along without having 
all conveniences at once, these counties offer great inducements to emi- 
grants, as there is a wider extent of prairie, and sheep and all kinds of 
stock can be raised cheaper than they can be here where the country is 
settling faster, and every new settler decreases the public pasture. For 
many years yet the number of settlers will not materially affect the pastu- 
rage in those counties, and I would recommend them to those who are 
going into the business of raising stock. Being not far distant from Mills 
and Fremont, they might look through them all in a short time." 

Osage Orange Hedge. 

A correspondent, who writes from Pulaski, Mo., deprecates the practice 
of cutting back Osage orange. He gives the following as a far better plan 
of making hedge: 

"The next spring, after the plants are set in the row, when the stalks 
are about a half-inch in thickness, and eighteen or twenty inches in length, 
you will commence the first process of braided hedge by bending the canes 
to a horizontal position, all pointing one way, and braid theni from six to 
nine inches from the ground. The iipshoots are long enough the next 
spiing for another braiding, which is to be done with the canes all bent 
down in the opposite direction, and braided as before, now about two feet 
from the ground. The next spring they are to be bent in the same direc- 
tion as at first, and braided opposite to the lant course. This will make a 
perfect fence." 

The Western Potato Pest. 

Mr. E. W. Hazen, Fremont, Dodge count}^, Nebraska, says: "The potato 
bug which is so destructive in that region was first discovered in 1859, 
about one hundred miles west of Omaha cit}", whence they have been 
marching eastward annually. In the fall they disappear in the ground full 
size, and make their appearance about planting time read}^ to devour the 
plant as soon as it shoots from the ground. The only preventive is by de- 
stroying them early, or stop planting potatoes. Lime or ashefe are of no 
consequence; some have nsed coal oil and turpentine, but you might as 
well use so much water, as they soon evaporate." 

Mr. John Woodman, West Point, Iowa, says this new family of potato 
buo-s are " called Copperheads on account of their color and disposition to 
do mischief. They appear early, nearly as soon as the potato is up. We, 
in this neighborhood, this season went through and killed every bug we 
could see, and destroyed their eggs, which are of a bright orange color, 
and deposited in clusters underneath the potato leaf. Once every day for 
a few days effectually cleared our fields of them. If any better way can 
be found we should like to know what it is." 

Mr. D. Kilpatrick, Linton, Iowa, under date of June 20, says: "I took 
more than a gallon of bugs this morning from eleven rows of potatoes 
eia*ht rods long. ' Eternal vigilance is the price of potatoes in this sec- 


tion. The bugs are usually found in pairs, from one to five to a hill, busily 
engaged in the work of destruction and reproduction. The eggs are 
attached to the under side of the leaf; they are of a yellowish green color, 
and in a few days produce a small, black or dark colored insect, which im- 
mediatel}^ exhibits a voracious appetite. 

The Cicada. 

Mr. R. Tl. Stephenson, Hemlock Lake, Livingston county, N. Y., writes 
June 26, inclosing a twig of apple tree, furrowed upon two sides from end 
to end, b}'' the ovipositor of the female Cicada Septemdecem (seventeen-3'ear 
locust). He says they have been plenty this season, and wishes to know 
whether they will injure his young orchard. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Undoubtedly, so far as the sacrificing the limbs 
may prove injurious. The effect is about the same as though they had 
been worked upon by a fine tooth saw, digging through the bark and 
working up the fiber of the wood, nearly the eighth of an inch deep. We 
do not know of any remedy. 

The cicada is not an eating animal, as it has no jaws, mouth or teeth, 
only a short proboscis or suckers by which it may extract the juice of 
plants or draw sustenance from the honey-dew. It is called the seventeen- 
year locust, because it only appears above ground for a few weeks once in 
seventeen years. How it exists all that period below the surface has never 
been quite satisfactorily accounted for by naturalists. It generally comes 
out of the earth as a grub in May or June, and fastens itself to stumps, 
trees and fences, and shortly after its back cracks open, and a four-winged 
insect flies away, leaving the shell still clinging to whatever it was at first 
attached. In a recent Rural New Yorker, a contributor sa^^s: 

"In a few days after the grub (pupa) has parted with its flying cicada, 
the females lay their eggs in the twigs of oak, apple, ash, &c., of the last 
year's growth. Its egg-depositor has attached a cutter or saw teeth, so 
that it opens a furrow through the bark and wood to the pith, an inch or 
two in length, where it lays from ten to twenty eggs, and also cuts the 
twig crosswise at the bottom of the egg-deposit. While the eggs are 
being hatched, the leaves and limbs from the furrow die, and the winds 
help break off the dead twig, which thus carries the young insects to the 
earth. Thence they pass into the ground as their home for near seventeen 
years, take on the form of a large, strong grub, an inch long, and are oc- 
casionally found by digging into the earth at the depth of one to four feet. 
The animal emploj^s five or six weeks in this last and final operation in the 
air, and then dies, leaving its young to pass through the operations for so 
man}' years. At the end nearl}' of seventeen years, the myriads of grubs 
come to the surface as before. If hogs have access to the grounds, they 
eat multitudes of them in the few days before the grubs leave and are 
leaving the earth. The common fowls, and some other birds and animals 
that are carnivorous, unite in the feast. The manufacturer has even formed 
them into tolerable soap. The grub (pupa) has no slight resemblance to 
one commonly seen in our yard of chips in May, which changes into our 
May or June bugs. 


"The living of this insect for near seventeen years in the earth, is con- 
sidered wonderful. The changes in its form, from egg to cicada, are like 
those of numerous insects." 


July 18, 1865. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ely in the Chair ; Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretary. 

Agriculture in the Shenandoah Yalley. 

Dr. Snodgrass said it was impossible for any one to imagine the terrible 
desolation which war has brought upon this rich valley. Towns, villages, 
churches, mills, farm houses, barns, fences, orchards and forest trees have 
been swept away. In some places even the stone walls have been removed. 
A little effort has been made to grow crops, but instead of having a sur- 
plus for exportation such as the valley has been noted for in former years 
there will be barely sufficient for the present inhabitants. Scarcely any 
wheat was sown last fall, and people were afraid (or unable) to plant corn 
this spring until it was nearly too late. It is all a limestone region, and 
verj' natural to grass, but the farmers have no herds to consume it, and 
if they had, have no fences to keep them from their cultivated fields. Some 
of them are dependent upon the distant mountains for fuel. It will take a 
long time to re-fence and reestablish the agriculture of the Shenandoah. 
Timber for firewood will soon grow as the land is exceedingly productive. 
Many of the tracts of woodland that were cut off by the army are already 
covered by a dense growth of brushwood, which in a few years will be 
large enough to cut for fuel. All the crops now growing in that region 
are as good as were ever seen. The corn even to the tops of the Allega- 
nies looks remarkably well, and there are also many fields of sorghum. 

Exchange of Seeds. 

Mr. H. A. Holderman, North Manchester, Wabash county, Ind., wishes 
to see formed a great seed distributing department, between all the 
Farmers' Clubs and Agricultural Societies in the country. He wishes to 
abolish all that selfishness that seeks to keep a good thing when obtained 
exclusively to itself. He offers on liis part to " take to the next Indiana 
State Fair a peck of Christiana and Jenny Lind muskmelon seed, half a 
bushel large sugar corn, one pint early olive radish seed, one pint orange 
jelly turnip, cabbage, salsify, and so on, for exchange and distribution, if 
I could be met there by persons on the same mission. The project might 
be extended in time to small fruits and in fact to almost everything that 

\ Mr. Solon Robinson. — This project is highly approved by the club, and 
commended to the consideration of all American farmers. 

The Iowa Potato Pest. 

Dr. Trimble placed upon the table a large handful of letters, boxes, bot- 
tles and packages from Iowa, which had been placed in his hands for 
examinatioQ by Mr. Solon Kobinson, to whom they were addressed; all of 


whiclj, the Doctor said, were a repetition of the same sad story, touching 
the terrible pest now afflicting potato growers at the West. But he is 
pleased to find among the insects forwarded, that the potato bug like many- 
other pestiferous insects has an enem}^ which may ultimately destroy the 
destroyer. It is a bug not unlike our common squash bug which attacks 
the one that breeds and feeds upon the potato. 

Important to Butter Makers. 

Mr. Solon Eobinson said he had often been charged with being an old 
fog3^, and until lie could discover a real improvement upon the old dasher, 
he had been willing to bear that title, and to endure the bitter denuncia- 
tions of the 700 churn patentees who have taken out patents in the United 
States, to lessen the labors of butter makers, and of all these 700 new con- 
trivances not a dozen are now in existence. I have experimented with a 
large number of them, and only abandoned some of them after a long and 
patient trial. I have this morning witnessed the operation of one invented 
by Mr. Jacob BrinkerholF, Auburn, N. Y,, which pleased me so well, and 
gave such entire satisfaction to a family of old. buttermakers, that I have 
requested Mr. Brinkerhoif to come here and exhibit his churn to the Club. 
The trial which I witnessed was at Mr. Isaac Sherwood's, in East Yonkers, 
and a remark made by his mother, a very old lady who has made butter 
all her life wnth the old dasher churn, perfectly illustrates the advantages 
of Mr. Brinkerhoff's, She said after seeing it work, " Oh, if I had always 
liad such a churn, how many years of hard labor it would have saved." 
Their cream this summer has required from forty-five to sixt}'' minutes' 
steady churning. From similar cream under the same circumstances, Mr. 
Brinkerhoff produced butter in five minutes. In five minutes more he had 
it separated from the milk and thoroughly washed and read}^ to be worked 
and salted. Indeed, it required no w^orking except to compact the grains 
into a mass. The cream was at a temperature of bS^ when put into the 
•churn; if it had been warmer the butter would have come sooner, but would 
not have been as good. 

Mr. Brinkerhofi'. — The construction of the churn is very simple, and 
the principle on which the butter is produced almost identically that of the 
dasher. In an oblong box, is placed a horizontal w^ooden shaft armed with 
three rows of wooden spikes about half an inch thick and one and one- 
eighth broad, made concave upon eacli side, so that in their revolution they 
lift and carry the cream up into the air above the shaft, and of course carry- 
down a portion of the air and mix it with the cream. This shaft is driven 
at great speed b}^ crank and gearing on the outside of the box. It is also 
assisted by a balance-wheel, ingeniously hung upon an independent bear- 
ing at the otlier end of the box. It is connected with the revolving shaft 
by inserting a pin, but bears none of its weight iipon that shaft. — 
The paddles are more readily removed than the dasher and cover from an 
ordinarj^ one. The milk is drawn from the butter by a tap and the cold 
water used to wash it in the same way. Then the paddles being removed 
the butter is as easily taken out with a kidle as though it was in an 
ordinary wooden tray; The whole affair is simple and durable. 

After witnessing the operation of the churn, though only with water, 
the Club were quite unanimous in their opinion of its value. 


The chairman said — We are very much obliged to Mr. Robinson for 
bring-iug it to our notice, and more generally before the public, and we are 
quite as ready to commend it as highly as I see others have done who have 
used it. It certainly has the most common sense of any patent churn I 
ever saw. 

Mr. R. H. Williams said he had been a considerable butter maker in 
Western New York, and had witnessed a great deal of the operation of 
churning, until he had looked upon the invention of a churn that would 
save all the butter and a great deal of labor, as one of the greatest boons 
that could be conferred upon American farmers. There is such a prejudice 
existing against patent churns from their frequent failure, that it is very 
difiBcult to get a family to try a new one. He fully believed from the 
appearance of this that it will give satisfaction. 

Wire-Worms Destructive in Ohio. 

Mr. Zenas P. Edwards, Stark county, Ohio, wants to know if any mem- 
ber of the Club can give him any information how to avoid the depreda- 
tions of wire- worms, for unless some remedy is soon discovered, corn cul- 
ture in that section must be abandoned. From ten to fifty of the worms 
are often found in a single hill. Potatoes planted in the missing hills of 
corn have been attacked and destroyed. He says : " Our soil is generally 
clayey. If any information can be given how to avoid this terrible pest, 
it will be most gladly received by the farmers in Ohio." 

Fruit Prospects. 

Mr. Edwards says the frost of May 12 did great damage to the fruit in 
that section. The black knot is also becoming a serious obstacle; most of 
the old Morello cherry trees have more knots than leaves, and many of the 
young trees are not exempt. The red or sour pie cherry is not affected by 
the black knot disease. 

Sweet Corn — How to Preserve for Winter Use. 

Mrs. M. G. Hutchinson, Waterloo, Kansas, gives the following recipe 
for drying sweet corn: "To preserve the sweet, delicious green corn flavor, 
cut the corn from the cob before it is boiled, boil the cobs ten or fifteen 
minutes, take out the cobs and put the corn into the water they were boiled 
in and boil five minutes. The corn should not be put into more water than 
will dry down in five minutes' boiling. Care must be used to prevent its 
scorching. Spread thinly on plates and dry in the sun or oven; the latter 
is better.'^ 

Prairie Grass. 

Mr. A. Dana, writing from Missouri, deprecates in severe terms the dis- 
position of the American people to kill the great national goose that laj^s 
the golden egg ; that is, to destroy, as fast as bad farming can do it, the 
fertility of all the great prairie region of the west. " It is a vast undulat- 
ing meadow, a thousand miles from east to west, or north or south, where 
countless herds of cattle, sheep and horses may be reared and fattened 
easier and cheaper than on ordinary land for centuries to come if preserved 


and not wantonly destroyed." Mr. Dana mourns over the destruction of 
the prairie grass, as almost equivalent to the destruction of the soil itself. 
Mr. Solon Robinson. — In this I do not agree with hirn. It is indeed 
valuable to the first settlers, but the sooner it is displa^ced by cultivated 
grasses, the better for men and cattle. 

How TO Grow Melon and Cucumber Vines. 

Mr. Dana says: " Prepare your hills, then take a fresh cow' dropping and 
place it in the hill and drop the seeds directly upon it, and cover with earth 
as usual. The seeds will vegetate and grow directly even without rain. 
The quality of manure is so different from that of horse droppings that it 
does not burn the young plants." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Corn may be preserved pure by planting any par- 
ticular variety entirely separate from all others, not separated by a small 
space, for in a high wind the pollen is often carried across a ten acre lot. 
Some of the mixed varieties, like that called " brindle " by Mr. Dana, are 
not so fixed as a variety that the same sort may be relied upon. But there 
are kinds, the Improved King Phib'p, for instance, which are very hard to 
hybridize with any other sort. 

To Put Out Plants in Dry "^^eather. 

Mr. Dana says: "After preparing the ground as you think best, make a 
bit of a hole for the plant, pour into it half a pint of water, and then placing 
the roots in the water, draw in dirt; then covering the plant with a big 
leaf, or bunch of leaves, or a piece of paper, cover the whole with dirt; 
leave them so one night and two days and uncover jnst at evening. They 
will not need covering a second time witli dirt, nor at all, except very dry 
and hot. If worms are bad, keep longer under ground, and repeat it; but 
if the}' begin to look white and tender, do not expose to the hot sun too 

A New Edible Plint. 

Mr. D. gives the following description of a plant indigenous to North- 
western Missouri: " It grows on bottom lands, open and partly cpen to 
the sun, in unlimited quantities. When boiled it is tender as cabbage, and 
nearly as nutritious. Starts early in March, is good in six weeks, and 
would be much longer by using the second growth. It has a permanent 
root, is hardy, maintaining itself from 3'car to year by road-sides where 
hundreds of hogs and cattle feed and tramp. Cattle feed on it late in the 
fall, but not till then. It could be furnished to the city markets at the 
cost of gathering and hauling by the wagon load. It would flourish in a 
rich garden anywhere, a perpetual green from early spring to winter." 


Mr. Dana inquires: " Was not that a city man and a man of science who 
said skunks did good by destroying grubs?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Yes, sir, both; and withal a farmer, who probably 
went skunk hunting some years before Mr. Dana slept in his cradle, and as 
a general thing has the reputation of knowing whereof he speaks. And 


here he reiterates the assertion that, upon the whole, skunks are far more 
beneficial than injurious to the farmer. They are great destVoyeis of the 
farmers' worst pest. The}' do sometimes steal a chicken or suck an egg; 
and so do farmers' boys, but that is not quite a sufficient reason for de- 
stroying the breed. ^ 

To Kill Ants on Strawberries. 

Mr. D. B. Waite, Springwater, N. Y., says: "When strawberry plants 
are infested with ants, the best way to destroy them is to pour boiling 
water from the spout of a tea-kettle. If it killo the plant, set another in 
its place." He says: "I always cover my young plants th(^ first winter 
wnth a large handful of well rotted manure to each plant, and do not lose 
one in five hundred. In this way the Agriculturist and Tribune strawber- 
ries have proved as hardy as the Wilson. The Monitor and Col. Ellsworth 
berries were this season an inch and a quarter in diameter. The Brooklyn 
Scarlet, though not so large, were of superior ilavOf." 

The Agriculturist Strawberry not Hardy in Michigan. 

Mr. Phineas Allyn, St. Joseph, Michigan, sa3'S nearly all the Agricultu- 
rist strawberry plants received there last autumn died during the winter. 
"I saved mine by erecting a little wigwam over each plant, with stakes 
and marsh ha}'-, and the whole covered with earth. The variety appears 
tender, however, in other respects. Of 52 plants received of Mr. Wm. S. 
Carpenter last spring in good order but thirteen are alive, although treated 
with the tenderest care and in the most favorable weather. Of 2,500 Tri- 
ornphe de Gand plants, upon the same soil, with the same care, not one in 
a thousand has failed. My nearest neighbor, Mr. S. Jackson, who is one 
of the best fruit growers of this section, has three infinilessimal plants of 
this Agriculturist, which have cost him nearly $11 each, being all that is 
left of II G plants. These are the facts, and now we would like to have 
Mr. Carpenter, or some other honest man who knows, answer this ques- 
tion: Has not this Agriculturist been overworked to produce large quanti- 
ties of plants, thereby weakening its constitution for the present? If so, 
it will recover, and perhaps be hardy; if not, I would not give a hill of 
beans for one million plants to set here where the peach and Lawton 
blackberry flourish about as near perfection as anywhere in this latitude." 

Tile Machine Wanted. 

Mr. P. R. Miller, Sugar Grove, Warren count}'', Pennsjdvania, says the 
great want of tiiat region is under-draining. They have good clay, and 
want a tile maker, and thinks the farmers there would be willing to fur- 
nish rnachineiy to assist any practical man to start the business. He says: 
" I would like to correspond with any such man who would come here and 
go into the businer.s. I am a I'armer, and would only be a purchaser and 
user of tiles. A great amount of them would be used here if they could be 
had, and I believe they can be manufactured as cheap here as anywhere. 
It is a good point here for any active business man." 


A Terrible AVeed Pest. 

Dr. James Fountain, Jefterson Vailey, Westchester county, X.Y., forwards 
specimens of the Bhidder Pink {Silene injiata), winch has become thickly 
set upon his farm from purchased clover seed. Tlie following is his de- 
scription of this formidable enemy: ''In height I find it by measuring, 
when in good strong condition, full three feet, but in ordinary soil and 
among oats or grass it is only about fifteen or eighteen inches. In growth, 
when standing out unobstructed, it does not send its stems out from the 
root in straight lines as it does among grass or grain all around it, but 
the stems shoot oli' horizontally three, four or five inches, and then grad- 
ualh^ bowing up till they rise to the perpendicular, forming a very grace- 
ful figure, resembling an umbrella frame turned upward. Tiie plant has 
one central perpendicular root like a beet. I measured one three years 
old when I plowed the field; it was 17 inches long and about 1 J inches 
through at the top, making a formidable enenn', and one not to be easily 
displaced by any plant.'- 

Heifers — How to Predict Good Milkers. 

The Rev. AVm. A. Drew, Augusta, Me., gives the following valuable 
information upon a question of great importance to all farjners: 

" In conversation a few days since with one of the most intelligent stock 
breeders in Maine, he related to me a fact in his experience, which, if con- 
firmed to any considerable extent by the experience of other practical 
farmers, ma}^ be entitled to serious consideration. I allude to Col. Isaac 
Woodman, of Sea'rsmont, an extensive and successful farmer, and one of 
the most prominent citizens of Waldo county. For something like forty 
years he has kept a dairy, and generally reared his own cows. He re- 
marked to me that he had always found, in his experience, that if a heifer's 
first calf was a male she never proved to be much oi a milker — indeed, 
that she, in subsequent years, never gave more milk than on her first 
calving; but if her first product was a heifer, she was sure to represent all 
the milking qualities of a valuable mother. He did not know how this 
might be in others' experience, but in forty years of his own, he had known 
of no exception to the rule above indicated. The idea was new to me, but 
coming from a man so trustworthy in every respect as I know him to be, 
I thought I should like to submit it for the consideration of other farmers 
and stock breeders. I told him I w^ould propose the subject for consider- 
ation of the Farmers' Club. Will you be so kind as to ask the Club 
whether any of its members have observed the same fact in their own or 
other's experience? '^ 

Pruning Hoots in Transplanting. 

Mr. Drew also asks the opinion of the Club upon the subject, of pruning 
away the fibroiis roots, when trees are transplanted. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — The members who had most experience in the 
business, generally concur in the opinion that these little rootlets should 
be cut away. 

|Axi. IxsT.] K 


Mr. "Wm. S. Carpenter recommends persons who have any doubt upon the 
subject to plant two trees side by side^one with the roots carefully pruned 
and the other unpruned, and then carefully observe their growth, and in 
Autumn take up the trees and examine the roots. You will find that the 
one which was pruned has thrown out twice as many new, healthy fibers 
as the one upon which they were left uncut, and that the latter are nearly 
all dead. Mr. Carpenter prefers to cut all roots, so that the tree will rest 
in a hole not ov«r eighteen inches in diameter. 

Protection of CdcuxMber Vines. 

Mr. Drew says Caleb Bates, of Plymouth count}', Mass., recommends a 
tent made of millinet to protect vines from the bugs. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — He is informed that an ordinary' cheese box, open 
at* the top, is just as sure a protection without any millinet. Four boards, 
six inches wide, nailed together, so as to make a box just large enough to 
fence in the hill will protect it from the bugs. 

Hog's Troughs. 


Mr. Drew says: "I have been at no expense for hog's troughs for thirty 
years. Mine is cut out of an oblong granite block, having the capacity of 
four pails full. It stays where it is put; the swine cannot turn it over nor 
gnaw it up; nor will it ever rot out. It will last forever. The original 
cost was not great: as a matter of economy, it is the cheapest hog's trough 
in the world." 

The Maple. 

Its varieties, peculiarities and uses — With some suggestions for grousing timber 
in borders, for shelter to farms and highicays — With the reason, xchy forest 
grown timber decays uhen exposed to sun and wind. 

Mr. R. H. Williams. — Tlie maple in all of its varieties is a deciduous tree, 
and in this climate and latitude, may be comprised in two well defined 
classesor varieties, viz: The WhiteovSoft maple and the Sugar or Hai^d maple , 
They dilTer ver}- essentially in the character of the wood, and considerably 
in the shape, appearance, and style of growth, as well as the soil on which 
each seems indigenously to flourish; yet the shape of the leaf and seed pods 
are quite similar. 

The white or soft maple is usually found on swampy land along the mar- 
gin of streams, has a smooth bark and a spreading and branching iorm ; The 
wood is of a close soft texture, and the specific gravity much below that 
of the other variety. It is valuable as a sawing timber, and for purposes 
of turning and ordinary cabinet uses, for when once seasoned and shrunk 
to its minimum capacity, it is lasting, strong and less liable to warp from 
the influence of wet and dry, than most kinds of timber, but should be kept 
under cover. 

It also is found growing vigorously on the hill-tops and sides at con- 
siderable altitudes, on soil of a somewhat springy and clayey character, 
but rarely attains the dimensions of the productions of the lower lands. 

This tree produces a saccharine sap that yields a small amount of sugar 
by evaporation if tapped at the earliest indications of spring, but as it is 


one of the first trees to show bud, the season is soon over during; which 
sugar can be made from its sap. This tree often appears as a second 
growth of timber, on lands totally dissimilar from tlie localities named; 
where the first growth has been destroyed by fire, or the axe of the pioneer, 
and occupying the original favorite localities of the oak and hickory, prov- 
ing its adaptability to almost any soil. As a fuel it makes a pleasant and 
agreeable fire of moderate heating qualities, and for charcoal has few if 
any superiors. As a shade tree it is easily produced from the seed and 
may be successfully removed from its native locality if taken while young 
and from localities open to the sun and a dry soil, either in the spring or 
fall, and is regarded by many as only second to thcjihard maple in beauty 
and cleanliness — and to many localities better adapted and more 
hardy. It shows bud and leaf ver^'' early in spring, and the first autumnal 
frost tinges the foliage with crimson and adds much to the variegated beauty 
of the forest or lawn, and where cut off or broken down will rapidly repro- 
duce from sprouts. 

The sugar maple, or as it is also known as the hard or rock maple, is a 
favorite tree in all localities where it is grown. In the forest it grows to 
a large size, ofteii two or two and a half feet in diameter at the stump, 
with a limbless shaft from forty to sixty feet, moderately tapering and 
thence forming a spreading umbrella top of great beauty. In open ground 
it branches low and forms an immense dense, conical top, and where the 
light and sun reaches it unobstructed, it is exceedingly uniform and ^yva- 
metrical; and when in full leaf, appears like a rounded cone of the r richest 

It belongs to the temperate zone and is rarely found below forty or 
above forty-five degrees north latitude, and is indigenous to a di-j alluvial 
soil, in which it grows rapidly; and in the thick and shady wood, spreads 
its roots out wide but near the surface, as if to escape the chilling influ- 
ences of the cold subsoils of the shade and seeking the surface ivarnith and 
vitalizing properties of decomposing vegetable matter. Hence when the 
surrounding timber is cut away, and the scorching sun and raging winds 
are allowed free access, they often sliow early sjmiptoms of decay and are 
easily overturned. When grown in open and cultivated ground Vi'.ey 
strike deep and strong root, grow vigorously, top low, and become one of 
the most desirable shade and lawn trees among our natives. 

In addition to its shade and beauty, its sap, when reduced to syrup or 
sugar, is a family luxury unsurpassed by any even of our fruit- bearing- 
trees, and in a pecuniary view, of great interest, and is highly prized in all 
newlj' settled countries. 

The sap of this tree is the richest and most easily reduced to an agreea- 
bly flavored sugar of any of the saccharine producing trees. Its wood is 
of a remarkabl}' firm texture, ranking among the very best for fuel and 
charcoal, and is useful in the arts as sawing timber for cabinet uses, and 
for all purposes where stiff unyielding qualities are required, but should 
be protected from the weather. The varieties known as hird^s eye and curl 
maple are among the most valuable of ornamental woods. 

In conclusion, I deem the sugar maple one of the most valuable, as it is 
among the most beautiful of American trees, eminently worthy of culti- 


vatioD and preservation wherever it will grow. It is easily produced from 
the seed pods in nurser}'', and may be taken from the woods while young 
if carefullj^ removed and set in autumn or early spring, always being care- 
ful to stake and mulch thoroughly. It seldom sprouts when once cut off 
at the stump. 

As above sug'gested, the maple grown in the thick forest rapidl}'- decays 
after being opened to the sun and wind. This fact is not confined to the 
maple alone, but nearh^ all of our most valuable trees are affected in a 
similar manner thougli perhaps not so immediately apparent as in the 
maple, j-et the oak, beech, elm, basswood, and even the tovrering pine, 
cease to grow and socai show evidences of decline when divested of their 
surrounding shields and shades. Hence the effort to preserve to the country 
a sufficient amount of valuable tisnber from the remnants of the old forests 
allowed to stand by the pioneer and modern farmer as a reserve, are found 
entirely inadequate, from the fact that the original growth decays and the 
younger growth is never vigorous or at all perfect, where the old trees re- 
main to obstruct their progress. It is therefore a matter of importance, 
both to tlie individual and the public, to introduce a sj^stem of timber grow- 
ing that shall obviate this natural obstacle, and at the same time secure in 
part, at least, to the country at large, the advantages accruing to the early 
settler from the shelter and modifying influences from the growing timber, 
both local and climatic. 

It is a well known fact that in all originally well timbered countries 
that there is a very great difference in the extremes of temperature, both 
of summer and winter, and also in the sudden and rapid changes of weather 
that occur, between that of the fot^est pei^iod and the widely cultivated i^eriod 
of the same locality, w^favorable to the latter; and it is also known to the 
observing, that all timbered countries are vastly less liable to severe and 
destructive drouth than are the prairies or timberless plains. 

May we not then draw from these facts a suggestion worthy of trial that 
shall both beautify and benefit cultivated and agricultural districts where 
it may be introduced ? Instead of having isolated patches of timber on 
each farm intermixed with old and young, the one gradually dying out, yet 
preventing the healthy and vigorous growth of the other, would it not be 
a great improvement to introduce a system of a timber border around each 
farm, occupying a breadth that in its whole length should equal the area 
now reserved for that purpose, or that may be found necessary and desira- 
ble. Thus a farm of one hundred acres (one hundred and sixt}'- by eighty 
rods) now thought to be sparstdy supplied with wood and timber, with less 
than ten or fifteen acres, would be bordered two -rods in width by a belt of 
timber occupying only six acres and fort}'' rods of land, leaving the balance 
required to be interspersed in interior borders around or on the exposed and 
windward side of the house lawn, the orchard, the grapery and the barn 
yard. Such an arrangement would at once supply a sheltered road border, 
and in this State, if the laws against ranging stock should be thoroughly 
enforced allow of introducing this system along highways at once, 
without an}'' other expense than the removal of the now outside fence inte- 
riorly to protect the planted borders from the farm stock, and the prepura- 
tion of the ground and the planting of the trees or seeds. 


We will suppose this sj'stem inti'cduced into those wide spread fertile 
agricultural regions like central and western New York, where the tempta- 
tions are so powerful to curtail the space devoted to timber growing, or 
upon the now timberless prairies* of the west, where no shelter or shield 
from sun or blast screens the traveler or the shivering and panting brute 
and intelligently and perseveringly pursued for twenty-five or fifty years. 
Who would undertake to estimate the changes and benefits both climatic 
and moral that would bless a community thus mindful of and obedient to 
the laws of utility and beauty. 

Such timber border should and d"oubtless would be formed from selec- 
tions of the most valuable of our native trees, excluding the less useful and 
introducing from other sections such as would add to its value and beauty, 
and all of which may be easily obtained from the seed or nursery, and 
require only ordinary skill and a little extra persistent industry and care, 
and they may be continued vigorous and fresh for all time by reproduction 
from sprout from the root where cut off for use. 

I will anticipate such a border made up of the following list, viz. : The oak 
in its best varieties, the sugar and white maple, the chestnut, hickory in its 
varietie*?, beech, white wood, the elms, white ash, bass wood and j^ellow 
locust, interspersed freely with white pine, hemlock and Xorway spruce 
as evergreens, both for timber and winter shelter ; and after twent\^-five 
years successful growth, and doubtless some anxious watching and labored 
care, who wouldn't feel proud to say, my hand planted the seeds and with 
care did I protect the infancy of this beautiful and now indispensable shield 
and bounty. 

I can point to numerous groves where twice the quantity, in weight, of 
second growth timber is now to be found upon the land where only twenty 
veal's since stood the original foretst, and I also know of vigorous sugar 
oi'chards not older, that have yielded bounteous returns to the sugar maker 
for some years without apparent injury ; and also pine trees that have 
grown within forty years that v>'ould cut two hundred feet of lumber at the 

Ob, for the aid of experimental farms and gardens supported by public 
bounty and directed by scientific and practical w^isdom, unrestrained by the 
dollar and cent balance of the account of cod m the development of the 
useful and the beautiful, that the people might learn from example and 
adopt with reasonable certainty such changes and variations from the cus- 
toms of other days as circumstances and progress demand. Will the people 
of this State never awake to the importance of this subject and demand of 
their legislators and representatives, the application of such resources and 
bounties of the State as might be eminently useful to both the individual 
and tlie public if rightly directed, instead of bestowing them upon local 
and individual objects having na capacity or means to supply this great 
and important aid to agriculture and its associations ? I shall still hope. 

As the day on wdiich the next meeting should be held is set apart for the 
great trial of mowing machines, the Club adjourned to August 1. 


August 1, 1865. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ely in the chair; Mr. Johx W. Chambers, Secretary. 


Sowing Turnip Seed. 

The Chairman said: I have just purchased half a pound of red-strap tur- 
nip seed. What directions have the Club to give abotrt sowing it. I have 
not over one-fourth an acre of ground. 

Dr. Trimble. — If you put half of it upon that area, you will have no tur- 
nips. The best crop I ever grew w^as in a season of drouth, when the corn 
failed. I plowed and sowed three acres with one pound of seed, taking 
care to sow it as evenly as possible, by taking up only what would hold in 
the thumb and two fingers for a throw. My turnips were remarkably large, 

Mr. Thomas Cavanach. — Upon Long Inland we prefer to drill the seed 
pretty thick and thin out. That is better than to miss a good stand of 
plants from bad seed or insects. A pound per acre is the rule. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — I have grown five or six successive crops of tur- 
siips with excellent success. I mix the seed with dry dirt and try to sow 
thinly. If not, they must be thinned out. One turnip to every foot of 
•spare ground would be about right. That would give 43,560 great bulb* 
upon an acre. 

Mildew upon Grapes. 

This Kiatter was spoken of by the Chairman, who said that Mr. Seymour 
had vines -upon a high hill at Norwalk, Connecticut, which were affected 
worse than other vines upon low ground. In place of tons, he would not 
have hundreds of pounds. 

Mr. Geo. Ilite said in his garden at Morrisania the rows east and west 
are less afiected than those north and south, and the Isabella least of any 

Mr. E. Williams, Montclair, New Jersey, said the mildew was not only 
bad there, but equally so on the mountains of Sussex county. 

Mr, Solon Robinson. — At my place, East Yonkers, upon elevated land, 
of gneis rock fcrmation, all sorts w^ere nearly equally affected. The most 
perfect fruit was upon the branches of a Hartford Prolific, running over a 
roof, while it is all spoiled upon the lower part of the same vine, Delaware 
fruit is tolerably fair, but cannot ripen, for the leaves are all gone. 

Prof, Tillman. — Have the gentlemen considered the cause of this whole- 
sale destruction of the grape crop ? Is it wholly atmospheric? 

Various opinions, but nothing definite, were expressed, attributing the 
malady to electricity, to rain, to cold nights, &c. 

Wash for Fruit Trees. 

Mr. Geo. Hite recommends the following : Take about half a peck un- 
slaked lime, put it in the bottom of a barrel and sprinkle over it half a 
pound of sulphur; then add water to slake the lime, and afterward fill up 
to about one-third full ; the barrel should be covered. With this liquid I 
syringed my trees when first in leaf, and after when some were in blossom. 
It appeared to add much to their health and protection from insects. 


Mr. Solon Robinson inquired whether this mixture, chemically speaking-, 
was not pretty nearly identical with sulphate of lime, with the single ex- 
ception that it might be rather stronger of sulphur. 

Mr. nite replied that he could not answer chemically, he only knew the 
effect was good. 

Prof. Tillman thought the same effect would be produced by the use of 
sulphate of lime. 

How TO Renovate Old Pastures. 

Mr. F, R. Palmer, Oentreville, Allegan^' county, N. Y., soys : " If the 
Farmers' Club, whose w^eekly proceedings I read with so much satisfaction 
and profit, will tell us how to renovate old pastures, it will be one of the 
most important things for this region ever published. There are thousands 
of acres of old pasturing land upon our hillsides which have never been 
plowed, and which at first produced good grass, but which has graduall3'- 
been growing worse, until no ^ they are principally covered with 3'ellow 
daisy, strawberry vines, and a variety of weeds. They ought not to be 
plowed for two reasons: First, they are stony, and second, they would 
wash altogether too much during the rainy season. Some propose to sow 
plaster and salt. Others to thoroughly drag in the spring, and then sow 
on grass seed. We do not think that would get rid of the strawberry vines, 
but do not know." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Nor will you ever know unless you try. The 
great benefit of salt has been repeatedly stated in this Club and many 
other places; yet farmers hesitate to use that or plaster, or the other excel- 
lent thing spoken of, because they " do not know " whether either would 
be beneficial, and are afraid of being laughed at if they try an experiment 
and fail. The hillside pastures spoken of can be renovated by plowing 
without causing them to wash, if the stones are not too thick, by using the 
subsoil plow. We lately gave an account of one man who renovated an 
old sod by plowing, turning it, over one day and turning it back the next. 
The subsoiling operation is better than that. We know positively that old 
hillside pastures can be renovated by salt, plaster, lime, ashes, guano, and 
last but not least, stable manure We know that cow pastures are greatly 
improved by keeping sheep. We do not believe any good farmer ever 
complains of worn out pastures. He does not allow them to wear out. 

Trespassing Bees. 

An inquirer wants to know if this Club can tell how to prevent the tres- 
passing of bees. He says: "It is stated by some apiarians that bees ex- 
tract from an acre of white clover 100 pounds of honey. Is not that so mucii 
of the sweets and nourishment taken out and carried away from the land, 
just as much as it would be if carried away in hay or grass fed off by cat- 
tle, and if so, how am I to prevent my neighbors' bees from carrying oir 
the products of my land? None of the laws upon frespassing animals men- 
tion bees, and if I should undertake to impound them, probably I should 
get the worst of it. What shall I do? Some of my neighbors who have 
barely ground to make a home for their bees, are pasturing them at my 
expense. Have I any remedy?" 


Mr. Solon Robinson. — Yes. Keep more bees than your neighbors, and 
keep them in strong stock. They will not only monopolize the feeding 
ground, but will probabl}^ rob 3'onr neighbors' hives of the honey already 
collected. What, then, will be his remedy? 

Fire-Blight Remedy. 

Mr. Arthur Hammond, Geneva, N. Y., recommends preventing fire-blight 
in pear trees by slitting the bark of stock and limbs. It should be done as 
soon as the tree is in full leaf. A new bark is formed nnder the old^ the 
latter sometimes dr^nug and shelling off the next season, leaving the tree 
thrifty and healthful. This process will not answer after the tree is thor- 
oughly diseased. It may then be dug up and thrown away. 

The Bread Disease. 

Mrs. C. J. Pennoyer, Sharon Station, Dutchess county, N. Y,, thinks the 
bread disease complained of is occasioned by using milk. "After having 
been troubled in the same way, I began to search for the cause, and after 
usino' water for ten or twelve years I ^am thoroughly convinced that there 
are two causes with me; one using finlk, the other keeping the bread in 
too damp a place, I will tell our process of bread making, which we think 
is about right. We will commence wnth the yeast cakes: we boil hops 
stron^-, strain it on corn meal with a little salt added: when cool add the 
yeast, let it stand and rise, then add more meal and flour enough to make 
it stick together well; make in cakes and dry, but not in the sun or too 
near the stove; the addition of molasses and ginger and potatoes only 
make it more likely to sour. When we want to make our bread, we tako 
a half dozen middling sized potatoes when we boil for dinner, mash fine, 
add water enough to make a thick batter, with a little salt added, some- 
times a spoonful or two of flour; when cool, stir in two small yeast cakes, 
having previously soaked soft, let it stand and rise; at night it will be 
light; take warm water, stir sponge enough for your baking, add the 
potato sponge. In the morning it will have to be wet the first thing,- 
molded into loaves and set to rise; wnth ordinary care it will be ready to 
bake soon after breakfast. We generally make six loaves." 

Washing Made Easy. 

Mrs. Pennoyer says: " We have Doty's Paragon Washing Machine and 
the Universal Clothes Wringer to begin with. We make a compound of 
one pound bar of soap, one quart of rain water, and three-fourths of an 
ounce of borax; dissolve the borax in the water, shave in the soap, and set 
it on the stove and melt; when thoroughly mixed set it away to get cold, 
when you can cut it up in suitable pieces to use; put your white clothes 
to soak in rain water when you change Sabbath morning; Monday morn- 
ing wring out with the "wringer, soap with the borax soap, put them in 
cold water, boil thirty minutes, take out, wash in the machine; the same 
suds will wash calico and brown clothes; have a boiler of water heating 
to put the white clothes in (they will want no more boiling), suds all in 
that — white, calico, brown — then rinse in bluing water.'' 

proceedings of the farmers' club. 169 

Butter Making. 

Mrs. Penno3"cr sa^'S: "Any person who has ever used Fylcr's butter- 
working" cliiirn will never return to the old dasher.*' 

What Shall I Use for Manure ? 

Mr. Eli Rose, Maryland, Otsef^o county, X. Y., writes: " How car. the 
soil of a fort}' acre apple orchard be kept sufficiently fertile independent of 
any other land and where no stock could be kept on it? AVould it pay to 
buy artificial manures for the purpose? Would it pay to use guano when 
sowing clover seed, to induce it to 'catch' ajid make a large growth, on* 
dry, light, gravelly soil? Can its use on farm crops gencrall}' be recom- 
mended as a safe investment to be returned in the crop?",' 

Mr. Solon KobiDSon. — In answer to the first question we will say that 
an apple orchard can be kept in good condition by growing clover and let- 
ting it rot upon the ground. To make the clover grow, it would probably 
pay to buy some artificial manure. In rare instances only it would pay to 
use Peruvian guano, at its present high price. Its nse on farm crops 
generally cannot be recommended as a ^ood investment. There are some 
other fertilizers cheap and good that may be used. 

Feed for Chickens. 

Mr. John X. Geary, Barrington station, Cook county, 111., advises feeding 
youug chickens with soaked bread, and older ones witli wheat screenings, 
and never with meal, and they will never be troubled with gapes. The 
only wa}' to keep the owls from chickens is to shut them in tight places. 
When the owls find them in trees, thev consider them fair irame. 

Plan for a Small Ice House. 

Mr. Cullen Bradley, Reels ville, Putnam county, Indiana, writes : " Please 
inform me the best and cheapest plan of building an ice house above 
ground, to be very small, for family use onl}'." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Your cube of ice must not be less than ten feet. 
The room should therefore be twelve feet inside, the space between the ice 
and the boards must be filled with sawdust, straw, leaves or hav — beino- 
best in the order named. The walls of the house should have at least a 
foot space between the weather boarding and ceiling, and that nlled witli 
some of the above substances. The bottom should have a floor and good 
drainage. A thatched roof, eighteen inches thick, is a good one. The top 
of the ice must be kept well covered, and the space above must have ven- 

Killmer's Patent Plow Attachment. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Here is a handful of letters, all of the same tenor 
about Mr. Killmer's patent attachment for plowing down weeds, and all 
speak in the same way that I did to him, when first applied to, that is, 
that the plan is an excellent one, but not new. He thinks his method of 
attaching the chain is new and entitles him to the patent. Mr. Midas 


Brookes, Newburgb, Cuyahoga county, Ohio, says : '' I have used Mr. K.'s 
* patent' these ten years, and know to my certain knowledge of it being 
used in Indiana ten years previous. Now, I have a piece of buckwheat 
that I am going to plow under after harvest. Have I got to pay Mr. Kill- 
mer for the patent after using it so long ?" 

Mr, Solon Robinson. — Tiie Club answers : Certainly not. We recom- 
mended the plow as having worked well, but did not intend to intimate 
that Mr. Killmer's patent would prohibit any fai mer from attaching a chain 
to his plow just as he alwa3's had d(^ne for the purpose of dragging the 
weeds down into the furrow. Mr. Clark Norton, Huron, Ohio, says he has 
used the chain for more than ten years in the followino- manner : " Secure 
the end of a chain to the oifend of the evener by means of a clevis, fasten the 
other end to the beam of the plow at or near where the moldboard is attached, 
b}'- a hook or staple— a hook screwed into the beam is most convenient — 
let the chain be as long as will just clear tiie turning furrow ; this, on a 
good plow, will hide any amount of clover and will no doubt answer for 
green crop." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — I told Mr. Killmer that I used the chain in the 
manner just described more than forty years ago. Mr. James Smith, Rich- 
mond, Indiana, who is no youth, saj's he " used the same thing when a 
boy, the forward end of tlie chain being attached to the double-tree and the 
other end to the plow-beam. This device was, and still is in common use 
in my native (Loudon) count}' in Virginia, and was used b}^ myself for some 
ten or fifteen years prior to my leaving that locality in 1848, and has been 
in use here in this county since. Supposing the device to be essentially, 
if not precisely the same, I do not know that the letters patent will deprive 
the farming public of the free use of that which has been in common use 
and considered public property for at least a quarter of a century." This 
exactly agrees with my own opinion. I believe the attachment of the 
chain is an excellent plan to plow dov/n crops, t'erhaps Mr. Killmer has 
made some improvement in the manner of attaching it by some little pecu- 
liarity of kink in an iron rod. 

A Prospective Fruit Farm. 

The following letter from Mr. H. T. Williams, Brooklyn, N. Y., furnished 
abundant matter for discussion, and it was decided that as it could not be 
properly answered in this way, it should be referred for further considera- 
tion to Dr. Trimble, whose residence and acquaintance in New Jerse\'' will 
enable him to give fuller information. The foUov/ing are the principal 
points of the letter : 

" I propose purchasing a small place of 10 acres between New York and 
Philadelphia, and locatin.g thereon my father and brother for the purpose 
of cultivating fruits, berries and vegetables, for their self support and 

" I propose to divide and cultivate tlie 10 acres as follows : Two and a 
half acres to strawberries ; two and a half acres to Lawton blackberries ; 


half an acre to Delaware grapes, plants two years old ; half an acre to 
Hartford Prolific grapes, plants two years old ; half an acre to Conccnd 
grapes, plants two years old. 

" Total, six and a half acres to fruits. The remaining three and a half 
acres 1 propose to devote to vegetables for tlie first year or two. The 
strawberries, blackberries and grapes I propose to plant this fall, so that 
they may get good hold and. start early next spring and grow well enough 
to yield me in the year 1867 first rate crops of iVuit. Perhaps the straw- 
berry might 3'ield me a small crop next spring. 

"I think that with n'ood skilltul, liberal treatment, thev can obtain, over 
all expenses, tlie following sums : For the two and a half acres of straw- 
berries, $700 ; for the two and a half acres of blackberries, 8700 ; for the 
one and a half acres of grapes, $750. I plant the Delaware grape because 
it brings the highest price. I plant the Hartford Prolific because it is the 
earliest variety whose plants can be bought at reasonable rates. I plant 
the Concord because it is the most prolific. 

" The remaining three and a half acres and the space between the rows 
of grapes and blackberries I w'ould like to so devote to vegetables tiiat I 
can obtain $1,000 over and above the expense of sending to market (cost 
of production to be deducted afterward), and I would respectfully ask the 
members of the Farmers' Club of the American Institute, what are the most 
profitable vegetables to raise on that space, and whether my estimate can 
be realized. Are there any more profitable vegetables than squashes, cab- 
bage, cauliflowers, kohl rabi, melons, egg plant, tomatoes, lettuce and 
celery ? and to which of these should the preference be given ? Suppose 
I wish to try the plan of double cropping, what vegetables are the best to 
try ? 

"If the members can suggest any more profitable disposition of the 
ground, I would esteem it a favor to hear; to benefit not myself alone, 
but thousands who read the reports and are interested in this branch of 

"I had occasion lately to make a flying visit through New Jersey, and 
have abundant reason for my enlhusiasm and belief in the profit of the 
cultivation of fruits. At Burlington, I observed one field of 2| acres of 
blackberries, which the proprietor assured me netted him every year, 
81,100. Mr Edmund Morris also informed me that the sales of his black- 
berries planted between his peacli trees yielded him every year 81,000 in 
additi(m to the crops from the peaches, and also of strawberries or vegeta- 
bles grown between the rows. Another raised 1,100 bushels of straw- 
berries from 14 acres; ts'hile another sent, from 40 acres of strawberries, 
$1,500 worth a day to market, and in two days especially sent $3,000 worth 
a day. The sales then fell to 82,000, and then to $1,500". 

"At Keyport, New Jersey, I found small patches cultivated by women 
and children, and although not as productive by one-half as they could be 
niade, yet they niade their §400 and $600 to the acre. One man has a nice 
little piece of blackberries of three-fourths of an acre, and has been oifered 
$500 for the fruit (it will bear this season) and refuses to acce;^t the ofier. 

"None of j'ou, gentlemen, w^ill put the profit from grapes at less than 
$500 per acre, and if at all, nearer 81,000. 


"What is the reason that cultivators at Hammonton, N. J., report an 
average price of but 15 cents a quart for strawberries, while at Keyport, 
where the season is a week or two later, the growers get there 25 and 28 
cents a quart all through the season? 

"I have tw(j cousins at Hempstead, L. T., who obtained last year for 
their strawberries a net price of 50 cents per quart, and this too, after pay- 
ing cost of transportation and commission. The varieties were Bartlett 
and Triomphe de Gand. Growers of Wilson and other varieties did not 
make half that price. Large berries pay," 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — In answer to the question in relation to the price of 
strawberries at Hammonton and Keyport, I suppose it's the difference 
between the prices realized at the Philadelphia and New York markets. 

Mr. Thomas Cavanach. — I very much doubt the ability of this gentleman 
to realize his anticipations with hired labor, especially at the present high 
rates. I know that I had an acre and a quarter of strawberries, some of 
them old and some new, which cost $10 per week for care, and the sales of 
fruit this season amounted to $80. It is true I realized something from 
the sale of plants, but that must not be depended upon on a fruit farm. 

Dr. Isaac M. Ward. — The matter of this letter is interesting to a large 
class of persons. It would require a moderate sized volume to answer all 
the inquiries, and after all much depends upon location and adaptability in 
its widest sense, as well as to soil, varieties of fruit, and management. I 
think I have solved the question, whether a man can purchase a small 
piece of very badly tilled land, and plant it with fruit, and make it produce 
enough to support a family in a respectable manner. This much I am 
willing to say I have done upon fifty acres near Newark, New Jersey. I 
have alwa^'s avoided giving any definite statistics about my business for 
fear it might lead others into error. In regard to this gentleman's propo- 
sition, I think he should seek information of practical fruit-growers. If he 
grows small fruits of any kind he must be near a city, not only for market, 
but help, which he must be able to obtain cheaply whenever most needed. 
The whole profit of the crop may depend up<:)n this, may depend upon the 
difference of only one or two daye' time in picking. A great deal depends 
upon the adaptability of soil to particular varieties, as well as particular 
varieties to location. The most profitable strawberry grown in the vicinity 
of Newark is Boyden's Green Prolific. The most profitable vegetable crop 
is cabbage, because it requires less labor and less skill than carrots and 
onions. I find it very difficult to obtain skilled labor at any price. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — The question with me is, whether the gentleman 
can hire any kind of labor at present prices and make his farming profitable. 

Dr. Isaac M. Ward. — Under favorable circumstances and location near 
New York, I think such an enterprise may be sustained without entailing 
a life of drudgery upon the owner. I am satisfied that mine pays better 
than Government bonds. It is true that I or my son give a personal super- 
vision to the business, but only labor so far as is healthful and pleasant. I 
think my success is changing the whole character of the vicinity. Many 
of the most enterprising of the old style farmers are following my example 
in the cultivation of their land; that is, in growing small fruits and orchard 


-fruits in combination, though not upon the same tract. I grow nothing in 
my pear orchard. 

Dr. Trimble. — It must bo taken into consideration that the cabbage crop 
requires an immense quantity of manure, and tliat all fruit crops are liable 
to failures. This year there is not a healthy apple orchard to be found in 
the country. The cherry and grape crop prove an entire failure, and the 
largest statement of strawberry growers must not be taken as a basis. 
The strawberry field that the Chairman and I visited at Stamford last year 
and reported upon, produced the only great crop I ever saw, and of that 
the money result was owing to the great price the owner obtained. The 
writer of this letter should visit and consult with such men as Dr. Ward, 
of Newark; Wm. Parry, of Cinnaminson, N. J.; George Hite, of Morrisania; 
Thomas Cavanach and Jolin G. Bergen, of Brooklyn, and several other suc- 
cessful fruit and market vegetable growers. 

The Secretary said that Mr. Henderson, of Jersey City, stated in a late 
address Ihat there were 1,000 acres of land in market gardens in the 
vicinity of New York that produced $1,000 per acre annually. He received 
last year $10,000 for the produce of eight acres. 

Mr. Thomas Cavanach said: The most profitable vegetable crop is the 
earliest. He received 14 cents a piece for early cabbages and one cent for 
late ones. One of his neighbors paid five cents per pound for picking cur- 
rants which sold for eight cents per pound. lie would never look for but 
one crop of fruit from the same ground, that is,, never plant strawberries 
with trees nor vines. 

Dr. Ward said that he knew one man who paid 82,500 for seven acres of 
land, and during the next three years he paid $2,700 for manure. Tiiis is 
an important matter, and must be taken into consideration by every gen- 
tleman who proposes to purchase a farm or attempts to make a living by 
higli cultivation of a small tract of land. 

Mr. E. Williams. — I used to plant strawberries between my trees, but I 
think more damage v/as doHC to my trees than I ever realized from the 

Mowing Machines — Their Effect upon Land. 

Mr. H. H. Hunt, Conneaut, Ohio, asks the following question: '-'Do 
mowing machines injure meadows or lessen the crop in the least? Have 
never seen this matter discussed in your Club. Many farmers are preju- 
diced here about using these machines." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Probably the gentleman has answered the ques- 
tion himself in that single word, prejudice. I remember distinctly the 
bitter prejudice that existed against cast-iron plows. It is not ten years 
since I heard it positively asserted that they poisoned the land. I know 
farmers at the present day who use wooden toothed harrows, because they 
think iron teeth injurious to the soil. Probably those who believe mowing 
machines injure their land, belong to the same order of unprogressive 

Mr. John G. Bergen. — The question, I suppose, is comparative, whether 
a field would deteriorate sooner if mowed annually with a machine, than it 
would if mowed w^ith a scythe. Undoubtedly close mowing would do more 


injury than that which left a high stubble, and in my opinion the scythe 
cuts the closest. My experience is that niacliines do not injure the mowed 
fields. The field on which the trial of machines was lately made is a case 
in point. Being overflowed bottom of the Bronx, it is never plowed, and 
if tlie machine injured the sod, it would soon run out. The charge against 
mowing machines is probably all prejudice. 

Cueing Hay — Preparing it for Market. 

Mr. Solon Robiuson. — An experienced large Illinois farmer gives a few 
items of his experience, which may be of great value to others. He says: 
"Hay may be put into stack much greener than most people imagine. It 
is entireU' safe to stack hay before night that is cut before noon. One man 
toward the close of harvest finished cutting at 8J a. m., and stacked the 
hay before noon, and it kept well. The writer, however, does not believe 
in baling green ha}', as it will undergo a sweat and spoil in the bale. Hay 
always undergoes a slight fermentation in the stack. If frozen locks are 
put in while baling in winter, there is danger of spoiling the bale. He 
recommends curing hay in winrows and cocks, and using care never to 
bale damp hay. The Beater Hay Press is a valuable machine, most valu- 
able where transportation and storage are most expensive. I have nsed 
one three years, passing through it 5,000 tons of hay, and to me it has 
been indispensable, securing a market ior the produce of my meadows, 
after advance in rates of transportation, and competition in trade had 
made unprofitable my shipping liay in the best bales that could be made 
with any other press then in use; but whoever desires to use one had best 
be sure his hay is dry." 

^Ir. Orrin 0. Stewart, Passadumkeag, Penobscot count}', Maine, says: 
" Farmers here take two days, but if it can be well cured in one it would 
make a great saving in labor." He is probably pretty well answered in 
the above communication of the Illinois farmer. 

How to Renovate Worn- Out Land. 

Mr. Stewart asks this question. He says: "I have a farm that has 
been let for several years, and the rule seemed to have been to take all 
they could from the soil, and return as little as possible. The grass does 
not much more than pay for cutting. Tliere is an abundance of muck on 
the place. Some of the farm is clayey and a part sandy. Shall I haul on 
muck? shall I plow in green crops, or is there any other cheaper and better 


Mr. Solon Hobinson. — The answer to this is very plain. Produce green 
crops by means of your muck, and plow them in until your land is restored 
to fertility. I have found salt, at the rate of five to seven bushels per 
acre, a most excellent renovator of worn-out soil. It enables me, 
with a light dressing of manure, to make the clover grow, and the 
clover, when turned in, grew corn, corn made manure, and manure 
has made land which had been "scarcely worth mowing," produce three 
tons of good grass per acre. 


proceedings of the farmers' club. 175 

Cutting Feed Long or Short. 

Mr. Warren Gale, Chicopee, Mass., wants the opinion of the Club about 
cutting feed for cattle long or short. Some claim that it should be cut 
only half-inch length, while others contend that one and a half to two inches 
is the best. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Mr. Gale is respectfully informed that some mem- 
bers of the Club, and we hope all, outside and in, are convinced before this 
time that the finer all kinds of feed are cut, the better'they are for stock. 
"We should like to have hay, straw and stalks ground as fine as coarse 
corn meal. 

Grapes in Ohio. 

Mr. B. Summers, Vermillion, Ohio, says: " I claim to belong to the outside 
membership of the American Institute Farmers' Cli:b, and am frequently 
instructed with the results of your organization. Don't quite like the idea 
of constantly receiving and never returning anything to the common stock. 
This is the Catawba grape reg-ion, and hitherto considered by the islanders 
on the outer rim, and ecarcely permitted to be counted in. I am able to 
report a very fair prospect in this eastern end of the county, and through- 
out this entire grape region. Large clusters, and too many of them, if 
anything; no rot nor mildew to speak of yet. Mr. Meeker, of Dongola, 
looks on his Concords with more satisfaction thanall else of his fruit pros- 
pects. Here the Catawba is the favorite, and hundreds of acres were 
planted last spring, and great preparations are making for yet greater 
plantings. I planted three 3'ears ago, on a soil favorable to nearly every 
bush, vine and tree of our climate, the -Lincoln, Tokalon, Union Village, 
Lenoir, Anna, Deluv/are, Diana and Concord. The three latter are now 
vigorous and loaded with fruit, while all the others but Anna are dead, and 
sVie has one poor solitary bunch. The Kebecca is also nearly a failure. 
The very severe cold snap of January 1, 1S64, which killed winter wheat 
so eflfectualh^ also killed nearly all the first fruit buds of Catawbas, Isa- 
bellas, Dianas and still tenderer varieties. Tlie-Concord, Delaware and 
Oporto came through uninjured — except some hot-house Delawares planted 
out the spring before were killed in the ground from the surface, three or 
four inches down; the tops and roots below were not injured, but of course 
could not survive such a separation. 

"Speaking of the Oporto, its wine has been condemned by your Club 
and its cultivation generally suspended. Last fall I made a cask of it, 
and allowed nothing in but the pure expressed juice, in order to test its 
qualities as a pure wine. The result was mucli more favorable than I ex- 
pected. The wine is the best I have made, and better than any Catawba 
it has been my fortune to taste, although truth requires I should say some 
of my friends say they have seen better Catawba. Perhaps it is for want 
of a properly educated taste that I thus misjudge and find myself in a very 
lean minority. Dr. Sylvester says two pounds of sugar to the gallon are 
required; our climate being considerably warmer may be the reason why 
mine made wine without sugar. The Oporto grape is nearly worthless for 
table use, and grows so rampant it should occupy poor lands To my eyes 


and palate the Delaware and Dianas are ahead. Of the lona I may speak 
in a 3^ear or two, AVheat is but middling for quality and not a great 
quantity out. Oats — large crop. Corn fine and general]}^ well cultivated, 
and a large crop of grass, much above an average. Apples not plenty, 
owing to large crop last 3^ear. Peaches plenty on the ridges a few miles 
from the lake; injured by frost further south. On the whole a bounteous 
Providence is amply supplying our real wants." 

English Home-brewed Ale. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Many inquiries are made how to make English 
home-brewed ale as easily as tea and coffee, as Prof. Perc}^ said could be 
done. Here is an old recipe, by which many a cask has been brewed: 

"Ground malt, 1| bushels; hops, one pound; water, 18 gallons; tempe- 
rature of water during the infusion of malt, 165*^ to HO'^ Fahr.; soft water 
is preferable. Divide into equal parts, and pour one upon the malt and 
stir it well together, and cover the tub with a thick blanket, to staud one 
hour in warm weather, and an hour and a half in cool weather. Then pour 
o^' that portion of the water and add the other." This i;s upon the same 
principle that some folks act upon iu making tea and coffee, to extract all 
the virtue of the malt, to make malt tea. B(»il the first half with half a 
pound of hops an hour. Treat the second half the same wa^-, though some 
persons only use half the quantity of hops. Mix the wort of both boilings, 
and when cooled to GO^ or 65*^, according to temperature of weather, stir 
in a pint of good yeast. When done fermenting, decant into a clean cask, 
and cork loosely for two days, and then tight, and keep in a cool cellar till 
ripe for use — from one month to a year. 

Such malt liquor does not appear to be injurious to those who use it 
freely. It is drank by English laborers instead of tea and coffee. We 
believe it is less injurious to Englishmen than coffee to Americans. The 
mowing-field is surrounded daily by hundreds of Germans, men and 
women, who are drinkins: la^'er bier which is not as free from deleterious 
substances as tliat would be made b}^ the above recipe; yet it does not pro- 
duce intoxication; it only seems to excite a little pleasant hilarity. Since 
people will drink something to produce this effect, we wish beer-drinking 
was more common, and the use of whiskey given over to the apothecar3^ 

Army Worm in Missouri. 

Mr. E. Slippj'', St. Joseph, Mo., sa3's: "The army worm made its appear- 
ance in this locality about the 25th of May, and (extended through a period 
of about five weeks. Its food seemed to be the roughest and coarser kinds 
of weeds. In appearance it resembles the worm that feeds on the apple 
trees in some of the eastern States in the spring, and is one-fourth of an 
inch in diameter by from on^ to two inches long, of a dark gray color, with 
hair on the back an eighth of an inch long. The worms' separate existence 
from observation seems to be about 15 daj^s, at the end of which time they 
crawl up a weed, tree or fence, and there suspend themselves with head 
down, and there undergo the change, which requires from eight to ten 
days, at the end of which time a beautiful butterfly bursts out." 


proceedings of the farmers' club. 177 
Currant Worms. 

Mr; n. Jolmson, Stockton, Chautauqua county, X. Y., says he nearly 
cleared his currant bushes of worms by jarring them from the bushes into 
a tin pan three mornings in succession. 

Cows That Hold Up Milk. 

Cows that hold up milk, Mr. Johnson says, can be cured if they will 
drink sour milk. After drinking', and as soon as they begin to lick the 
pail, they will give down freely. He has tried it with cows that would 
give about two-thirds the proper quantity', retaining the other portion. 
Then he gives them the milk to drink, and waits until they begin to lick 
the pail, when he has no trouble in obtaining the remainder. He has tried 
meal, salt, and various things, but found nothing to produce such an effect 
as sour milk. 

For caked bags he boils hemlock twigs in lard, and rubs the udder with 
the ointment thus made. 

Michigan Marl — How to Use It. 

Mr. Charles D. Lawton writes several inquiries from Lawton, Michigan, 
about the use of marl, which underlies many of the swamps in that State, 
and which has been but little used, except to burn for lime. He thinks it 
would be good manure for the land of oak openings. "Is it essential to 
burn it? Would it be improved by mixing it with swamp muck ? Would 
it answer as a substitute for clay in making brick ?" # 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Mr. Lawton and otliers interested are answered 
that the marl spoken of is nearly pure carbonate of lime. It is composed 
of very minute shells, which abounded in inconsiderable m^^riads in 
the great lake which once covered all that region. The marl has often 
been moulded like brick, and burned in a kiln, making a second rate lime 
for masons. It does not require burning for the soil. It would not be 
improved by mixing it with muck. If burnt, and mixed as quicklime with 
tlie muck, it would benefit that by causing it to decompose rapidly, neu- 
tralizing the tannic acid which largely abounds in much of the muck of 
that region. It will not answer as a substitute for clay in brick making. 

The Distribution of Seeds. 

Miss M. A. Allen, Johnson, Vt., speaking of the distribution of seeds by 
this Club, says: "Plants from seeds of Peruvian corn, sweet corn, hop 
tree, and many from Mr. Prince's seeds, are growing finely, and 
several of those cuttings Mr. Cavanach distributed among the ladies are 
taking root, while cuttings of the beautiful Weigelias, Deutzias and rare 
Spireas which another kind donor gave to make beautiful my Green Moun- 
tain home, have failed. We have had so much rain and warm weather that 
my flower garden is looking finely, and I am so happ}^ among the flowers, 
making bouquets almost daily for visitors and culling the sweetest for the 
sick room. Am almost as happ}'' as when culling the sweetest aroma from 
the many letters sent to the Club last winter." 


[Am. Ixst.] L. 


August 8, 1865. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ely in tlie chair ; Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretary. 

Agriculture of Florida. 

Dr. Ambler, former!}^ of this city, but for a number of years resident in 
Jacksonville, Florida, being present, spoke of tiie condition of agriculture 
in that State. The principal crop this jenv will be Indian corn, and the 
most abundant ever produced. He thinks it more than probable that it 
will not be over fifty cents a bushel. Labor is abundant and cheap. Most 
of the negroes are working as usual with their old masters. As to the 
healthiness of the country for white men, almost the only complaint in the 
vicinity of Jacksonville, is a mild form of fever and ague. The production 
of oranges is again reviving*. In 1835 the trees were nearly all killed by 
severe frost. Others were imported from France, and with them came the 
scale insect, which for twenty-five years almost prevented the production 
of fruit. Many orange orchards were abandoned, and suffered to go to 
waste. An engineer bought an old place for a family residence a little out 
of Jacksonville, four acres of land, for $300. He found about one hundred 
orange trees which by pruning, cutting away the dead wood and saving 
vigorous sprouts, grew so vigorously that his family in the three years 
preceding the war, had sold 55,000 oranges, which were worth an average 
of $20 per 1,000. Grapes grow most luxuriantly there, particularly the 
Scuppernong. It makes good wine, without an}'- addition of sugar or 
spirit. At St. Augustine, there is an excellent red grape, which is called 
Red Chasselas. Dr. Ambler planted Wilson's seedling strawberry in 
November, and had a crop in March. The ground was mulched with 
Spanish moss. 

The Goodrich Early Potato. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter presented some handsome specimens of this 
variety planted the 18th of May, and perfected the 18th of July. They are 
earlier than the Dikeman, and more prolific. The form is long, with smooth 
white skin. 

A New Implement for Pruning Trees. 

Mr. Wm. S. Doty presented a new implement for pruning trees. A hol- 
low handle is mounted with a cutting-hook, which is met by the edge of a 
chisel operated by a rod passing down through the handle. There is alsa 
a small saw attached to the handle, but that was considered by members 
of the (^lub rather unnecessary. The other apparatus, members thought, 
would be very useful v.diere it was desirable to shorten in the tops of trees 
which could not be reached from the ground, nor conveniently from a ladder. 

The Apple Worm. 

Dr. Trimble presented specimens of fruit, showing the condition which 
nearly all in this vicinity has been reduced to this year by the codling 
moth which produces the apple worm. 

proceedings of the farmers' club. 179 

Tee Grape Disease. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — A letter from Mr. E. G. Johnson, Peoria, Illinois, 
which is in the latitude of this city, shows us that the terrible grape dis- 
ease which has covered nearly all the vines in the eastern States with 
mildew, also prevails in the west; and the writer wished to know if the 
collected wisdom of this Club can prescribe a remedy. The disease there 
seems to be most severe upon Catawba vines, and it is attributed to the 
wet weather. 

He says: " Up to about the 1st of July we had been nearly six weeks 
without rain, and the weather being excessively hot the ground had 
become very dry. Then the leaves mildewed, and fruit began to rot. The 
white cotton-like spons of the mildew was f^nind upon the stems of nearly 
all our varieties of grapes, but the rot was not considerable. We had a 
fair shower, which washed the grapes, and the disease ceased almost 
entirely, as we thought. But we were mistaken, as it commenced raining 
again the second week of July, and continued at short intervals for three 
weeks, and grapes are now rotting almost universally, upsetting all theo- 
ries about exposure, soil or training. The disease is mostly confined to the 
Catawbas. Concord suffers a little, Delaware less, Clinton do., Isabella 
none. In fact, no others rot much, though many have mildew on the leaf. 
Sulphur, applied scientifically and persistently with the patent bellows, has 
not availed. The disease takes no notice of the sulphur. Light upon the 
subject. I am only an amatuer fruit grower in a small way, but take a 
great deal of pains and incur some expense, and would like to avoid dis- 
appointment. I have about fifty varieties which I am experimenting with. 
The best fruited and soundest vine I have which has not the * smell of 
disease upon its garments,' is Rogers' Hybrid No. 4 ; and it is situated in 
the midst of infection. I have a Concord similarly situated, which follows 
the bad example of bad company, and is rotting badly. No other Concords, 
not so situated, show any symptoms of disease in the berry." 

Mr. R. G. Pardee. — If vines are properly pruned they will escape the 

Mr. John G. Bergen thought that he was perfectly safe in making the 
assertion, as no matter how the vine was pruned, Mr. Pardee would say it 
was done improperly. 

Mr. Solon Robinson named a half a dozen of the best pruners in the 
country whose grapes are diseased. He said that he had a Hartford Pro- 
lific vine, part of which had been as properly pruned as he knew how, and 
that part was dreadfully diseased; while a branch from the same root, 
wholly neglected, which had run over a roof, was almost free of disease. 

Mr. J. G. Bergen said that he had lately seen some grapevines quite sound, 
"which soundness could not be attributed to their growing high, as they 
w^ere lying upon the ground. In his opinion it was idle to theorize about 
pruning to prevent disease, or about its being caused by wet or dr}^, cold 
or heat, or about its affecting anj-^ particular variety. It seems in Illinois 
the Catawba is most affected ; in other places every other variety suffers. 
In former years the Isabella the most so of any variet}'^, this year the least. 
Something like the same disease affects the tomatoes, so that some Long 
Island farmers will not have quarter of a crop. I have seen it affect melons 


and cucumbers, corn and potatoes, and a cabbage-field almost entirely 

Dr. Isaac M. AYard. — All we know is that we feel the evil without 
knowing a remedy. 

Dr. Trimble instanced several instances where the best pruned vines 
were worst affected. Dr. Snodgrass said that in his garden the Isabella 
suffered most and Catawba least. Perhaps that is owing to an accident, 
for the earth caved into an adjoining cellar and left the Catawba roots 
much exposed. The space was filled up with other earth, but the vine 
made a slow growth and has no mildew. Was that owing to the root 
pruning ? 

•^fr. Wm. S. Carpenter said with him all kinds except Isabella suffered 
nearly alike, and that he has considered the Jeast worthy of cultivation, 
and heretofore the most liable to disease, so much so that he has permitted 
them to go entirely unpruned. 

Mr. Thomas Cavanach said verbenas had been subject to a similar dis- 
ease, and saved by the use of lime water. It is barely possible it mig'ht 
save the grapes. 

An Explosive Bug. 

Dr. W. P. Peck, Croton Landing, N. Y., sends us a beetle, which to him 
has proved a phenomenon. He says: " When I found it I tried to capture 
it, in order to examiiie it. The moment I interfered with its movements, 
it seemed to become a miniature one-gnm batterj', 'going off^ like a gun, 
with a report like that made by firing a gun loaded with powder only, and 
Avithout a wad, and at each discharge emitting a puff of smoke. These 
discharges occurrsd as often as 1 tried to catch it, until its an:imunitioD 
seemed to be exhausted.'' 

Br. Trimble. — This is nothing new. Kirby & Spence devote a chapter 
to this class of insects. They are supposed to be quite harmless, and often 
serve for the amusement of children. 

Locality of Various Crops in California. 

One of the "outside members" sends us the following interesting parti- 
culars about the productions of various counties, and the locality of differ- 
ent crops : 

*'To give your Club, and particularly its outside members, some idea of 
the extent and geographical position of this State, I call attention to the fact 
that the extreme southern tier of counties — Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, 
San Diego, San Bernardina, &c. — where the orange, lemon, olive, &c., are 
grown as a business for their fruit, lie between 82 J degrees and S5 degrees, 
or about on a range with South Carolina, Georgia, &c., and run along the. 
coast from lllj degrees to 120| degrees and inland to about 11 3| degrees; 
while the northern tier — Del Norte, Klamath, Siskij^ou, <fcc., — are betweea 
the 41st and 42d degrees of latitude, or on a range with Iowa, &c., and the 
120th and 124th degrees of longitude, 

" The great farming and orchard district is as yet generally' confined be- 
tween the 37th and 39th parallel of latitude and the 121st to r23d of longi- 
tude, and embrace the counties of Alameda, Contra Costa, Lake MaviQ, 


Napa, Sacramento, San Joaquin, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, Santa Clara, 
Solano, Sonoma, Yola, &c., and the cities of San Francisco, Sacramento, 
Stockton and San Jose. Marysville lies to the north. 

"Los Angeles, the (thus far) greatest wine-producing* countr}-, is cut 
about the center by the 34th parallel and consequently is due west from 
parts of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Sec. Sonoma 
county, which ranks next in the wine-producing list, is cut by the 381 de- 
gree, and consequently is in the latitude witli the south part (.f Delaware, 
Maryland, north part of Virginia, &c. But our climate is probably warmer 
than that of the same degree of latitude on the Atlantic, as in Napa, Yolo 
and Sacramento counties which lie inland, in tlie order of their enumeration 
from Sonoma, everytliing which is not more tender than a fuschia, olean- 
der, &c., is perfectly hardy, and the (so-called) lemon verbena grows from 
eight to twelve feet and blooms and ripens seed. . 

"Our best potatoes are brouglit to market from Humboldt county (range 
40° to 41°), but the greatest bulk, about one-half the whole production is 
raised in Marin and Sonoma. Tliese three are on the coast, the last two 
between 38 degrees and 39 degrees. 

" Sacramento raises nearly all sweet potatoes. Wheat and barley are 
produced everywhere. Rye and buckwheat are not grown — that is, there 
is not probabl}' over 15,000 to 20,000 bushels of each per year raised. Oats 
are neither popular, nor as a general thing profitable, but they are raised 
to an annual extent of 750,000 to 1,000,000 of bushels, or say to one-fourth 
the extent of barley and one-fifth that of wheat. San Mateo and Marin 
counties produce more than one-half of all the oats. Corn (maize) is but 
comparatively little grown as a field crop, not probably over 250,000 to 
300,000 bushels in the State, and at least one-fourth of this is raised in San 
Luis, Obispo county, latitude 35| degrees. 

Strawberry Cultivation. 

;Mr. H. H. Mitchell, Leman, Wyoming county. Pa., says: "From hints in 
Reports of the Farmers' Club 1 was first induced, or rather reminded, that 
this delicious and healthy fruit could be cultivated to advantage in the 
garden or field. I obtained a few plants of Wilson's Albany, Hovey's Seed- 
ling, and Triomphe de Gand, setting the plants about a foot apart, in rows 
18 inches apart, cultivating them as I would corn, beans, or any ether hoed 
crop, keeping the runners cut off. The first season I had about half a 
crop; since, they have been all that one could desire. I did not put any 
manure on them at first, the -land being in very good condition, and seeing 
it recommended not to, because land that would produce good torn or pota- 
toes, would strawberries; so it will, but manure has materially added to' 
the productiveness of mine, as I am sure it will in most if not all cases; 
ashes are very good for them. Some winters I give them a coating of 
straw or refuse hay — some not. The last winter they had no covering but 
the snow, and never did better than the}^ have this season. I have culti- 
vated them for the past seven or eiglit years, and for the time and labor 
expended nothing on the farm pays better; yet not one farmer in twenty 
has a strawberry bed, though I perceive a much larger proportion of those 
who read The Tribune have lately commenced their culture. Two of my 


Tribune plants died; the other has made a large stool, but puts out no 
runners; why? Allow me to tender the members of the Club my heartfelt 
thanks for the pleasure and profit I derive from the report of their proceed- 
ings in Tlie Tribune. I thank you for your earnest and persistent advocacy 
of all that pertains to the interest, advancement and happiness of the 
laborer and farmer. As I write, a little bird that has her nest in a spruce 
tree near my window, commences its song as if it would say, 'Thank the 
members of the Club for me, for they are my friends too.' Who does not 
love the little birds? Heaven's own choristers, the farmer's friends, pro- 
tecting his crops and soothing him with their songs; he should protect 
them as one of Heaven's best gifts to man, for surely those that delight in 
the songs of birds and the rearing of flowers, are not morally bad past re- 

Mr. K. J. Traver, Lisburn, Cumberland county, Pennsylvania, says: 
" Our crop was the best 1 ever saw, especially that of the Ida and Wilson, 
yielding at the rate of 300 bushels to the acre. I have all the other 
cracked-up varieties of note, that have been advertised and sold at out- 
rageous prices. Although many of them are large and fine flavored berries, 
they are either shy bearers, too soft for market, slow and sickly growers, 
winter-killed, or are subject to some other defect, which renders them un- 
profitable. The Ida has now become an established variety with me. It 
is a more prolific grower and bearer than the Wilson; it is also more hardy, 
its berries are of good size, uniform and smooth, better flavored, sell better 
and bear transportation fully as well. Do not think I am advertising, and 
wish to milk the public at tlie rate of $1.50 to $3 per dozen. I cannot sup- 
ply the home demand, and the variety may not suit other localities, it does 
this, and fruit sells at 25 to 30 cents per quart in Harrisburg. The next 
best sort is the much abused Wilson. Burr's New Pine is earh^; Georgia 
Mammoth late; mine were at their best July 4th. They are shy bearers. 
My manner of cultivation, of late, is as lollows: Prepare the ground per- 
fectly level; plant in rows by a stretched line, 30 inches apart, and ten 
inches in the row. This plan admits of easy cultivation; the}" are easily 
mulched with long straw; the ground is kept level, and they are not so 
soon affected by drouth or frost, as when planted in ridges." 

Mr. Solon Kubinson. — For the inlonnation of the members, I will read the 
following sensible advice to Strawberry growers, taken from tlie Circular, 
a paper printed by the Wallingford (Conn.), branch of the Oneida com- 
munity, who own and cultivate some 400 acres of land, and grew this year 
upon five and a half acres, eight hundred and fifty bushels of straw^berries: 
"The rapidity with which this fruit comes on after its time of ripening 
.commences, requires that the preparations and organization necessary for 
picking and marketing it should be made beforehand, as there is enough 
to do in the time of harvest without any extra labor or care that can be 
provided against previously. The things to be attended to, therefore, are 
" 1. Tlie engagement of a proper number of pickers, to come at call, and 
at such rates as will pay them fairly and make them punctual in their 
labor. During the height of the season we had 100 pickers, including 
adults and children, on 5| acres. This would indicate that from 15 to 20 
pickers are required to the acre. 


"2. Tliere should be two strong hands to the acre for moving- fruit and 
overseeing the pickers. To these add one girl to the acre for leveling 
boxes. If the plantation is large, a tallyman and bookkeeper ^who may 
also be paymaster) will be required. 

" 3. A quantity of boxes or baskets, and crates sufficient to meet any 
emergency, should be on hand. Before picking time, look over your old 
stock of these articles, see that the}' are clean and in good repair, and pro- 
cure whatever additional new stock you may require. At our distance 
from market we judge that not less than 2,000 quart boxes or baskets are 
necessary to the acre. 

" 4. Make your arrangements with the transportation companies for 
taking j'our harvest to market. If j'ou send b}" express or railroad, en-^-an-e 
them to return your empt}' boxes free of charge. If you make large ship- 
ments in the night, they will expect you to help in loading the crates into 
the cars. An occasional douceur in the shape of a basket of fruit presented 
to the railroad officials, from the president and superintendent down to the 
water-bo}", helps wonderfully in moving strawberries. 

"5. You may sell your fruit b}- a commission-house in the great cities, 
or may send it to dealers wherever* it is ordered. In the former case tele- 
graph to the consignees, on shipment, the quantity and kind of fruit sent. 
If sent to the order of a dealer, place the "bill in the crate. Eequest all 
parties having your strawberries to return the boxes and crates as soon as 
possible. If you sell b}- a commission-house, ask of them a telegraphic 
return of prices every da}'. 

" 6. If you have a large strawberry field, there should be an awning at 
the border of it ten or twelve feet square, shading a large table, to which 
the boxes should be brought by the pickers as fast as filled, and where 
they should be tallied, leveled up and packed in crates ready for shipment. 
We have formerly done the leveling and packing in a fruit house, but think 
the awning system, in consequence of its saving some unnecessary hand- 
ling, is preferable, 

" 7. Avoid picking as much as possible when the berries are wet, as 
immediately after a rain, or in a heavy dew; and after being picked, the 
sooner they are got to market the better. 

" 8. Provide yourself with horses enough to do an extra amount of night 
and day running. 

"9. At the close of the season boxes and baskets should be inspected* 
those requiring it should be scalded, and the whole be carefully packed 
awa}'- for the next season, 

" 10. Be good natured, don't fret, take whatever comes cheerfully, and 
having done the best you can, be satisfied with the result.-' 

The Secretary reported a visit to the Wallingford Community, where he 
learned that they realized, the past season, $5,000 for five acres of straw- 
berries, and a net profit of 8500 per acre. The varieties raised were Wil- 
son's Albany and Triomphe de Gand. The plants are set four feet apart 
in rows; in the fall a light farrow of earth is thrown over the plants with 
a small plow, which is raked off in the spring. This method of winter pro- 
tection is preferred to any other. 


0. J. Tillson, New Paltz, Ulster county, N. Y., reports the sale, from 
three acres of strawberries and raspberries, $2,336, leaving $1,G51 after 
paying all expenses. 

Mr. A. S. Fuller. — The best mulching I have ever used for strawberries is 
forest leaves. If salt hay is used, it will require about four tons per acre 
to cover the ground two inches deep. It requires that thickness to prevent 
weeds from growing. As to the plan of earthing up for winter protection, 
it is very good, but requires more labor, as straw must be used in spring 
to keep the fruit clean. By continuing to earth up, plants can be kept in 
bearing a long time, as their natural tendency is to grow out of the ground, 
and for tlie original root to deca}^ after fruiting one 3'ear. I have seen a 
strawberry stool rotten in the center, as trees sometimes decay, with a ring 
all around of live offsets from the original plant. It will take one man, or 
300 days' work per annum, to three acres of strawberries. I would alwaj^s 
take off the mulching after picking is over, and plow the ground between 
the rows. The best way to grow strawberries is in narrow rows, plowing 
between and keeping all of the runners cut off. It is high culture and con- 
stant careful attention that produces great strawberry crops. I sold one 
year, from one-sixteenth of an acre, $100 worth of fruit. 

Mr. William S. Carpenter said he received some plants of the Ida variety 
last November, and has been surprised at their productiveness. It com- 
pares well with the Wilson; the quality is good, color lighter, berries 
round and solid, plants strong and vigorous, pistillate. 

Devastation of Currant Bushes. 

Mrs. E, D. Savage, Cuba, New York, says the leaves of her currant 
bushes have been destroyed two seasons by the worms, and asks: "Will 
the bushes be entirely dead another year? Are young bushes subject to a 
similar pest? Will it do good to send and get others? And what kinds 
would you get?'' 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — We think there is no exemption from this pest; all 
kinds are equally affected. 

Wild Gooseberries in Iowa. 

Mr. M. H. Bishard, Des Moines, Iowa, says: "Wild gooseberries in this 
State are abundant, which are free from thorns on the* fruit and somewhat 
like Houghton's Seedling in size and flavor. Large quantities are gathered 
for market and for canning. The bushes are hardy and rarely miss a crop, 
a-nd may be transferred from the woods to the garden. Two years ago a 
neighbor surrounded his garden with a hedge of gooseberry; it is now a 
perfect fence against the fowls, and is at the same time useful and orna- 
mental. Where garden palings are expensive, gooseberry hedge is recom- 
mended. Besides, it affords abundance of healthy fruit, so convenient that 
it will be freely used. In planting a gooseberry hedge, select thrifty 
plants from the woods, dig up and part the bunches and cut back about 
one-half; set them in a single row, about three inches apart. The next 
spring shoots will appear, entirely filling up the space between, making a 
solid mass of stickers so close as to prevent the smallest chicken from 


entering. You can trim it in any shape desired. It usually grows about 
four feet high." 

The Effect of a Few Flower Seeds. 

Mr. G. W. Stebbins, Portland, N. Y., speaks of the wonderful improve- 
ments that had taken place around a farmer's house, where he noticed " a 
fine flower bed filled the space formerly occupied by the wood-pile and 
weeds, old sleds and other slovenly ornaments. I spoke of it commendingly 
to the woman of the house. She- replied, 'It has all come from a few 
papers of flower seed that I received from the Farmers' Club. After get- 
ting those, I wanted more, the result is what j-ou see.' 'But how is it,' I 
asked, ' that 3'ou find time to do the work of a Scotch gardener in addition 
to your housework? Your farm is large and your children are small. I 
should think you, if any one, might fairly claim to be one of tliose over- 
worked farmers' wives of whom we hear so much.' ' So I did,' replied Mrs. 
Smith, * until I began to cultivate flowers. You would naturally think 
that would make it still worse, just as it was thought the general use of 
sewing machines would be an injury to seamstresses, until the fact proved 
to be just the reverse. The trath is, it is not so much the work as the 
fretting over it that causes the trouble. Now, when I set the table, the 
first thing on is a vase of flowers, and other things go on to match, and 
the result is I am better satisfied and others are better satisfied.' This is 
one of the fruits of your Club. Another is that Mr. Smith is contemplating 
a long row of grape vines across one side of his garden. He means to have 
all the new, distinctly marked varieties. He also spoke about having some 
black Tartarian cherries — they were so much better than the common kinds. 
Still another fruit is that my wife, after seeing Mrs. Smith's flower bed, 
lias determined to largely increase the size of her own. She will have it 
in ornamental form, cut out of the grass sod between the house and the 
road, with gravel walks and box borders." 

Remedy for "Wire Worms. 

Mr. Preston Eyre, Dolington, Bucks county, Pa., says: "Steeping corn 
in a solution of copperas and saltpeter is an unfailing remed}'- against wire 
worms. This is my experience of 21 years. I dissolve equal parts of 
copperas and saltpeter in warm water, and steep the seed 12 hours; then 
coat it with gas tar, half a pint to the bushel, and dry it with powdered 

Selecting Heifers for Good Milkers. 

Mr. William A. Drew, Augusta, Me., sends us further confirmation of his 
staten^icnt that if a heifer produced a female for her first calf, it was a 
strong -indication of her being a good milker. Acting upon this rule, he 
latel}^ bought a two year old heifer for $G0, which had just dropped a 
heifer calf. Upon ordinary feed, in an overstocked pasture, she has yielded, 
every day since, between twelve and thirteen, quarts, milk measure. An 
old milkman of his acquaintance says, he always rejects a heifer which 
drops a male for her first calf. 


Mr. J. K. Been, Findley's Lake, Chautauqua county, N. Y., says Col. 
Woodman's way to predict good milkers is not infallible. He bought a 
heifer with a bull calf. "She had subsequently three bull calves before 
she got a heifer calf, and do not think that a better cow was ever milked 
in Chautauqua county. When well fed, she gave two pounds of butter a 
day, and was never dry a da3^ She was milked three times a day. Her 
first and second heifer calves were both good milkers, and their first calves 
were both bulls, and I have now raised six cows from those two. The 
best milkers from them have got bull calves by their first calving. I am 
not mistaken in this, because I can tell the birthday, color and sex of every 
calf born on my farm for these 20 years. All my cows have come in when 
two years old, but I keep my cattle in the stable the whole Vv^inter, only 
letting them out to drink at 12 o'clock, and I tell you, sir, they make hurry 
to come back. They don't like the fence corners." 

Mr. W. S. Grow, Hartland, Yt., gives a statement almost identical with 
the above in one instance, and the reverse in another, and, from all of his 
experience, he is satisfied that the theory that a heifer whose first calf is a 
heifer will invariably make a good milker, is not to be relied upon. 

Curing Clover Hay. 

Mr. S. N. Chamberlin, South Livonia, Livingston county, N. Y., says: 
"If the method of curing clover lately recommended by some outside 
member of the Club is correct, then the farmers in this community are 
making a great blunder, for they almost universally cure clover hay in the 
cock. I have just cut and put into my barn about twenty tons of clover 
hay, and I will give my method of making, which 1 think is the best way. 
After the blossoms begin to turn, say one-half of them, I commenced cut- 
ting, the weather being good; I cut in the forenoon and cocked in the after- 
noon; I let it remain in cock about two days; then open and give it from 
one to two hours' sun, and it is ready for. the mow. So I put my hay up 
this year, and venture to say it will come out perfect next January." 


!Mr. A. T. Livingston, Tylersburgh, Clarion county. Pa., says the yellow- 
bodied flies, which are such pests upon horses, can be kept off by simply 
greasing the parts most affected ever}' morning, with lard, or any other 
oily substance. 

Iowa — Information for EMiGiiANTS. 

Mr. A. H. Knowles, Lett's Creek, Humboldt county, Iowa, offers his 
services to those seeking information about that region. Inclose to him a 
post-paid envelope directed to yourself. 

Bee Birds. 

Mr. Knowles wants to "know if it is true that king birds destroy bees. 
That is the common opinion here, and they are killed without mercy by be 
keepers, which seems cruel to those who love the birds. I believe you are 
doing a good deal of good in encouraging the cultivation of flowers, and 
wish much that I could help you in the work." 


Mr. Solon Robinson. — So you can. Gather seeds of beautiful prairie 
flowers, and send them to the Secretary of the Club, J. W. Chambers, for 
distribution. As to the king- bird it is well settled that they do catch bees, 
but only the drones, which are stingless. 

Grape Growing and Wine Making at Hammondsport, N. Y. 

Mr. A.C, Yonnglove communicates the following- iuformation at the request 
of the Secretary: Grape growing commenced in this region, about nine or 
ten years since on a small scale — two or three farmers, putting out each a 
quarter or half acre of Isabellas — and from this small beginning the 
business has grown to be the principal business of a territory twenty 
miles long and varying from a half to two miles wide. The leading 
kinds grown are Isabella and Catawba, thougli large quantities of 
Delaware, Diana, Concord and Hartford Prolifics, have beenset with- 
in the last two years, all of which I regard as of great value. 
The Isabella is a reliable, good old standby, a sure bearer, free from disease, 
except now and then a little mildew, when the vines are not properly 
tied up so as to give free circulation of air. The Catawba is a grape of 
great excellence, either for wine, table, or market pui-poses; but it is a 
delicate vine to manage. Unlike most other grapes, it requires a soil and 
location peculiarly adapted to it, and great skill in its management, or 
perfect fruit cannot be expected. It does admirably on our high dry hill 
sides, with light soil and good clear exposure to sun and air; but many 
have planted it lower down on the land that gives too rank a growth, and 
consequently are liable to all the diseases that Catawbas seem to be heir 
to, and particularly to sour rot, which has shown itself in such locations 
for the last three years, not to an extent to damage much, but enough to 
show that it is in the wrong place, and that some other and not liable to such 
misfortunes should be in its stead, to wit: Either of the above named kinds, 
and many others. It is estimated that there is at this time over 1,000 acres 
set to grapes in this grape district, and full one half are Catawba, Diana 
and Delaware, but just coming into bearing ; but, as far as known, they 
promise to make good all that has been said forth<?m. Our wine company 
have made a small quantity of wine from each, which is extremely line. 
The Hartford Prolific and Concords are good table and profitable market 
grapes. Almost all kinds of native grapes are grown here to some extent, 
and no variety shows any signs of disease except Catawba, and that only 
in the localities before spoken of. 

I have just finished an examination of the vinf^yards, and will say, with- 
out any hesitation, that I have not seen a better prospect on the 4th of 
August in three years for a splendid crop of grapes than the present. 

The grape fever here stands at a steady heat, and lands are changing 
hands frequently for vineyard purposes. There were 500 acres or more set 
here last spring, and from present indications that amount will be exceeded 
next year. Grape growing here seems to be established as a fixed busi- 
ness. For information in regard to setting, terracing, training and trellis- 
ing, T will refer you to my friend, Mr. R. H. Williams, who has been 
through our vineyards several times, and can tell it better than I can write 
it. The vines are not set as full of fruit as I have seen them, but the 
clusters and berries are large and compact, the vinos remarkably healthy 


and strong' with large growth, so in all this I see a warrant for a fine crop 
of very perfect fruit — and enough for the vines, all they ought to bear. 

A word more. There was a wine company organized here in 1860, with 
a capital of ten thousand dollars. They immediately commenced the manu- 
facture of wine and brand}' — have since doubled their capital, and have up 
to the present time been successful in every w^y. Thej^nanufacture about 
200 tons of grapes a j'car. This is the Pleasant Yalley Wine Company. 

This present season there have been two more wine companies organized. 
One, the Urbana Wine Compan}^, about four miles down the lake, capital 
$250,000 ; the other, the Pultney Wine Company, capital $25,000, about 
eight miles down the lake. Both the above are expecting to be read}" to 
manufacture this fall. 


August 15, 18G5. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ely in the chair ; Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretary. 

Florida — Its Advantages for Northern Emigrants. 

Dr. Ambler made some further remarks upon Florida, particularly the 
St. John's river, as a place for people from the north to settle and make 
permanent homes ; and spoke of it very highly as possessing great advan- 
tages for persons desirous to establish fruit and market garden farms. 

The chairman also took part with the doctor in his high commendations 
of the healthiness, productiveness and beauty of the country, particularly 
about St. Augustine. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — I will concede all you say of the country and as 
much more as you please ; but I will oppose the simple fact that it does 
not flourish. St. Augustine is the oldest "city" in America; yet it is 
not equal to a second class New England village. The land may be like 
a garden soil, but it is not cultivated. All around is waste, waste. Why ? 

Dr. Crowell. — It is because there is no market. Dr. Ambler says there 
are or were steamboats to Savannah. One load would glut that market. 

The Chairman. — It is owino^ to the same cause that has bli^'hted Virfrinia 
and all the other slave States. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — I think Ave must look for a still further cause, 
feomething in the climate detrimental to northern constitutions, which pre- 
vents success in agriculture. 

Mr. A. S. Fuller. — I think there is still another cause. I cannot speak 
so sure of Florida as I can of Central Georgia, where fruits are more liable 
to be killed by spring frosts than they are in central New York. I would 
rather, to-da}", take the risk of planting a vineyard upon Lake Champlain 
than upon the St. John's river. And I would rather have ten acres of land 
within ten miles of New York city, than one hundred acres one hundred 
miles distant. Location is everything. Perhaps it is all right in Florida, 
but I cannot see it quite right for this Club to recommend northern gar- 
deners and fruit growers to ffo there for the purpose of making money. 
The papers are continually telling us about Missouri being a great country 


for growing grapes. It is a far better country fifty miles around New 
York. It is far better to pay the price of cultivated land here than it 
would be to have wild land for nothing at the west or south. AVhy should 
a man who wishes to establish a fruit farm look for any other location than 
this? We are told that a crop of grapes wall realize $1,500 per acre in 
Missouri. If so, the same crop would realize $4,000 here, owing to the 
difference in market value. I venture to say there are more grape vin^s 
now growing within ten miles of w4iere I stand than in all Missouri. And 
here they have done well for thirty years. Thirty years ago Cincinnati 
was the brag locality for grapes. It was then supposed that they would 
grow no further north in Ohio. That was par excellence ?/ie great locality. 
Time has proved the shore and islands of Lake Erie better localities than 
Cincinnati. I am not disposed to discourage emigration, nor am I disposed 
to encourage that American spirit of going somewhere — no matter where, 
so that it is awa}'- from home. The same spirit carried me to AVisconsin, 
■where the rich soil produces great growth of trees, bat is not as productive 
of good fruit as this hard-looking soil around New York. 

Dr. Trimble. — I think if gentlemen want to get emigrants to Florida, 
they had better invite one now present to visit the country and write a 
description of it, A few years ago, a large portion of south Jersey was in 
wilderness, and an idea prevailed that it was unfit for anything else. One 
day Mr. Solon Robinson went down there, looked about, came back and 
published a letter in The Tribune, describing the land and giving his opin- 
ion that it w^as worthy of cultivation, a pleasant soil to till, and genial 
climate to live in. The result w^as, a large emigration immediately set 
that wa}^ and the land is rapidly being cleared and settled with a thriving 
population who fully verify Mr, Solon Robinson's opinion. 


This all important question was brought before the Club to-day by the 
exhibition of Griffith's Patent Ventilator, which is also a sure cure for 
smoky chimneys. The principle of it is an iron chimney cap, with a 
revolving liood constructed of slate, curved and arranged in such a manner 
that the slightest breeze causes it to revolve, turning an Arcliimedeaji screw 
inside the cap, which acts upon the air, forcing it upward, and, of course, 
creating a current below quite down to the fire, or, if used as a ventilator, 
drawing the foul air from any room or vault connected with the pipe'. The 
plan has been extensively used in Boston and vicinity, where some of the 
Club have seen it in operation, and have given it their hearty approval. 
The size varies from six to thirty inches, and the price from $12 to $130. 
It may be made an important aid to ventilation, and is needed as much 
upon farm houses as city buildings. 

Fruit Trees. 

Mr. W. Clark, Centreville, Appanoose county, la., asks can fruit trees 
be made to bear every year ? 

Mr. John G. Bergen answers : It appears to be the nature of apple trees 
and most pear trees to produce a crop only every other year. High culture 


■will change that in some degree. Bartlett pears are noted as producing 
only alternate j-ears. I have a tree planted near the outlet of a kitchen 
drain which produces a prett}^ full crop every year. 

Dr. Crowell. — Upon the place I bought in Jerse}^ some j'ears ago, I found 
Bartlett trees that produced regularly every year. The land had been 
repeatedly dressed with ashes and bone, and I continued the process. 

Southern Agriculture. 

The following letter from Mr. William K. Griffin, Equality, Gallatin 
county, Illinois, met with marked approbation: 

"The method -of farming practiced in the Southern States is most 
wretched, and next to their social system calls for reform. If the present 
were the last generation of the human family this would be a matter of 
comparative indiiference. But, in consideration of the future, selfish and 
contracted indeed must be the philosophy of that farmer w4i(j does not feel 
that he owes it to posterity to presc^rve as much as possible the fertility of 
that little patch of earth which he calls his own. His title deed does not 
give him the moral right, and should not give him the legal right to convert 
it into a barren waste. 

"Some portions of the old world which were celebrated in ancient times 
for beauty and fertility are now marked by desolation. If this sad change 
was brought about by an exhausting system of farming, we ought to profit 
by the example of the ancients. But it is unnecessary to refer to ancient 
history for lessons of this sort. In passing through those portions of the 
Southern States which have been settled any length of time, the traveler 
is reminded at every step of the poetic expression: 'Man marks the earth 
with ruin.' This is especially the case with the land that is rolling and 
hilly. Most of this class of lands which has been cleared thirty or forty 
years w^ill be found so completely worn out as to no longer pay the cost of 
cultivation. As soon as the plow is stopped gullies begin to form, and 
these widen and deepen with every rain, till, in a very few years, the land 
is no longer available for the plow. The fence is now^ removed, laying the 
field open to the commons; and there it laj^s, washing and becoming more 
barren, wnthout soil enough to produce a growth of friendly bushes to hide 
its hideousness. 

"Such is the final result of Southern agriculture — a system which, if not 
arrested, will at no very distant day convert all the vast upland region to 
which it is applied into a sandy desert. This state of things is brought 
about by the persistent application of the plow, without manure, and with- 
out clover or grass. 

" The first great question which I would propose for the consideration of 
the agricultural philosopher is, whether there is any plan by which ordi- 
nary uplands, taken when newly cleared, can be made to retain their origi- 
nal fertility for an indefinite period, and at the same time give support to 
the same proportional number of human beings that are usually sustained 
upon such lands for the few first years of cultivation upon the old method. 
• If such a plan can be devised, it ought not only to be recommended, but, 
for the benefit of posterity, it ought to be enforced." 

proceedings of the farmers' club. 191 

Successful Swamp Clearing. 

Mr. Elizur D. Moore, Tolland, Hamden county, Mass., says he cleared 
four acres of land which had been overflowed and grown up to alders, wil- 
lows, red ash, scrub pine, hemlock and nigger-head bogs as high as a man's 
head. The whole was cut and piled in August, and burned in October. In 
April following it was sown with spring rye and herdsgrass, when the 
ground was thawed about two inches on the top. It has been a valuable 
meadow ever since. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — I wish a great many other persons who have simi- 
lar land would profit by this experiment of Mr. Moore, since the country is 
full of just such eyesores as the swamp which he so suQcessfully cleared. 

Strawberries in Iowa. 

Mr. D. W. Adams, Waukon, Iowa, says: "The Agriculturist strawberry 
is perfectly hardy here. I planted two in September, on the prairie, with- 
out covering, and now have 50 plants, all vigorous. Strawberries will do 
well in this State." Of the hardiness of other things, Mr. Adams says: 
" A correspondent of The Horticidturiat thinks the Kilmarnock willow will 
not prove hardy where the Babylonian fails. I have a fine specimen that 
passed last winter unscathed, while a May Duke cherry, White Do^'enne 
pear, and R. I. Greening apple, near by, were utterly ruined, the apple 
entirely killed." 

A Question for Wheat Growers. 

Mr. C. B. Darrow, Orland, Indiana, wants to know: "What variety of 
wheat is least subject to lodge when sown on very rich land, and what 
amount of seed per acre should be sown? Will a thick stand of fine straw 
stand up best, or a lighter seeding and coarser straw? The land under 
consideration is a heavy sandy loam, with some clay; has been in pasture 
several years; was heavil}^ top-dressed one year ago; was fed on last win- 
ter, about 2,000 bushels of corn and 30 tons of hay on six acres; has been 
well plowed and dragged; is in good order." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Then, with any strong growing variety, that does 
well generally in that vicinit}^ the land ought to produce a great crop-qf 
wheat, and should not be seeded thick, as it will stool extensively, and 
coarse straw will stand up best. Perhaps, for the benefit of the writer and 
others, some Indiana wheat-grower will give more definite answei's. 

The Army Worm. 

Mr. C. Cronkhite, Marshfield, Warren county, Indiana, says he once 
headed the army worm off his farm by feeding his hogs along the line they 
v>^ere approaching. They soon began to eat the worms, and seemed as fond 
of them as of corn. 

Elderberry Wine. 

Mr. W. W. Newman, South Onondaga, N. Y., gives us the following 
recipe for making elderberry wine: "To two quarts of ripe sweet elderber- 
ries add three quarts of water; scald, press and filter. To each gallon add 


three and a half pounds of sugar and cloves to suit. Boil the whole half 
an hour. AVhen cool add a table-spoonful of brewer's or home-made yeast. 
Ferment five or six days, then bottle. It is g'ood for immediate use, but 
improves with age." 

August 22, 1865. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ely in the chair ; Mr. John" W. Chambers, Secretary. 

Cornell Favorite Apple. 

Mr. Edwin Lacj^, Bucks county, Pa., presents specimens of the Cornell 
Favoiite, a summer apple. 

Dr. Trimble. — I see that this apple is disfigured by the curculio. 

The specimens Avere tasted and the apple highly approved as a fine sum- 
mer variety. 

Charter Oak Grape. 

The Chairman exhibited a large bunch of the Charter Oak grape, which 
he considers a good grape for preserving. 

Mr. P. T. Quinn. — The grape is a vigorous grower, but it is not approved 
of by horticulturists, the aroma is ver}'' unpleasant. 

Mr. Thos. Cavenach. — This grape is generally discarded by horticultural 
societies, its strong foxy aroma perfumes every thing near it. 
. Mr. P. T. Quinn. — In packing grapes for market, great care should be 
taken in selecting bunches of a uniform size ; if any decayed berries are 
found they should be removed by a long, pointed pair of scizzors. 


Mr. P. T. Quinn. — In making a vineyard, the soil should be thoroughly 
drained, trenched and the soil manipulated, then the plants will grow welL 

Dr. Ambler. — At a convention held in South Carolina several years since, 
the grape crop was highly recommended ; it was argued that any land that 
would produce thirty bushels of corn per acre was rich enough to grow 

Mr. Sweet. — Vineyards are being established at the head of Crooked 
lake, in this State, and in a few years this locality will be celebrated for 
its wine. I understand the wine makers have contracted to buy grapes 
this season for fifteen cents per pound. 

Dwarf Pears. 

Mr. P. T. Quinn — We cultivate the pear very extensively. On Prof. 
Mapes' farm he has four thousand trees growing. The principal part of 
the fruit is sent to a southern market. AVe are very particular in selecting 
our fruit ; the large ones we pack by themselves. We find it more advan- 
tageous to grow but a few varieties for market. Our Duchess d' Angou- 
leme, this season, are very fine. In. the early spring we cultivate the 
ground ; for the first five years after planting we grow currants between 
the rows, then mulch with salt hay. Our trees are planted in rows eight 


feet apart and ten feet between the rows. The trees are o£ uniform growth 
and look very healthy. .We double work our dwarf trees, that is, graft 
Glout Morceau on Vicar of Winkfield, then graft the Bartlett on that, this 
makes a very uniform tree. 

Dr. Trimble. — It is impossible to mulch all the orchards with salt hay, 
and indeed it is not necessary. Last week I visited Dr. Ward and Mr. 
Quinn; both these gentlemen are successful cultivators ; their trees were 
perfect pictures of beauty. T also visited the garden of Mr. Brill ; his pear 
trees were in fine condition. 

Labor for Women. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — I see no reason why women should not devote 
their attention to the growing of fruit; it is a very healthy occupation, 

Hr. J. V. Henry Xott. — In this connection it may not be improper for 
me to state that for two years, while I was necessarily absent, my sister 
had the entire management of my farm. 

Mr. P. T. Quinn. — I have had some experience in the cultivation of fruit, 
and I see no reason wh}^ a woman should not manage a fruit farm as well 
as a man ; they are certainly more enthusiastic. If I was in New Jersey 
I could point out several who know as much of the methods of culture as 
any man. The great difficulty encountered in the profitable employment 
of women is the want of organized labor. 


August 29, 1865. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ely, in the chair; Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretary. 

Fruit on the Table — Diseased Grapes. 

Mr. Solon Robinson presented about tlie worst specimen of the oidium 
on grapes ever seen by any one present. These were from a Hartford 
Prolific vine, trained upon a trellis on the southeast face of his house, a 
few miles north of the city. The vine is a very thrift}^ one, and has borne 
good crops three years. Two cones which run up over the roof of the 
piazza are well filled with perfect fruit, some of which was exhibited in 
contrast with that diseased. Mr. Robinson stated that every vine upon 
his place, except Clinton, was more or less affected in leaves or fruit, and 
as far as heard from, grapes are more or less similarly affected throughout 
the country. 

Mr. Wm. Scott Hicks, Bristol, Ontario county, N. Y. — " Inclosed you 
will find specimens of diseased grapes, which I wish you to present to the 
Farmers' Club for inspection. I would like to have the opinion of the 
members of the Club as to what the disease is, what is its cause, and 
whether there is any preventi^re or cure for it? This specimen is Isabella, 
that variety being most affected. Catawbas in the same vineyard show 
the effects of the disease in a less degree. Soil of vineyard : a not very 
stiff clay, upon a foundation of * Genesee slate.' In some places the slate 
[Am. Inst.] M 


comes to within three feet of the surface. Lot was thoroug-hly under- 
drained before vines were planted. A part of the. lot is so situated tliat it 
had had the wash from a barn-yard for many years and had become verj'- 
rich. Upon that part of the vineyard the grapes are most diseased. I 
also inclose a piece of this year's wood from one of the diseased vines. I 
wish to inquire in regard to another matter. Many of my Isabella grape 
vines have the appearance of plum trees affected by 'black knot.' This 
disease is killing some of my vines. It affects all parts of the vine, being 
most on the main cone near the ground, I do not think this has any con- 
nection with the diseased grapes, as I have had some of the finest fruit I 
have ever grown from vines most affected by the knot. One word in re- 
gard to grapes rotting. During the very hot weather of the first days of 
August my Concords and Catawbas commenced rotting badly, and I gave 
them all up. This went on for three or four days, when the weather, be- 
came cooler, and the rot was checked. Since that time these varieties 
have been doing as well as others. Isabellas and Catawbas mildewed 
considerably. Delawares, Rebeccas, Concords and Dianas, entirely free 
from mildew, as are also Clintons. Light upon any of the above matters 
will be thankfully received." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — The disease spoken of, as appears by the specimen, 
is one which has been very prevalent this year. It may properly be called 
the spot. Perfectly healthy looking green grapes show one or more black 
spots, at first a little larger than the head of a pin, generally increasing in 
size, and sometimes several running together. It appears to be the result 
of the sting of some insect similar to the plum curculio. This and the 
oidium has made nearly a clean sweep of some vineyards. 

Mr. Philip W. Kohler, Hopewell Academy Post- Office, Warren county, 
Mo., writes: " The Catawba grape that has been a total failure nearly every- 
where this year on account of the rot, will, I think, make a two-thirds crop 
on these ridges. We are, however, substituting Concord, Norton's Vir- 
ginia, Clinton, Hartford Prolific and Taylor's Bullitt, in its stead. The 
wine from Norton's Virginia has proven to be very valuable in sickness. 
I am told that people from all the adjoining States import it from our Her- 
man wine-growers at $5 per gallon. It is said to be invaluable in cases of 
cholera morbus and flux." 

Mr. W. A. Smith, Benton Harbor, Berrien count}^, Mich., writes as fol- 
lows about grapes at that place: " Grapes, an averge crop. Among mine, 
the Catawba are somewhat affected by what appears a rust blight. My 
Dianas are coloring before the Hartford Prolific or Delaware." 

Mr. Geo. Hite, Morrisania, Westchester county, N Y., exhibited some 
handsome specimens of the Adirondack grape, in bunches growing upon 
the cone, both leaves and fruit being perfectly healthy, ripe, and of excel- 
lent quality. They colored on the 5th of August. He also exhibited spe- 
cimens of the Clinton grape from a vine which is perfectly healthy and 
productive, an excellent wine grape, and recommends every one to have a 
vine of this variety. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter. — The Clinton is a favorite grape with me. We 
all know Mr. Hite's admirable mode of culture; not one person in a bun- 


dred can produce such specimens as these before us to-day; they are very 
fine specimens, most of the bunches having shoulders. 

Mr. R. H. AYilliams said the grapes at Ilamraondsport, N. Y., are not 
generally diseased, and that the Catawbas were generally better, not only 
this year, but every year, upon what has always been called the poorest 
soil. No grapes do well upon the most claj^ey soils. 

Mr. George Carpenter (brother of the great grape-grower upon Kelly's 
Island) said some of the vineyards there were upon stiff clay. 

Mr. R. G. Pardee said he had lately seen the grapery of Gen. J. T. Miller, 
Seneca Falls, in a flourishing condition on clay. Hartford Prolific and 
Union Village, now ripe, are very fine. Rebeccas, Diana and Annas good. 
Catawbas badly mildewed and Clintons somewhat. A mile south of Syra- 
cuse, on a southeast hillside, ^^r. Haj'den has some fine Isabellas, very little 
mildewed. Catawbas are badly affected. Hartfords are fine. 

Box- Wood. 

Mr. George Bartlett spoke of the great demand in this country for box- 
wood, upon which wood engravings are made. It is imported, and sells at 
such high prices that he thinks it might be profitably cultivated in this 
country. Whether it ever has been he is not informed. If it has he hopes 
the fact will be communicated to the Club with the results. There is an 
American box-wood which answers for coarse work. Its structure is not 
dense enough for fine engravings. 

The Michigan Fruit Region. 

Mr. W. A. Smith, writing from Benton Harbor, Berrian county, Michigan, 
gives us the following interesting information about the Michigan fruit 
region. The date is August 22d: 

"Our location here on the east shore of Lake Michigan is fast becoming 
a fruit-growing region. Fruit of every description belonging to this lati- 
tude seems to do well here, yet peaches are the speciality. This 3'ear the 
peach crop is fair in favorable localities. Apples are" abundant and pears 
good. The Doolittle Black Cap Raspberry is becoming a great favorite 
here, and will be very extensivel}^ planted the coming season. Upon this 
subject I want information, in order to guard against mistakes of my own 
and the cupidity of others: In ordinary field culture how long will the 
plants continue productive? Are plants grown from three or four year old 
stools as good as those grown the first season? If not, wh}^? Is the 
Russel's Prolific strawberry a good berry to grow for market? If not, 
why ?" 

Mr. R. H. Williams. — There is a limit to the continuation of the time of 
bearing of this variety of raspberry. Mr. Doolittle states that the stools 
should be renewed once in three years. I have found that so in my expe- 
rience, which has been considerable with this variety. After that the canes 
appear to be affected b}' a yellow fungus, and cease to be fruitful. All 
experience has proved that the renewal plants should be taken from canes 
one year old. Those from old stools will partake of the character of the 
latter, and will not prove fruitful. That is the reason why. This is simply 


a cultivated variety of the wild raspberry, which grows by renewals from 
the top taking root, and whether in a cultivated or wild state, it ceases to 
be productive after it is three years old. Sometimes new plants grow in 
the road from scattered seed, but they are not certain to be like the origi- 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter said he had stools of the black cap which had by 
high manuring been kept productive ten years. This may also be done 
with the strawberry, yet both should be often renewed. 

Mr. Solon Robinson said: As the renewal of plants comes from the top 
taking root, instead of suckering, they require a wide space between the 
rows; and a good method of growing them is to set posts, with rails, four 
or five feet high, along each row, and compel the canes to grow the top in 
one direction, hanging over the rail. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — The answer about the Russel Strawberry is this: 
It is in some localities good; in others, good for nothing. You had better 
try it on a small scale, and ascertain whether it suits your locality. 

Strawberries in Minnesota. 

Mr. H. Ranney, Winona, Minn., saj^'s: " I have experimented with various 
new kinds of strawberries. The Austin takes the lead of any in size and 
productiveness. The ' Triomphe de Gand' and 'Russel's Prolific' are mise- 
rable bearers. The Agriculturist and Tribune plants winter-killed. Are 
the latter considered hardy ?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — The Monitor is hardy in higher latitude than Mr. 
Ranney's location. We doubt whether the other two will succeed as far 

Machine to Facilitate Grafting. 

Mr. A. N. Douglass, Avon, Livingston county, N. Y., makes the follow- 
ing inquiry: "Do you know of a machine for shaving scions for grafting, 
and if so, does it do its work well V 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — We do not believe any machine has ever been in- 
vented which will do the required work. It is a business which must be 
very carefully done by hand. It is good work for women. 

Mr. Geo. Bartlett. — The only machine is a carpenter's jointer, held be- 
tween the knees and the scion between the fingers. 

Yellows in Peach Trees. 

Mr. Lincoln Fay, Portland, Chautauqua county, N. Y., upon the question 
whether this disease is contagious or not, says: ''Some 30 years since had 
two sick trees from Prince & Co. ; trees blossomed and fruited ; pits the 
same season from adjacent trees produced trees with a mild type of consti- 
tutional yellows. In a package of scions from Cole, of Boston, of one 
variety every tree in the orchard or nursery budded with that particular 
variety, and had the sick yellows of the most malignant type. A peach 
sprout budded with the same variety on the opposite side of a peach stump, 
from which was growing a thrifty apricot; trees budded on a peach sprout 
of the same stump. The apricot the same season failed to set buds, and 


the ends of the limbs spired up and died. (A fact showing" the circulation 
of the sap down and up.) 

" Planted ten acres of peach orchard from pits saved from trees among 
which was a tree or so with tlie 3'ellows of so mild a type as not to be per- 
ceived at the time. A large amount of the ten acres had the yellows con- 
stitutionally. Two acres planted by side of same orchard, the pits from 
another section, the trees flourished and bore fruit until they caught the 
yellows by the pollen from sick trees. Those that are pits from healthy 
trees take the yellows from old orchard ground the second year, or before 
they could take it by the pollen." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — This statement should be a sufficient caution to all 
persons desiring to plant a peach orchard, against procuring seeds, scions, 
or trees from orchards or neighborhoods where the sick yellows prevail. 
Mr. Fay offers a prize of $200 fcr the remedy of the sick yellows. 

Why Should Grain be Bound in Bundles ? 

Mr. Caleb Winegar, Lake Grove, Union Springs, N. Y., says : " I have 
come to the conclusion that binding of all kinds of grain should be dis- 
pensed with, and I never mean to bind another bundle, for the followino- 
reasons : 1st. It is cheaper; 2d. The chances are that you will get the 
crop secured in better condition. 

" The way w^e secure the crop without binding, we go into the wheat- 
field with a simple mower and cut the grain the same as grass. Then, as 
soon as the grain is sufficiently cured, wdiich will be but a few hours with 
a good sun, take the wire-tooth horse-rake and rake it into winrows, and 
draw it together as fast as raked. In case of rain, a few heurs after the 
rain it is in condition to rake and draw. Not so where it is in bundles. 
This year I had to untie ni}^ bundles, and the grain I got in in the best 
order was raked into wanrows. Farmers, let us hear your objections to 
the new system of securing crops. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — There are two cases where this plan would be ob- 
jectionable. The first is, the vicinity of cities w^here the straw is fre- 
quently worth more than the grain, and it is worth about twice as much 
tied in bundles as it is in bales. Again, at the west, w^here the grow^th of 
straw is very large, it would be troublesome to handle and thresh unless 
in bundles. The greater convenience would pay the extra labor. Where 
oats or barley grow but a foot or two high, we can see no more reason for 
binding than in a buckwheat field. In Illinois there are machines w4iich 
harvest only the heads of w^ieat. They have been proved to be great 
labor-saving m.achines. 

Mr. R. H. Williams contended that the single point in saving of storage 
room was sufficient to warrant all the extra expense of binding grain with 
long straw. Of late years the barley crop of this State has been largely 
cut by mowing machines. If unbound grain is stacked, it should always 
be covered with hay sufficient to make a good shed for the water. 

Mr. Adrian Bergen said the difficulty of stacking unbound grain would 
be very objectionable, and so would be the extra barn rooin required for 
>t. It would also be more expensive thi-eshiug. 

198 transactions of the american institute. 

Northern Cotton. 

Mr. R. B. MiHer, Utica, N. Y., writes : " Inclosed I send sample of 
Northern cotton, or fiber of the Epitobium plant, grown and cleaned in the 
county of Oneida, N. Y. It will cost this year, as near as I can now judge, 
about 30 cents per pound. Next year, if the experiment succeeds, it would 
not be so much." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — We judge this to be the fiber of the Asclepias or 
common milk weed which was gathered to a considerable extent last year 
in Orange county, and various articles manufactured which were pre- 
sented to the Club and reported upon last autumn. The specimen sent us 
is far less perfectly cleaned than the one presented by Dr. Guernsey. The 
Club has no faith in it; the staple is too short and weak. 

Killmer's Plow Attachment. 

Mr. George I. Knight, Brownville, N. Y., says his father " used the chain 
to plow down weeds and stubble in Bucks county, Penn., sixty-two years 
ago, practically in the same manner as that described by Mr. Killmer. I 
have used the same contrivance in this country, many years ago, to cover 
up Canada thistles, with good success.'' 

Flies — How to Get Rid of Them. 

Mrs. N. W. Clapp, Montgomery, Vt., writes: "I want to find the best 
and most expeditious mode for getting rid of these troublesome house flies. 
They are very annoying to me, and I suppose must be to most of people. 
Some persons suppose flies to be a blessing, as they act as scavengers. 
Such blessings remind me of an anecdote of an old uncle of mine who 
settled on a very high hill up here in Vermont, where snows were very apt 
to come out of season. On one occasion, when a half-foot of snow in June 
had broken down his corn and made bad work with other crops, his neigh- 
bors offered their consolation by reminding him of the old adage — 'A late 
snow, the poor man's maniire.' ' Well,' says uncle Stephen, with his custo- 
mary gravity, 'I don't want to be dunged to death, if I am poor,' And 
in this case, I think, I had rather resort to other means for purifying the 
atmosphere than be tormented to death by such blessings as these. I have 
understood you had a tree in New York, called, I think, the Linden tree, 
that would attract the flies to its leaves, and was sure death to all that 
touched them." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — The common story about the poisonous quality of 
the Linden tree is as fabulous as that about the ancient Upas. There are 
probably some vegetable poisons which will kill flies, if taken in sufficientl}^ 
large doses. It is, however, about the same trouble to get them to take it 
as with that noted flea powder which requires the operator to catch the 
flea, pinch him upon the nape of his neck until he opens his mouth and 
then insert the poison. Probably the best poison for flies, as well as for 
almost all other vermin, is arsenic. Somebody in New York, with a very 
Jewish name, is Jewing tlie people by selling them papers of a most re- 
markably sticky character, upon which the flies are to alight and stick fast 
until they die. There is no mistake in the sticky quality of the article, 


the only trouble is, the flies won't stick to it; but evcr^'thing else will that 
happens to touch it. I kept this fly-trap set for a week, succeeded in catch- 
ing one fly and one half-grown kitten, which became so completel}'' en- 
veloped in the sticky substance that I could no other mode of getting 
it ofif except singing. I am sure that cat will never vote for the " Catch 
'em alive" fly-trap. I succeed in keeping the great mass of flics out of 
the house by using wire screens in all the windows, and in doors which we 
desire to keep opened for sake of ventilation. These are the most effectual 
fly-traps which I have ever found. -They suSer the flies to live, but outside 
of the house, where they are perfectly welcome to perform their scavenger 

Sheep — Their Diseases. 

Mr. J. W. West, Mt. Pleasant, Penn., complains of a new disease "which 
has lately appeared among our flocks. It appears to be very contagious, 
as it spreads through a flock in a short time. It was introduced last fall. 
If there is any other remedy than selling, please let us know through the 
Farmers' Club." 

Mr, Solon Robinson. — The disease spoken of is the common foot-rot. It 
has prevailed for a long period in some sections, and in some seasons worse 
than others. It is curable, or at least controllable, by the use of a solution 
of blue or green vitriol. Some flock masters use corrosive sublimate. We 
advise Mr. West to purchase Randall's Sheep Husbandry. 

Milking — Cows That Hold Up. 

Mr. Wm. H. Beach, Perry Township, Wood county, Ohio, says that cows 
which are inclined to hold up their milk may be cured by always milkiuf*- 
the two rear teats quite empty before touching the forward ones. 

Prairie Flowers. 

Mrs. M, Kennedy, Perry, III, sends specimens of prairie flowers, seeds 
of w^hich she wouUl willingly exchange with those desiring to do so, for 
some of the cultivated sorts. Several of these specimens, although dried, 
show that they must be, as Mrs. K, says, in their native State very beau- 

Mr. Wm. S, Carpenter said he would exchange, and at the same time, 
while speaking of flowers, desired to commend highly, as worthy the atten- 
tion of all flower cultivators, the Improved China Asters. 

Elderberry Wine. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — A correspondent sends the following receipt to 
the Club: 

"The common elder [Sambucus nigra) , with its heavy bunches of dark 
glossy fruit, is everywhere abundant through the northern States, and 
often, in fact, appears in such profusion as to make a striking feature in 
the landscape. The berries which this bush produces are already quite 
black, and by the first or second week in September will probably be in 
perfection. The fruit, for wine making, must only be gathered when per- 


fectly ripe, which fact may be readily ascertained by the berry easily break- 
ing when pressed between the thumb and finger. The best way is to cut 
the stem with a sharp pair of shears as close to the berries as possible, and 
directly from the stem, as it is quite necessary that this be performed be- 
fore the berries are finally placed in the press. As the fruit is very spong}--^ 
nothing short of a good screw-press can be made available in extracting 
the juice. 

" After pressing, the refuse must not be given to poultry or cattle, as its 
effects are very injurious. Then, to every quart of well strained juice add 
two quarts of water and three pounds of heavy brown sugar ; we have 
found, by experiment, that sugar which is but a few removes from molasses 
to be best, as the whiter kinds do not produce sufficient fermentation. 
When well mixed pour into casks ; after a few weeks, when fermentation 
ceases, take two gallons of cider-brand}^ filter several times through a bag 
containing charcoal until all flavor be extracted, and add it to every 32 
gallons of wine ; lesser quantities in proportion — after which bung the 
casks up. Next year, at or about this time, rack off and bottle. If jon 
are successful, your wine will resemble in color good French claret. Time 
improves this wine wonderfully, and, in a few years, with careful manage- 
ment, you will have a wine far better than nine-tenths of the ' best imported/ 

" The wine is expectorant and gently soporific. It is remarkably free 
from alcohol ; in fact, without the addition of the prescribed cider-brandy, 
it would be sadly wanting in back-bone, and almost unfit for use. 

" There is no reason why, with the large harvests of elderberries which 
nature so bounteously strews broadcast through the land, that every farmer 
and other resident in the country should not often have on his table a 
home-made wine, at once cheap and beneficial to his health, and, at the 
same time, palatable and imintoxicating." ^ 

Mowing Machines — Do they Injure Meadows? 

Mr. "Wm. R. Ingalls, Hamilton, Steuben county, N. Y., says: "The 
above question is not a new one ; it has been discussed in that section, and 
the conclusion is that it is not the machine but the time of cutting the grass 
that produces the bad effect spoken of. We have been in the habit of let- 
ting the grass stand from necessity till part of the seed dropped back on 
the ground, and by means of the new growth thus started our meadows 
have continued to improve with age ; but a continued cutting of the grass 
before the seed matures is injurious to the meadow, no matter w^hat the 
grass is cut with." 

Disease of Hops. 

Mrs. D. B. Phelps, McGrawville, Cortland county, N. Y., writes very 
despondingly of hop growers' prospects, the lice which made their appear- 
ance last year having utterly destroyed the crop in many cases this year. 
They eat tlie young blossom and the leaves turn black and drop off. " So 
we have nothing left to grow, and we have nothing to do but to pull tl>e 
poles and burn the vines. I am informed that it is the same kind that 
appeared in England a few years ago and injured the hops so badlj^ there. 
Do you know whether the lice continue to come there, or whether they came 


two or three years and then ceased to come ? A great many are plowing- 
up their hop-yards and sowing" winter grain. AVc do not want to do this 
if there is any prospect of their living and doing well after a few years. 
Do yon know or can you inform me whether these vermin will entirely kill 
the root, or if they will survive this and come out fresh and new every 
spring? If this is likely to be a perpetual pest, the sooner they are plowed 
up and turned into something else tlie better, as it is too much labor to take 
good care of a hop-yard and not receive any compensation therefrom. A 
few years ago the wheat and oats were injured by the Aphis, which lasted 
onl}' two years and then ceased to come, and perhaps the kind that is on 
the hops may be as transient ; il' so, people may take some courage. This 
year there have been lice on the coffee bean in this section of the country so 
as to completely destroy the crop. There have been and are now lice on 
our young apple trees ; also on the pie-plant (all different), so that the 
growth has been very much retarded, but not to entirel}^ destroy them." 

On motion, the Club took a recess until the first Tuesday in October. 


October 3, 1865. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ely in the chair; Mr. Johx W. Chambers, Secretary. 

A New Pest of the Farm. 

Mr. F. G. Campbell, Monterey, Indiana, sends inclosed in a phial, speci- 
mens of worms, which he says "have now made their first appearance in 
countless legions, and are terribly destructive to the yonng wheat. They 
attacked a fielcrof wheat belonging to Mr. E. Demass, and in less than one 
week there was not one stalk left. They took another piece of ten acres 
in three days. They make a clean sweep. I hear of them on the river 
eight miles above and three miles below this. They do not travel fast. 
They appear to come in spots and spread all over the field. They are very 
small at first, say one-eighth of an inch long, and grow to the size of the 
specimen sent in about five or six days. We would be glad if your Far- 
mers' Club would give us a clue to their history, and let us know whether 
early sowing had anything to do with their appearance. I have just heard 
that the worms have taken fifteen acres of barley owned hj Mr. Hoham, 
near Ph-mouth. It is worth}' of remark that we have no blackbirds this 
season, in this section of country." 

The Chairman remarked: That is perhaps why the worms are so destruc- 
tive. The birds are not there to destroy them. 

Mr. Solon Robinson said it was more remarkable that the blackbirds 
were absent than that the worms were present, since they usuall}' are found 
in countless numbers all over Northern Indiana, and have been anathema- 
tized by nearly every farmer because they will eat corn. It now looks as 
though wheat could not be grown without the aid of birds. 

Dr. Trimble. — I find by examining these worms with a glass that they 
are the maggots of some fly, but which one cannot be determined without 
tlie perfect insect, which I hope some observing farmer will secure and for- 
ward to me, with remarks upon its habits, and how long after the eggs 


are laid before they hatch, and how long- the worms continue to eat. These 
in the vial are none of them half an inch long', and not as large as the fresh 
meat maggots. The stalks of wheat are cut oif close to the ground, and 
left jagged as though eaten b}'' sharp teeth. As they must be wholly ex- 
posed to sight, they would afford the birds fat picking. 

Butter Making Rules. 

Mr. T. W. Fries, Friendship, N. Y., wants to publish a short plain set of 
rules for making butter, to distribute among farmers, and would be glad 
to receive information upon the subject. He asks to be referred to num- 
bers of The Tribune containing butter making rules. They are numerous, 
but the reporter is not able to give the reference. Mr. Fries " thinks that 
the annual value of the butter crop would be greatly augmented if it was 
all of uniform good quality, as it might be if all butter makers were fur- 
nished with proper information." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — We have some doubt of this, owing to the perver- 
sity of human nature, which impels butter makers to follow their own rules, 
right or wrong. 

The August Cricket. 

Mr. H. H. Gerrish, Mast Yard, Merrimack county, N. H. — "The insect 
sent by A. G. Lawton, from Lasalle, 111., I should say from his description 
is what we call August cricket in New Hampshire, for they begin to sing 
in August. This j^ear the}^ began the first day. It is more than six weeks 
and we have had no frost yet." 

Wood Ashes. 

Mr. Gervish says: "I want to ask the Club when and how is the best 
time to apply wood ashes on grass land, whether as a top dressing or plow 
and harrow in when I seed down — also the relative value of leached and 
unleached ashes, and what is the proper quantity for an acre on hill land 
that is rather rock}^" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — The opinion of those who have used ashes is in 
favor of top dressing grass in spring, by sowing broadcast. If used upon 
plowed land, they prefer to put the ashes around growing corn, potatoes, 
etc. Many farmers, particularly owners of sandy land, consider old leached 
ashes as valuable as unleached. For many purposes, particularly- for fruit, 
unleached are worth more than double. They are always cheap manure at 
twentyty-five cents a bushel. 

What Feed Makes Best Manure ? 

A South Amboy, N. J., correspondent writes: "I wish your Club would 
discuss the relative merits of manure made of fresh hay or straw, and that 
of salt hay and sedge." 

The Chairman. — This has been frequently discussed, and the conclusion 
from careful experiment is that one load of manure made from corn or other 
rich feed is worth a dozen made of salt hay. The straw of any grain is 
better for manure than salt marsh hay, and any rich upland hay is better 
than straw. 


A Perpetual Weather Table. 

Mr. J. Cool, Mexico, Miami county, Indiana, sends the followinp^ table, 
which, he says, was constructed by a celebrated astronomer, upon a 
philosophic consideration of the attraction of the sun and moon. It is con- 
firmed by the experience of many years' careful observation, and will sug- 
gest to the observer what kind of weather will probably follow the moon's 
entrance into any one of her quarters. As a general rule, it will be found 
wonderfully correct: 

If the moon changes at 12 o'clock noon, the weather immediately after- 
ward will be ver}'' rainy, if in summer, and there will be snow and rain 
in winter. 

If between 2 and 4 o'clock p. m.; changeable in summer, fair and mild in 

Between 4 and 6 o'clock p. "m. ; fair in both summer and winter. 

Between 6 and 10 u'cock f, m. ; in summer, fair, if the wind is north-west; 
rainy, it south or south-west. In winter, fair and frosty, if the wind is 
north or north-west; rainy, if south or south-west. 

Between 10 and 12 o'clock p. m.; fair in summer and fair and frosty in 

Between 12 at night and 2 o'clock a. m.; fair in summer and frosty in 
winter, unless the wind is from the south or south-west. 

Between 2 and 4 o'clock a. m.; cold and showery in the summer and snow 
and storm in the winter. 

Between 4 and 6 a. m. ; rainy both in winter and summer. 

Between 6 and 8 o'clock a. m. ; wind and rain in the summer and stormy 
in the winter. 

Between 8 and 10 o'clock a.m.; changeable in summer — rain with a 
westerly and snow with an easterly wind in winter. 

Between 10 and 12 o'clock a. m. ; showery in summer and cold and windy 
in winter. 

In proof of this " correctness," Mr. Cool asks every one who doubts the 
"moon's influence" to note how it applies to the present season : ''From 
the 1st of June up to the present time, which is well known to have been 
unusually wet, in this latitude, from the Atlantic coast to western Kansas, 
by noticing the changes of the moon in the month of June last, and the 
predictions of the weather-table thereon, you will see that each one indi- 
cated rain. Also that the changes in July are more favorable for rain than 
for dry weather. In August all the changes but one v/ere favorable for 
rain, and we got it." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Mr. Cool says : "The season has been unusually 
wet from the Atlantic coast to western Kansas." So it should be to make 
your philosophy and your weather table worth a straw. Unfortunately for 
your position, j-our statement is not a fact. New York and New England 
have not had a wet season, although under the same moon and its changes, 
but a distressing drouth. In some sections the earth is literally parched, 
as with a fever heat. Farmers thereabout would have been delighted to 
find one particle of truth in your theory and the above weather table. 

204 transactions of the american institute. 

Iron for Manuring Grapes. 

Mr. Wm. J. Kent sends us a bunch of grapes (Isabellas) to prove that 
iron does not injure the quality, which, according to his statement, is full}'" 
proved, as the fruit is ver}" good. He says : "The vine from which this 
bunch is gathered was planted five years ago, and has made a rampant 
growth and borne abundantly (about three pecks this year, of which this 
is an average bunch), and made five main canes from 10 to 13 feet long 
and half an inch in diameter, of well ripened wood free from mildew, and 
now, when all other fruit of the same variety in this vicinity is giving the 
first faint indications of coloring, this is almost dead ripe. Xow this vine 
is planted where iron filings and borings, the sweepings of a machine shop, 
have been thrown out very near and around its roots, till a mound has 
accumulated several inclies thick, and dating back as long as the vine has 
been grovving. Every drop of moisture that reaches th.e roots must be 
strongly impregnated with oxide of iron. Now I don't claim that any 
excellence of the vine, in the way of growth, earliness, &c., is attributable 
to the iron, because I know that is due to the fine exposure, shelter, &c., 
the vine enjoj^s ; but I think the facts justify the conclusion that oxide of 
iron is not injurious to grapevines." 

A Good Place for Bees. 

Mr. A. H. Mills, Middlebury, Vt., says : " I wintered but four swarms 
last winter. One of them was a weak swarm, and was kept in the cellar ; 
the others stood out, and nearl}'' one-half of the bees perished, as the winter 
wa€ uncommonly severe. Xow for the result. My stock has increased 
from four to ten swarms, all strong except one, and they have given me 
in surplus honey, exclusive of boxes, a little over 200 pounds. The weak 
swarm that was kept in the cellar, was carried through in good order, by 
inverting the hive and covering them with wire cloth, to keep out mice. 
That hive threw off one good swarm and deposited 39J pounds of surplus 
honey, exclusive of boxes, besides a little buckwheat, not yet taken out. 
The young swarm which came from them, has, in addition to filling their 
hive, yielded 21J pounds of pure honey, making really, as the product of 
one small swarm, about 60 pounds of honey and cue good swarm. Others 
have done nearly as well — one 3'oung swarm producing 30 pounds net of 

Mr. Solon Kobinson. — I am glad to hear of some one who has " good luck 
with bees." I started five years ago with five swarms — have sold two and 
killed two, and got five now, but have not got 100 pounds of box honey 
in the whole time, and finally come to the conclusion, arrived at by my 
neighbors years ago, that bees in that neighborhood (south part of West- 
chester count}^, X. Y.) are a very unprofitable kind of stock. 

Mr. D. C. Hunt, North Tunbridge, Yt. — Seeing some discussion in the 
reports of the Farmers' Club about the profits of hee keeping, I wish to 
report progres-s in my apiary, (which I mana^ge upon the Langstroth sys- 


tem,) as I think it has given me better profits than any you have yet 
reported. On the 20th of March I took from winter quarters 20 stocks of 
bees. The profits of sixteen of them, all of whicli were Italian but one, 
are 525 pounds of box honey, sixty pounds taken in frames from the hives, 
nearly all of which is as nice as box honey, and twelve new swarms of 
bees. The cash receipts for the box honey, sold at 33 J cents per pound, 
is 8160 net, and for stocks sold, $116 ; and I put into winter quarters, 
yesterday, twenty-six stocks in excellent condition. A portion of the labors 
of two of the other four stocks should be added, as I used their working 
abilities to raise queens, taking a large amount of bees, honey and young 
brood for my "nucleus" boxes, and introducing fertile queens into the 
old stocks, after swarming. 

Plastic Slate Roofing. 

Mr. G. Hebron, Cass county, Michigan, writes: •" WiH you please inform 
me where I can learn the particulars of a new process of roofing of slate 
flour and coal tar; also, how are letters directed to the American Institute 
Farmers' Club?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — The last first — simply to the Farmers' Club, 
American Institute, New York — that is all. And if you want information 
about the best roofing material ever discovered, both for quality and cheap- 
ness, address Plaster Hoofing Company, No. 159 Broadwa^^, New York. I 
have a roof of this sort upon an addition to my house, lately put on, and I 
say, unqualifiedly and without being influenced by one cent of interest, 
that I believe this mode of roofing one of the greatest boons to farmers 
which has been discovered in this wonderful age of invention — an age that 
has furnished more helps to agriculture than all preceding ages combined; 
and this discovery of how to make cheap, durable roofs, is the most im- 
portant to farmers of all that has been previously discovered. The man 
who let his mowing machine stand out two years, w^ill soon be able to 
put it under shelter. 

Mr. E. M. Maynard, Trumansburg, N. Y., alluding to a recent remark of 
Solon Robinson about durable whitewash for outside use, asks the follow- 
ing questions: 

"1. Can you send me the full formula of making the whitewash, and 
instructions for applying? or refer me to the number of the paper contain- 
ing it? 

" 2. Does this whitewash answer as well as paint for new roofs? 

''3. Is there any reliable method of renovating old shingled roofs other 
or less expensive than re-shingling? Most of the 'cement roofings,' I 
think, are to be used on roofs much less steep than those which are 

Mr. Robinson answers: 

1. One bushel of good unslacked lime; slack it as usual for whitewash, 
and mix with forty gallons of water. Then add: 20 lbs. Spanish whiting, 
17 lbs. rock salt, 12 lbs. sugar. Put in the whiting and stir and mix 
thoroughly; then stir in the salt and sugar. It is better if mixed some 
days before using, and stirred frequently. Apply it thin, three coats, upon 


rough boards, and they will be white and well preserved three years 

2. Yes, better. If shingles were dipped in it before laid, it would pre- 
serve them twice as long as without. 

3. No, unless 3'ou apply the plastic slate roofing, which will not cost 
half as much as new shingles. The old ones must be removed and the 
boards sheeted with ordinary paper roof felting. Then the slate may be 
applied, no matter how steep, if it can be reached by a mason's trowel. 

Tomato Soup. 

Mr. G. B. Denison, Muscatine, Iowa, tliinks the following recipe should 
be known to all the members of the Club: "To one quart of canned toma- 
toes add two quarts of water and boil fifteen minutes; then sweeten with 
saleratus by dropping in a little at a time, while boiling, as long as it foams 
any; to this .add one quart of good rich milk, and let it come to a boil; 
thicken with a half dozen crackers, well pulverized; butter, salt and pep- 
per to suit taste, about as you would 03'sters, and you will have a dish 
good enough to set before the President. It will take about a teaspoonful 
of saleratus to a pint of tomatoes. In using tomatoes picked fresh from 
the vines, after slicing them, drain off' all the juice before cooking. In put- 
ting up tomatoes for winter use, we always let them boil fifteen minutes. 

Canning Sweet Corn. 

"Can the Club inform me how to can green corn and keep it? I have 
tried two or three times, but without success. I put up a half dozen cans 
this fall in this way. I boiled the corn on the cob five minutes, then cut it 
and scraped it off the cob the same as we do to dr}^; boiled three-quarters 
of an hour and sealed up in tin cans, but it has all soured. We have good 
success with everything but corn and peas." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — And this is the experience of almost every one, 
except those who make canning corn a business, and sometimes they fail. 

Increase of Fruit Consumption. 

Mr. B. Summers, Vermillion county, Ohio, says: '* Twenty years ago 
peaches were thrown to the hogs, or left to rot under the trees, and I was 
laughed at for planting an orchard to grow fruit for sale. This year I have 
been laughed at for selling mj^ crop at $1 a bushel in the orchard, because 
it was below the market. When peaches were fed to the pigs, grapes 
were sold, if you could find a purchaser, at two cents a pound; now they 
sell by the ton at from six to ten cents at the vineyards, and there are 
almost as many acres of vineyard now as there were single vines then. 
The same proportion exists as to peaches' also. All I dare calculate on 
then was fifty cents for the best, and that was what I got. With increased 
production the price has steadily gone up, and this year, with an abundant 
crop in this peach region, the demand and price have been unprecedented. 
Peach lands are rising fast, and peach orchards and vineyards are all the 

"Under a very hot sun and plenty of rain, our peaches are the finest we' 


ever had; but grapes have sufifered considerably, especially the Catawbas, 
many have been actually cooked on the vines. The quantity of good peach 
land is limited to the higher grounds and looser soil of the ridges. A 
larger area is suitable for vineyards. We think all our young men need 
not go south nor west for a good country to live in. They can stay here 
and grow fruit and get rich." 

Remedy for Sheep Disease. 

Mr. J. Fitch, Wellsburg, Chemung county, N. Y., gives the following 
remedy for the disease described by Mr. Campbell, Meigs county, Ohio, in 
a late report of .the Club: " Catch each sheep, and daub the mouth and nose 
inside and outside with pine tar. After a month, repeat the application. 
Keep the sheep in good dry pasture, where some slight shelter is accessi- 
ble. In winter feed well, and salt but little. Good clover hay, without 
grain, is best. Whenever a sheep coughs, apply tar. 

Osage Orange Hedge. 

Mr. F. H. Waterbury, Polo, Ogle count}^ Illinois: " Can you or any mem- 
ber of the Club inform me the best way to prepare the Osage orange seed, 
to insure a sure growth; also the best treatment for a hedge of the same ?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. —I will read for the information of our correspondent 
and others the following account prepared by Mr. A. A. Hilliard, Brighton, 
Macoupin county, Illinois : "It is about 12 years since the Osage plant 
was first introduced in this section — this I state from memory only — (Cen- 
tral Illinois). I believe Prof. Turner, of Jacksonville, is entitled to the 
credit of being the first to introduce and make successful experiments with 
that plant in making hedge. A few years later, quite an Osage fever arose 
in this vicinity. Seed was procured in large quantities from Texas, plants 
raised, and hundreds of miles, perhaps thousands, were planted out in 
hedge rows, all with the mistaken notion that all had been done that was 
necessary to be done, to procure so valuable an article as a live hedge 
fence, at so trifling expense. They were generally left to grow up, some 
with .cultivation, and some care in clipping the top, but more without any 
attention, and in spite of grass and weeds, having reached the height of 
six, eight, and in some cases fifteen feet; in most cases they made a toler- 
able fence, so far as to turn cattle and horses, with numerous pig-holes 
through the bottom. 

" Thus it went on for several years, when it began to be whispered 
about among the farmers that the Osage hedge was not quite what they 
had anticipated; that it would not stop the pigs or the geese, and was 
classed among the numerous humbugs of the day, and there was a reaction 
and a general stagnation in the Osage market, and plants could not be sold 
at any price. 

"About four years ago some English hedge growers came along and 
commenced cutting and laying them down, cutting each plant half off and 
laying it down, the next within tliree or four inches of it, and so on through, 
leaving one strong plant standing every six feet till done, then cut tliem 
three and a half feet high and lay level on top, twisting the top of the first 


under the butt of the second, thus making a connected rider the whole 
length of the hedge. Three 3'ears with proper care will produce material 
enough for a good fence, and two years more, with proper care in clipping, 
will make a complete hedge. 

" This stopped all the pig-holes and made a perfect fence at once, im- 
penetrable to man, beast or bird (but not a hedge ; I make a distinction 
between a fence and a hedge, as everything that will turn cattle may be 
called a fence, but it is not ever}^ fence that is a hedge); then by clipping 
the young shoots that will sprout out on the top and sides two or three 
times the two following summers, a perfect hedge will be made. AYhat I 
call a hedge is a perfect mat of green foliage from top to bottom, covering 
all the brush entirely from view, four feet high and three feet wide; it may 
be clipped into any shape you fancy, round, square, or roof-shape. It 
wants to be clipped until the young shoots will not grow more than an inch 
in a season. 

" Two things must be kept in view in making a good hedge: first, in lay- 
ing down, make it so close, for two feet from the ground, that a rabbit 
cannot get tlirough it. Second, keep everything below four feet high. 
The whole process is very simple, and any Pat that can swing a shillela 
can do the work as well for all practical farming- purposes as an English 
hedge trimmer. I think it not best to cultivate the ground on each side 
more than three vears; better in o'l'^ss. 

" There is now, and has been for the last two or three years, a great de- 
mand in this vicinity for plants, but seed could not be procured from Texas. 
The only plants were from the native seed, and as many of the old hedge 
rows that had commenced producing oranges have been laid down, thus 
making the native seed scarce, large quantities will have to be procured 
from Texas for the next few years to supply the demand. 

" The Osage appears very hardy and perfectly at home in this climate. 
The extreme cold sometimes kills young shoots of the preceding summer's 
growth, which only saves so much clipping. Cattle will not browse it, 
unless they are very hungry, and if they do, it is just what it wants. It 
has an abundance of sharp thorns to protect it from stock; so that no un- 
ruly old bull or high-handed steer ever attacks the Osage hedge but once 
with his horns. No insect, louse or caterpillar, has ever infested it to my 
knowledge. A more perfect plant for the^purpose could not be devised. 

'' The best tool for clipping I have found Js a piece of scythe with a han- 
dle such as we use for cutting up corn. I know an instance where the dry 
grass was allowed to accumulate in the hedge, and tire ran through and 
killed all to the ground, the old brush jremaining a perfect fence, and it 
immediately sprouted out from the roots, and in two seasons made a com- 
plete green hedge, covering the old brush entirely from view. I would 
advise all who procure seed from Texas to bring the seed in the fruit in 
casks and keep it till spring, instead of washing out and drying. Every 
nurseryman knows the difficulty of getting fruit seeds to grow after they 
have been dried through the winter. Some eight years ago I procured 
one orange at our State Fair grown on Prof. Turner's first trees. I raised 
more and better plants from it than I did from four dollars' worth of dry 


" Last fall I procured one peck of Osage orang-es grown in this vicinity; 
they kept till spring as sound as pippins. I planted them by chipping off a 
small slice containing seven or eight seeds, and planting them in rows 
close together. They will grow in seed-bed forty to the foot. They came 
up in about seven days as sure and even as good seed corn, producing 
about G,000 plants. When one inch high an insect attacked the roots, and 
killed one-third; the rest remain healtll3^ This has been the case every 
season I have raised plants; after about a week they all leave at once. T 
know of no remedy but to use more seed. They are now (July 1) eight 
inches high; will grow to eighteen inches this season. When placed one 
ftjot apart in hedge rows, they do better than when closer, although nursery- 
men recommend much closer planting-, as they do dwarf pears and other 
fruit trees. I am inclined to think policy has something to do with it, for 
the closer men plant, the larger their sales. 

" Within the last thirty years I have raised from seeds grafted and 
planted out (most of it with my own hands) an orchard of TO acres, and 
experience has demonstrated to my satisfaction that every fruit tree, plant 
or shrub requires air, light and sunshine all around it to develop its full 
size and perfect symmetry. I have apple trees which cover a circuit of 45 
feet diameter of ground, producing 30 to 35 bushels of apples. Had I 
planted them only 25 feet apart, they would not have been worth half as 
much. The strength of the soil to bear a large or small tree must be con- 

" I noticed a hedge of Osage orange in Rochester, N. Y., last season. It 
appeared perfectly health}^, but not near as luxuriant as here. I could see 
no reason why it would not make a good fence there, or in any other 
locality in the eastern States where the peach tree will grow. How long 
the Osage orange hedge will last is a question not to be answered at present. 
My impression is it will take a long time to determine that part of the ex- 
periment — perhaps 100 j^ears or more. » 

"I trust I shall not be deemed visionary when I predict that the intro- 
duction of this plant is destined to exert an influence in settling up and 
fencing the great prairies of the western States and Territories, second 
only to that of the steam engine." 


October 10, 1865. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ely in the chair ; Mr. Johx W. Chambers, Secretar3\ 

The American Cow Milker. 

Mr. L. 0. Colvin, Marathon, N. Y., the inventor of this machine, claims 
that the four teats of the cow are milked at the same time, or without 
changing the machine in the leant, either one of the four can be milked 
separately. It is perfectly self-adjusting and made to suit any cow, for 
instance, in milking, cows giving milk out of only two or three teats as 
readily as four. It is very small, compact, and can be^durably made. It 
[Am. Inst.] N 


weighs but three pounds. Cows can be easily milked in one half the usual 
time; the milk is cleaner and it proves by practical use to be more agreea- 
ble to the cow than hand-milking. The operation is in perfect imitation of 
the natural action of the calf. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter. — A number of inventions for this purpose has been 
introduced to the farmers of this country. I should recommend that some 
of their machines be. placed in the hands of some practical milkmen so 
that correct information could be sent out to our farm.ers. 

Mr. Thos. F. De Yoe doubted the practical working of this instrnment, 
he hoped the suggestion of Mr. Carpenter would be carried out. 

On motion — the Secretary was requested to communicate with the in- 
ventor and ask him to furnish testimonials from practical farmers as to the 
working of the machine. 


Mr. J. T). Chism exhibited specimens of shingles made on the Empire 
Shingle Machine. The blocks from which tliese shingles are made are first 
steamed. The inventor claims that the steaming process, long in use in 
making staves, renders the wood susceptible to the action of the machine; 
it also has a drying and antiseptic effect on the shingles; thus, green wood 
so steamed may in a few days be considered seasoned, while the durable 
qualities conferred may be computed at least a hundred per cent over that 
which is seasoned in the ordinary way. 

Mr. AVm. S, Carpenter, — I have a great opinion of black walnut as a 
durable wood for outside work, it will last longer than chestnut. 

Black Sweet Corn. 

The Chairman exhibited an ear of black sweet corn which had been sent 
to him; this yesiv he had planted a great variety of sweet corn, his family 
had decided that this black corn is a better sweet corn for table use than 
any other variety they have used. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter. — -I have experimented a great deal with sweet 
corn, and have been very careful in selecting perfect kernels to plant, by 
which means I have been able to raise extraordinary crops. I think this 
care in selecting choice seeds holds good in all varieties. 


Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter exhibited some fine specimens of potatoes, grown 
by Mr. E. Williams, of Montclair, N, J. Some of these specimens are from 
seedlings introduced by the lamented Goodrich, of western New York, who 
I consider a benefactor of the human family. A number of these varieties 
have yielded me from four to five hundred bushels per acre; tlie three 
varieties now on the table are the rusty coat, calico and early Goodrich. 

Capt. McDougall. — Although not a farmer myself, I take g-reat interest 
in agricultural pursuits; my father always selected stalks that had from 
three to four ears on each stalk; after several years planting, his corn had 
never less than three ears to each stalk, ho has grown one hundred bushels 
of shelled corn per acre besides ten bushels of white beans. In planting 


potatoes he alwaj's used the seed end, leaving the other portion for his 

Dr. Isaac M. Ward. — This information is valuable, especially now when 
potatoes sell at such high prices. Afr. Williams has always been a very 
successful cultivator. The great variety of specimens on llie table of the 
exhibition fully show that fact. 

Palmer's Patent Climax Thresher. 

This machine threshes the grain without breaking the straw. The prin- 
ciple on which it works is two revolving cylinders five and a half feet long 
and fourteen inches in diameter. 

The first with teeth or spikes for drawing in the grain to the threshing 
cvlinder, which is made of bevelled staves faced with iron and revolves in 
a grooved concave arid threshing cylinder, which makes twelve hundred 
revolutions a minute, taking out all the grain. 

The straw carrier takes the straw some eight feet to the binders, nearly 
as straight as before it was threshed, without a kernel of loose grain. 

Preventative against the Ravages of Insects and Worms. 

Mrs. McCauley, 62 West 18th street, New York the widow of one of our 
U. S. Consuls in Egypt, informed the Club that she had a preventative 
against the ravages of all kinds of insects and worms; it is a vegetable 
production growing in every part of our country. 

For fruit and other trees, it is used as an infusion and thrown on to the 
trees once a week or fortnight, this can be done very rapidly with a small 
hand engine, it is best to do it before the trees blossom. 

For the yellcws or mildew on wheat it is considered a specific. It can 
also be used on turnips, cabbages, cauliflowers and potatoes, which are 
often destro^-ed in a young state. 

She claims that the army worm, so destructive to the cotton crop, can be 
destro^^ed by this substance. 

This preventative was discovered by accident bj' an English gentleman 
as far back as the year 1771, and wherever used has been very success- 
ful in protecting the crops. 

Mrs. McCauley is desirous of getting some one to take an interest in the 
discovery and bring it out to the publ i 

Dr. Isaac M, Ward. — Such a preventive would be of great value to our 
country. I would advise the lady to apply to the Agricultural Depart- 
ment at Washington, which was established for the purpose of making 
experiments for the benefit of the country at large. 

Seedling Peach. 

Mr. H. V. Scattergood, Albany, N. Y., presented to the club a new seed- 
ling peach. The tree has borne crops for the last three years. I planted 
some seeds of the Mclocoton and raised some sixteen 3'oung trees, this is 
the only one that has fruited, it is a " cling-stone " and the. flavor very 

Mr. Win. S. Carpenter. — Our city yards are excellent places to grow 


peaches, they are partially protected by surrounding buildings. I have 
known trees in some of the yards bear very large crops of fruit. Some 
persons grow vei'}^ large specimens by girdling the limbs below the fruit. 

Mr. Scattergood. — The specinien shown grew in the natural way, it was 
such a fine specimen that I desired the members of the Club to see it. 


October H, 1865. 
Dr. Isaac P. Trimble in the chair ; Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretary. 

Hickok's Potato Digger. 

Prof. Tillman read a certificate of Messrs. Z. B. Van Wyck, C. J. Mar- 
tin, Thos. J. Tyndall and Henry Baffitt, who witnessed the trial of the dig- 
ger at Flatlands Mills, L. I., that this potato digger does better work than 
any potato digger they have ever seen. 

A letter was read from Mr. Z. B. Van Wyck: 

''Flatbush, Oct. 14, 1865. 

'' Having" had the pleasure of witnessing a practical test of S. S. Hickok's 
improved patent potato digger, most cheerfully say that it does the best 
work of any one that I have ever seen. So much so that I design to have 
one myself, considering it one of the most labor saving machines ever 
brought before the public. The labor for the team and operator being light, 
the draught'not being more than ordinary stubble ploughing. The digger 
is suspended on an ordinary cultivator frame, which may be detached by 
removing two bolts. All potato growers will do well to look after this 

Mr. Hickok. — I can dig four acres in a day with the machine, and do 
the work of eight men. It works well in wet ground, and can be used in 
stony ground ; the soil is well pulverized so that a crop of wheat cau be 

The following committee were appointed to examine the machine in the 
exhibition : Messrs. P. T. Quinn, Dr. Isaac M. Ward and Mr. Peck. 

Dodge's New Suction and Forc:e Pump. 

Mr. Wm. F. Dodge, 50 Cortland street. New York, explained his new 
Excelsior pump. This pump is a double action and combines both the suc- 
tion and force principles, while it may be used simply for raising water ; 
it possesses all the principles of a powerful force pump. As a g-eneral rule 
from twenty-five to twenty-eight feet perpendicular is a safe distance to 
place a pump above the water. If the well is of greater depth, the pump 
may be placed down so as to bring it within twenty-five feet, and worked 
from the top of the well by an arrangement furnished in such cases. The 
price of one three inches in diameter, six inches stroke, is 25 dollars. 

Mr. AVm. S. Carpenter. — This pump appears to be very simple, but has 
one defect, it does not clear itself of water. The pump I use has been in 
operation for a number of years. It stands in a position where the ther- 
urometer sinks as low as zero. There is an attachment by which when you 


lift the handle it tips the valve, which lets out all the water. There is an 
opening at the top by which you pour in water before 3^ou use it. 

Scratches in Animals. 

Capt. McDougall. — An excellent remedy for scratches in ^animals is cit- 
rine ointment. First wash the place with soap and water, then apply the 
ointment. I have never known it to fail to cure. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter. — I use white lead, and think it an excellent sub- 
stance to apply to wounds or scratches. 

Fire Blight in Pear Trees. 

The Chairman asked if any of the members" had their pear trees attacked 
with fire blight. 

Mr. Quinn. — I have observed it this season for the first time. Several 
of my trees have been affected. The trees so affected are the Glout 

Mr. E. Williams. — My trees have not been affected. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter. — Very little of the fire blight has been seen on 
my place. 

Dr. Isaac M. Ward. — Several varieties of my trees have been affected, 
viz: Glout MorceaUjjjYicar of Winkfield and Belle Lucrative. 


Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter. — The specimens on the table are from the nursery 
of Mr. D. D. Buchanan, of Elizabeth, N. J., formerly Mr. William Reid's. 
They are seedlings from our native arbor vit^e, one b}'- Mr. Reid, one by 
Mr. Doe, and one by Mr. Hovey. Tliey are all beautiful varieties. The 
variety Berberis Japonica is from Japan. It is a very beautiful plant, and 
very ornamental to the lawn. I have a number of these evergreens on my 
place. Mr. Buchanan sends to the American Institute Fair ninety-one 
varieties of evergreens, which I suppose is one of the finest collections in 
the United States, all of them perfectly hardy. Among the rarest and 
most deserving of notice are Cupressus Lawsiana Pyramidalis, Cupressus 
Lawsiana, tipped with gold, Juniperus Japonica, Juniperus Gossaintha- 
mea, Berberis Japonica, a variety introduced by Mr. Festum; Thuya De- 
eurrens, Thuya Reidi, a seedling produced by the late Mr. Reid, Thuya 
Sinensis Yar., Cupressus Thyoides A^ar., and manj^ other rare and beauti- 
ful specimens. I hope the Secretary will collect the list furnished by Mr. 


1, Abies Archangelica; 2, Abies Alba; 3, Abies Canadensis; 4, Abies 
Excelsa; 5, Abies Excelsa, variegated; 6, Abies Douglasii; 7, Abies Mo- 
rinda; 8, Abies Menziesii; 9, Abies Whittmania; 10, Abies Pumila; 11, 
Araucaria Imbricata; 12, Berberis Aquifolia; 13, Berberis Japonica; 14, 
Berberis Danomii; 15, Buxus Arboresccns; 16, ArborescensAurea; n,Buxus 
Myrtifolia; 18, Biixus Argentea; 19, Buxus Balerica; 20, Cunninghamia Sin- 
ensis ; 21, Cedr us Deodora; 22, Ccdr us Li bani ; 23, CedrusAtl an tica; 24, Cupres- 
sus Thyoides var.; 25, Cupressus Ericoides; 26, Cupressus Lawsoniana: 27, 


Cupvessus Lawsoniana, pj-ramidalis; 28, Cupressus Lawsoniana, tipped; 
29, Cerasus Lanrocerasus; 30, Cotorieasler Microphylla; 31, Ciyptomeria 
Japonica; 32, Cryptomeria Nana; 33, Daciydium Fraiiklinii; 34, Euony- 
inus Japonica Aurea; 35, Euonymus Arg'entea; 36, Eaonymns Japonica; 
37, Ilex Opaca; 38, Ilex Aquifolium; 39, Ilex Laurifolia; 40, Jnniperus 
Communis Pendula; 41, Jnniperus Echiniformia; 42, Juniperus Recnrva 
Deusa; 43, Juniperus Hibernica; 44, Juniperus Seucica; 45, Juniperus 
Canadensis; 46, Juniperus Sabiua; 47, Juniperus Yirginiana; 48, Junipe- 
rus Cracovia; 49, Juniperus Gossaintliamea; 50, Juniperus Oblonga; 51, 
Juniperus Chinensis; 52, Juniperus Flagelliformis; 53, Juniperus Kepens; 
64, Juniperus Tamariscifolia; 55, Juniperus Bedfordiana; 56, Juniperus 
Japonica; 57, Ligustriom Japonica; 58, Lauris Nobilis; 59, Mespilus Py- 
racantlia; 60, Picea Pictinata; 61, Picea Balsamca; 62,Pinus Strobus; 63, 
Pinus Excelsa; 64, Pinus Sylvestris; 65, Pinus Austriaca; 66, Pinus Cem- 
bra: 67, Pinus Pumilis; 68, Khododcndron Ponticum; 69, Rhododendron 
Catawbiensis; 70, Taxus Baccala; 71, Taxus Baccata Strict'a; 72,.Taxus 
Hibernica; 73, Taxus Canadensis; 74, Taxus Fortunei; 75, Taxus Fortunei 
Female; 76, Taxus Adpressa; 77, Taxus Japonica; 78, Thuya Dumosa; 79, 
Thuya Occidentalis; 80, Thuya Plicata; 81, Thuya Filiformis; 82, Thu^^a 
Gigantea; 83, Thuya Decurrens (Libocedrus) ; 84, Thuya Siberica;' 85, 
Thuya Aurea; 86, Thuya Glauca; 87, Thuya Hoveyi; 88, Thuya Reidi; 89, 
Thuya Sinensis, var; 90, Thuyopsis Borealis; 91, UUex Europea. 

Dr. E. F. Peck asked why these plants are called seedlings of our native 
arbor vitse. He supposed the seeds of these plants produced their like. 

Mr. AVm. S. Carpenter. — They are named seedlings because the plants 
have been hybridized, i. e., crossed with some other variety. 


October 24, 1865. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ely in the chair; Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretary. 

Cutting and Cooking Cattle Feed. 

Mr. Buckley, Orange county, N. Y , inquires whether the Club can re- 
commend him to cut and steam the feed for his dairy cows. 

Mr. Solon R(jbinson states it as his opinion that it depends upon so many 
circumstances whether it would pa}^ to do so, that it is next to impossible 
to lay down any general rule. It certainly would not pay in Illinois to 
cut cornstalks, nor to grind the corn, much less to cook it. It hardly pays 
to 2'ather it from the field. Where hay, straw, stalks, &c., are dear and 
labor cheap, it will pay to cut all feed; but with ha}^ at present prices, and 
labor at $1.50 a day, it will not be proiitable to cut feed by hand. 

Mr. Buckley remarked that he had some fifty acres of cornstalks to feed 
out, and that labor was not now quite as dear as had been stated. 

Mr. P. T. Quinn, who superintends Prof. Mapes's farm near Newark, 
N. J., said they were in the practice of cutting all the stalks with a horse- 
power; that, with three men, will cut enough in half a day to last a fort- 
nio'ht, and on account of the increased value of the manure, and saving of 
labor in handling it, he thought chaflBng the stalks economical work. I 


think it will pay to chaff hay, when it is $20 a ton, if it is done with a 
power-machine. We do not find it economical to mix meal without cut 
feed. Stalks should always be fed out in the early part of winter. 

Prof Bartlett. — I should like to know whether anybody actually knows» 
whether it is any real advantage to cut any kind of feed. 

Palmer's Threshing Machines. 

Mr. Solon Kobiuson inquired if any of the members had seen Palmer's 
Threshing" Machine in operation. 

Mv. S. Edwards Todd. — I have lately seen Palmer's Threshing Machine 
in operation at Hudson, This machine threshes the grain without tangling 
the straw, and it accomplishes the purpose admirably. The grain is fed iii 
sideways, and is seized by a spiked cylinder, and carried between a fluted 
cylinder and fluted concave bed, where all the grain is effectually rubbed 
out, while the straw is passing rapidly through, without being as mucli 
tangled as usually is when threshed with the flail. Mr. T. thinks it will 
thresh twice as fast as an ordinary spiked machine, driven by the same 

Prof. Tillman said he had been assured that straw from this machine sells 
a third higher than that from ordinary machines. 

Insect Exhibition. 

Mr. Bartlett said an exhibition was held in Paris in September of insects 
injurious and beneficial to farmers, and he suggests the propriety of recom- 
mending similar exhibitions at all agricultural fairs. 

Mr. John G. Bergen. — I should like to know where to draw the line be- 
tween injurious and beneficial. I used to think there were two classes, 
but I begin to doubt. I do certainly in regard to birds. I have been a 

strong protector of birds, particularly one sort — I cannot give its name 

which has been very common about our places on Long Island, but I doubt 
the propriety of protecting it any longer, as they destroyed probably $50 
worth of grapes for me and neighbors tiiis fall. We have heretofore talked 
pretty strong in this Club about protecting birds. I ren)ember how Mr, 
Robinson has stood up for the crow, insisting that he did more good than 
barm to farmers. 

Dr. Trimble. — I have shot scores of birds within a year or two and made 
a note of contents of their stomachs, and found them generalh^ much more 
filled with insects than fruit. I shot a cat bird a few days since upon a 
grape vine, expecting to find it loaded with grapes, but found only a single 
grape seed with several insects. 

Kentucky Blue Grass. 

A letter from Wayne county, Ohio, gives us the opinion of " a profes- 
sional man turned farmer," upon the vexed question of what is Kentucky 
blue grass. He says, and truly too, that no work Upon agriculture or 
botany describes this grass, which is Poa compressa, so that a novice could 
distinguish it from Poa pretense, which is variously known as June grass, 
spear grass, blue grass, green grass, spring grass, old-pasture grass, 


natural grass, etc., and is often taken for Poacompressa, tlie real Kentucky 
blue grass. Verj'- often the two are found growing in the same sod. 

^^ Poa pretense is one of the very earliest grasses. In a wet, growing 
spring it springs up. everywhere, by roadside and in field, and by the mid- 
dle of June, or earlier, it has covered the earth with a coat nearly as tall 
as timothy; but it has no sooner matured than its seed stalk dies as com- 
pletely as wheat does when it ripens; but the first rains after this. bring up 
a thick tuft of blades from the root, and these continue to spring up abun- 
dantly until the winter frosts. But this grass is evidently, at all its stages, 
of the watery, w^ashy order; and from the fact that so soon as the seed 
stalks ripen and die, they become entirely unfit for feed, it is a short-lived 
pasture. I have not known an instance of any of the Poas sending up a 
seed stock a second time the same season, as timothy sometimes does. I 
have knowm some straggling stalks to mature and come to seed after its 
season, to wit, the Jane rains; but the rule is, that the entire crop, within 
a few days, mostly in the last of June or early in July, matures its seed, 
dies off and suddenly disappears, and you see no more of it for that j^ear, 
except the sod of green blades above mentioned. In any old meadow or 
pasture of mixed grasses, about the time or a little before the maturity of 
the June grass, you observe a crop of spears or seed stalks not more than 
three or four inches long, when first noted above the sod and apparently 
just up, and nearly resembling the former, except that they are a darker 
green, and the branches of the seed pod stand more erect than those of the 
former. These come on as the June grass dies out and disappears; and 
about the time or a little after the w-heat and timothy have ripened, this 
latter grass has also matured and ripened its seeds; but now comes the 
marked difference between the latter grass and the timothy, red top, June 
grass and most others; that while all these, when their seed has ripened, 
die off as to the seed stalk and so far cease to be feed, this latter poa still 
continues green in every stalk; and even now, in the middle of October, 
when the autumn frosts are fast stripping tree and field, the seed stalks of 
this grass, which were fully ripe, early in August at latest, are just as 
green and juicy as when you first saw them in June or July; and very evi- 
dently, when the winter frosts shall have bleached their stalks at last, 
their quality for feed will be but little if any impaired; this then, I say, is 
the true blue grass, or Poa compressa. It is said of this grass, and I say 
it too, that it sends up its blades but feebly, compared wnth other grasses, 
after its seed stalks are pastured off or cut for hay; but w'hen we come to 
consider its true nature, this fact will be properly appreciated," for in this 
always green seed stalk lies its whole value for pasture or hay. From the 
time it first starts till w- inter, it is never water}'- or washy; but during the 
whole season it is as available for fattening as an}'- grain. And herein lies 
its great value, that while most other grasses, when immature, are too 
washy to fatten, and when mature must be pastured or cut for hay at once, 
or they will die and become worthless, this latter grass may be either pas- 
tured or cut for hay for ninety days after its maturit}^; thus also giving 
the farmer full time to fatten his stock upon it for the market, without the 
expense of haying it. A distinguishing characteristic of Poa compressa 
is, that while the seed stems of the June grass, &c., are cylindrical, its 


stems are flat, that is, a cross section would be elliptical. It may also be 
safely said that in the regions where it flourishes, it is the hardiest of all 
grasses, and also on account of its fine, pliable stem, and deep (almost blue) 
green, it is the most beautiful. It is a short grass, never reaching more 
than two-thirds the height of the June grass. This much I have written 
only for the purpose of calling out something more on the subject from some 
one who understands it, believing that as the matter now stands, the differ- 
ence between Poa pretense 2iTidi Foa compressa are not generally well under- 
stood even where both are most grown." 

This letter elicited a good deal of conversation, and gave great satisfac- 
tion for the lucid manner it described the two grasses, Foa pretense and 
Foa compressa, which are so universally confounded. Several members 
confirmed the view taken by the writer. 

Mr. Bergen said he could now distinguish the Kentucky blue grass, 
which he had never been able to do before. 

The Empire Potato Harvester. 

Mr. J. J. Hill, "Ex-Chaplain of Tod Ohio Volunteers," introduced his 
potato-digger, which he stated had been tried upon Messrs. Wetmore and 
Scott's farm at Flatlands, L. I., and pronounced a perfect success. He 
asked for a committee to see it operate. 

Messrs. Bergen and Lancaster were appointed a committee to examine 
the machine and to report. 

Something New for the Cook. 

A friend, who is desirous of communicating some useful information to 
the readers of these reports, sends the following: 

" Pumpkins, when very green, say of four to six inches diameter, make 
a delicious fry. Slice them about half an inch thick, sprinkle them with 
salt, and let them stand over night. Dredge with Indian meal and fry 
thoroughly till tender throughout. Cucumbers nearly ripe are also excel- 
lent, but green squashes are not. Take the pumpkins in October, when 
there is no chance of their ripening if left." 

To" Cure Wounds Upon Trees. 

"I have wrought almost miracles of restitution in badly wounded trees 
(horse gnawing, rash pruning', scraping with wagon hub, &c.), both when 
the wounds were fresh, and when they were so old that the wood was rot- 
ting and the tree apparently d^nng, by simply covering the wound with 
rosin tempered with tallow and applied warm." 

What Feed Makes the Most Valuable Manure? 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — In answer to this question, lately asked by one of 
the outside members, Mr. Andrew AV. Foote, Guilford, Conn., sends us the 
following table, prepared by Prof. Lawes, from actual experiments made 
in England, showing the comparative value of a ton of manure made from 
various kinds of food given to cattle. As but few have the work from 
which this is taken, it should be kept as a table of valuable reference. It 


docs not increase our admiration of most crops, where manure is valuable, 
in a country where Indian corn can- be grown so abundantl^^ as in the great 
corn-belt of America. Bat here is the table of values: 

1. Decorticated cotton-seed cake $27 86 

2. Hape cake 21 01 

3. Linseed cake 19 72 

4. Malt dust 18 21 

5 Lentils 16 51 

6. Linseed .... 16 65 

7. Tares 15 75 

8. Brans ' 15 75 

9. Peas 13 38 

10. Locust beans 4 81 

11. Oats 7 40 

12. Wheat 7 08 

13. Indian corn 6 25 

14. Malt 6 65 

15. Barley 6 32 

16. *Clover hay 9 64 

17. Meadow hay 6 43 

18. Oatstraw 2 90 

19. Wheat straw 2 68 

20. Barley straw 2 25 

21. Potatoes 1 50 

22. Mangolds 1 07 

23. Swedish turnips 91 

24. Common turnips ; 86 

25. Carrots 85 j^^ 

Improper Use of Ashes. 

Mr. N. W. Clapp, Montgomery, Vt., asks the following question about 
the use of ashes: "I have been in the habit of sprinkling wood ashes in 
my stables, hog-pen and other places where bad odors are * wont to arise,' 
and I want to know whether it is a good practice or not. I suppose gyp- 
sum would be better — but do the ashes operate like lime and occasion a 
waste instead of an absorption of the gases?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — The effect of ashes upon any manurial substance 
is very similar to quick lime, and both decompoze it, and of course disen- 
gage and volatilize the ammonia. Neither should ever be used upon 
manure, except for the purpose of breaking it down when coarse, and get- 
ting it ready for immediate use, when the pile should be covered with plas- 
ter, coal dust, muck, loam, or something to absorb the escaping gases. The 
best uee of wood ashes is upon the growing crops, so that the ley will 
leach down and assist the decomposition of substances needed for the 
growth of plants, as well as to furnish them with potash, which is a com- 
ponent part of all woody substances as well as some of the essentients that 
are not woody. 

Gas Tar for Fence Posts. 

Mr. Alpheus Phelps, Williamstown, Lewis county. Mo., wants informa- 
tion about the benefit of tarring fence posts. "Being about to set 1,000 
fence posts, I have procured a barrel of gas tar, costing $5, to coat the 
posts from the bottom, ten inches above the ground. Now, those who 
have experience say it will do no good; it will not preserve the posts from 
decay. Can your Club or its correspondents tell me?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Those of the Club who have had experience think 

* Don't believe it. 


tarring posts will not pay. If the posts could bo steeped in tar until com- 
pletely saturated, that would preserve them long enough, probably, to pay 
cost, where the timber is not of a durable kind, yet is expensive. Prof. 
Mapes has repeatedly recommended dipping posts in tar and then piling 
them v/ith shavings, or any light, quick burning fuel, and scorch the part 
that is to stand in the ground. This adds to their durability at little cost. 
Preparing posts in any way resolves the question of value of timber and 
labor in rebuilding. It would never pay to plant granite or iron posts 
where wooden ones cost but a dime each, nor does it pay to build fence in 
a thousand places where custom dictates it must be built. Let us learn 
before we live long enough to exhaust all fencing materials that more than 
one-half that we use is worse than wasted. The great fault in American 
farming is too much fencing. 


Mr. George Swet, South xVmboy, New Jerse}^ confirms our views about 
causes of mildew. He says: " One of your Club correspondents states 
that ' the rot or mildew on the grape is an evidence of an insufficient nutri- 
tion.' This you deny; and you are quite right. Last fall I prepared a 
border for some grape vines, and planted Concord, Clinton, Diana, Hartford 
Prolific, Delaware, lona and Allen's Hybrid. These vines have made most 
excellent growth this season; all, however, have suff*ered somewhat from 
mildew. Our ground is very sandy and warm, but the nutrition was not 
wanting in the grape border, as I raised in it some blood turnip beets, one 
of which weighed ten pounds and five ounces, and some white Peackblow 
potatoes, many of which exceeded a pound in weight." 

The cause and cure of the grape disease has yet to be discovered. 

The Great Question of Manure. 

Mr. George L. Squier, Buffalo, N. Y., says: "As an outside member of 
your Farmers' Club, I take the liberty to apply for information on the fol- 
lowing paints, viz. : 

"First. The soil of my garden and fruit orchard is a sandy loam, with 
sand sub-soil and gravel underneath that, and slopes toward the east. Is 
there any advantage in underdraining such soil? 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — The only advantage of underdrains in such soil 
would be to aerate, and thereby make it warmer. Probably the cost would 
overbalance the (id vantage. 

''Second. On such a soil, for fruit and garden, which is the best manure — 
horse manure, cow manure, muck, leached ashes or lime ? Would all these 
composted be better than either alone, and in what proportions should they 
be mixed ? 

INIr. Solon Robinson. — Compost all but the ashes. Slack the lime with 
water saturated with salt, to aid decomposition of crude materials. Alone, 
the cow manure would be best. There is no rule of proportions in com- 

*' Third. The horse manure is green manure from a livery stable, where 
coarse pine sawdust is used for bedding. The cow manure is fresh from a 


milk stable, where brewery slops are fed as a portion of the food of the 
cows. The muck is from an old swamp, and is in a deposit from four to 
twelve inches thick on a bed of clay, and is covered with heavy sod, so 
that with each spade full I get a sod and some clay. The leached ashes 
come from the soap-maker. The lime is refuse lime from the soap-maker, 
in which there is a slight tincture of soda — he calls it soda-ash. Now 
calling the horse manure worth §1 per load, what is the relative value in 
dollars and cents of the other kinds per load ? 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — The only value you would get from the sawdust 
would be the liquid it had absorbed. There is some manurial value in 
haid-wood sawdust. There is none in pine. The cow manure needs com- 
posting or piling, under cover, to prepare it for use. The muck is not a 
valuable deposit, and is worthless until thoroughly decomposed. The clay 
is beneficial to such soil as yours, and it is probable you would derive as 
much benefit from the ashes of the sods as from any other preparation. 
Burning would lighten the hauling, where that is an object. 

Leached aslies are alwa^^s beneficial to sandy soil. The longer they lie 
exposed to the weather, in the pile, the better they are. Soap-maker's lime 
is considered nearly worthless. 

Estimating the horse manure as half sawdust, as it probably is, the cow 
manure, if tolerably pare, would be worth double, and certainly ten times 
as much as the muck. It is difficult to estimate the comparative value of 
the lime and ashes, so much depends upon the condition of the soil and 
necessity of the plants to be grown. 

'^Fourth. When and how should pear seeds be planted ? 

Mr. Thomas Cavenach. — As soon as they are ripe and the fruit rotten so 
as to separate, then plant at once in beds, or mix with moist sand and ex- 
pose over winter. 

"Fifth. How can whortleberries be raised from seed? I tried it in the 
same manner that I have successfully grown strawberries from seeds, but 
not a single seed vegetated. Have whortleberries ever been successfully 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Follow nature's teachings, and cover lightly with 
woods mold and decaying leaves. We do not think they ever have been 
"successfully cultivated." There are some things beside Indians, that 
defy the arts of civilization. 

A Prolific Letter from our old Western correspondent, Mr. A. Dana, has so 
much in it that its value is lost in quantity. We must try to pick out the 
most valuable portions: 

A Hedge of Wild Gooseberries is recommended to be planted near thp 
house, "for the women folk to spread clothes upon. It is very hardy and 
untouched by stock. It makes a good screen and affords some fruit." Mr. 
Dana recommends other fruit bearing plants for hedges. Small seeds often 
fail to come up. Cover the ground with boards each night till they start. 

Hoven in cattle may be relieved by plunging a thin bladed knife into the 
cavity of the body, without material injury tj the animal. It should be 
inserted just back of the short ribs, where the side feels softest, far enough 


to reach the paunch, and the wound kept open long enough to blow off the 

Tomatoes should be alwaj's tied to stakes or trellis to produce best re- 
sults, and branches trimmed off. If not tied up, place brush to keep vines 
and fruit from the ground. 

Fi'osty cellars may be made to keep vegetables b}^ covering them slightly 
with earth in piles or pits, or by covering the pit hole with boards or straw. 

Arsenic for Flies which Mr. Dana recommends we know is sure death, 
when they eat it, which is not one time in ten, in the writer's house, where 
it has often been tried. 

Grapevine S/yrouts are good for pickles, put up in layers with cucumbers, 
which are improved by the sprouts. 

Spaying is a barbarous practice. What can be done for a substitute? 

Stock Eating Harness is an old evil that salting won't always prevent. 
What will? Whoever will discover a remedy, insures a fortune. It would 
save some swearing, even at church, when we come out and find our lines 
chewed up. 

Gapes are most prevalent where hens have access to old ship-yards. 
Haul away the rubbish and spread it under j^our apple trees. 

Plants set in dry weather may be preserved by covering with green 

The Prairie Flax, a sample of which is sent by Mr. Dana, is a worthless 
plant. We took especial pains to put the seed into the stove instead of 
the soil. AVe want no more weeds. It is in no respect equal to our culti- 
vated linum usitatissimum. 

Plant Trees. 

Doct. E. F. Peck, Brookl^ni: I hope this Club will ever urge upon all who 
read the reports to plant trees. Let us encourag'e children to plant nuts 
and acorns, to begin now, this autumn, and assure them that trees and boys 
may both grow up together, and do the world a great deal of g-ood. This 
country must begin at once to grow trees from seeds for fuel and timber. 
What directions has the Club to give about planting seeds? 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — All seeds of forest trees should be planted as soon 
as mature, and as near the condition as possible to nature's planting; that 
is, a shallow covering of woods mold and leaves. Nuts will not vegetate 
if dried before planting. Locust seed may be kept years, and then, by 
scalding in ley, made to grow. There is many a farm in all the oldest 
States that might have its value doubled in fifteen years by tree planting, 
at almost no cost to the owner. 

Farmers' Mills and Horse Powers. 

Mr. J. A. Dennis, Des Moines, Iowa, who thinks a " neighborhood could 
use a small size of burr stones for grinding corn, better than to go from 
ten to forty miles to mill and pay one-fourth for grinding. How much 
power is required for the smallest size of burr stones in common use, 
and how fast will they grind? Can you tell me and 100,000 others what 
kind of horse-power is best for farmers' use? 

Mr, Solon Robinson. We cannot tell which of the many powers are the 
very best, it having been twenty years since we had extensive experience 


in the WevSt, in breaking down some half-dozen of the best then attainable. 
If now about to buy, we would take one of Emery's endless chain two- 
horse powers, and, sooner than go ten miles to mill, would have a mill at 


October 31, 1865. 
Prof. S. D. Tillman, in the chair; Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretary. 

English Hop Growing. 

The Chairman. — We have with us to-day, Mr. F. W. Collins, of Otsego 
Co. N. Y., who has lately spent three months among the hop growers of 
England. The Chib would be gratified to receive any information he may 
have gathered in relation to this important branch of industry. 

Mr. F. W. Collins. — I have just returned from an examination of the 
hop fields of England. The hop growers of that country are a very 
important class of citizens. I found the greatest part of the hop yards 
of England in four of the Eastern counties — the Western counties not 
being adapted to the growth of hops. The hop counties are Kent, Sussex, 
Surre}' and Worcester, in which there are about 60,000 acres cultivated, 
and in a very difierent manner from American hop yards, though the 
growers appear ready to adopt the "American system" whenever con- 
vinced of its advantages. In a few instances, my plan of using short 
stakes and twines has been adopted with great satisfaction; but, gene- 
rail}^, four long poles to a hill are used, which I believe lessens the pro- 
duct, because it grows too much wood. The long upright vines do not 
produce fruit; that g'rows upon the laterals, and these grow most abun- 
dantly when the vines are trained low. Two vines to the pole he is sure 
will produce more hops than four; and when grown upon long poles, where 
the vines have to be cut, four vines bleed twice as much, and bleeding 
injures the root. This is one of the advantages of training upon low 
stakes and twines. It saves cutting, and this the English see will be 
advantageous, beside the great saving of timber for long poles. At 
Maidstone, 35 acres have been trained low, but the proprietor used ten- 
feet stakes instead of seven feet, which are long enough. 

English hop yards are not as productive as American, nor are the hops 
as strong. From 1832 to 1854, according to official returns, the average 
yield in England was 6 cwt. 3 qrs. per acre. The highest average in that 
time was 11 cwt. 18 lb, and the lowest, 1| cwt. In this country 1,000 lb. 
is a common crop, and 2,500 lb. have been gathered. Brewers make an 
allowance in favor of American hops of 33 per cent. This year we shall 
import rather than export hops, as the English crop is a large one and 
ours deficient. 

The remedy used there for hop lice is strong soap suds thrown with a 
force pump upon the vines. For mold, which is their greatest pest, sulphur 
is blown over the leaves, and that destroys insects which live upon and 
prevent ravages of lice. 

proceedings of the farmers' club. 223 

Gas-House Lime. 

Mr. M. 11. Upson, Marion, Conn., wants " advice from the Club concern- 
icg the value of gas-house lime, and the best method of applying it." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — The latter part of the inquiry shall be first 
answered, and perhaps from that the value may be inferred. The best 
way to apply gas-house lime is to spread it thickly upon Canada thistles 
or some other weed-pest that you wish to utterly destroy. It is unsafe to 
apply it anywhere else about the farm, unless it has lain exposed to the 
weather one year or more, and then who can say it is of any use ? 

Mr. P. T. Quinn. — I shall disagree somewhat with Mr. Robinson upon 
the use of gas-house lime. We have used some 2,0C0 bushels upon Prof. 
Mapes' farm within the past nine years. I concede that in large quan- 
tities it will kill vegetation. It killed two of three oak trees where it was 
piled. I think, in large quantities, it would destroy Canada thistles or any 
other weed. Spread thinly upon the surface, say at the rate of 12 bushe'ls 
per acre, in autumn. I think it beneficial to our State red lands, and 
worth all it costs. 

Mr. John G. Bergen. — We visited the farm of Andrew K. Hayes, Wins- 
low, X. J., and found that he had used gas lime larg-ely for the production 
of clover, and last year upon a clover sod he obtained 42 bushels of wheat 
per SLO^e. 

Mr. Solon Robinson reiterated the statement made by Mr. B. B. French, 
Washington city, who asserts that a plentiful application of gas lime under 
his plum tvees, prevented the ravages of the curculio and was the means, 
in his judgment, of securing him a bountiful supply of fruit. 

Dr. Trimble said he had no faith in the application to prevent curculio, 
as the animal would live in a strong solution of lime or tobacco, 

Mr. John G, Bergen thought there was no reason to doubt the positive 
statement of a gentleman of veracity like Mr. French, nor could he see why 
an article strong enough to kill Canada thistles might not kill or prevent 

The Chairman. — As much of the offensive odor of coal distillation is 
embodied in the lime, that may account for its being offensive to insects, 
as we know that strong odors, as tobacco, camphor, etc., will keep them 
away from any local it}*. 

Planting Potatoes. 

Mr. M. L. Smith, Scio, x\llegany county, N. Y., says : I usually cut my 
seed potatoes before planting ; this year, however, I did not. I selected 
the largest potatoes for seed and put one in a hill. I found this fall when 
I commenced digging, that in some hills the seed potatoes had rotted as 
usual ; in these hills they were of good size and ripened early ; in other 
hills the seed potatoes were as sound as when planted ; in these hills the 
potatoes were small and had not matured or ripened. . The potatoes and 
tops had the appearance of being planted one month later than the others. 
I could easily tell them before digging, as these tops were green the others 
were dead. Who can tell why they were not uniform in character ? 

Mr. John G. Bergen said he had not only seen seed potatoes remain sound 
but actually increase in size after they were planted, and cut pieces wero 


just as likely to remain sound as whole potatoes. He bad never observed 
any difference in the 3^ield where the seed did not decay ; but he thought 
the subject w^ell worthy of farmers' observation. He ahvaj's cut his pota- 
toes in two to six pieces, having each two or three eyes, and thinks, gen- 
erally, only the most vigorous eye grows. 

The Chairman asked Mr. John G. Bergen whether he planted the seed end, 
saving the other part to eat. 

Mr. John G. Bergen replied : I do not find it worth while to separate the-parts. 
The seed end contains the most eyes but does not produce the most vines, 
and I have sometimes thought the potatoes were a little earlier than from 
the other end. 

Mr. Lancaster said he had obtained the largest yield from pieces cut \vith 
only one eye, and the best results from the largest tubers, for they contain 
the most nourishment for the 3'oung sprout. H a whole potato is planted, 
only a part of the eyes grow ; it is, therefore, economical to cut the seed. 
Sprouts start quickest from the seed end, and therefore, j\e\d earliest. 

Mr. F. W. Collins said the idea prevailed in California that whole tubers 
grow largest tops, but the product is less than from cut seed. There they aim 
to plant pieces with one eye, and they threw away the seed end. 

Buckwheat Aphides. 

Mr. M.L. Smith sa3^sthe buckwheat heads were so covered with aphides as 
to give them a black appearance, and although they did not appear to injure 
the crop this 3'ear he wondered if they will increase as rapidly as the kind 
which destroyed the wheat two or three years ago, whether it will be worth 
while to sow buckwheat another year. 

Mr. Solon Bobinson. — In answer to this, it may be of some satisfaction 
to Mr. Smith to be assured that the lice are just as likely to disappear 
entirely next 3'ear as they were to come in such myriads this. Whence, 
why, or wherefore, in both cases, no one can tell. 

The Visit to Yineland and Hammonton. 

The Chairman. — I see the committee present which has latel3^ returned 
from their visit to New Jersey. The members present no doubt would like 
to hear from them what they saw, and whether things we have heard from 
that section are true. Are they ready to report? 

Dr. Trimble. — I was appointed chairman of that committee, and six of 
us made a trip; and a very pleasant one it was; so full of instruction, so 
much seen to report upon, and so anxious are the committee to make cor- 
rect and trustworthy statements, that we require a little more time. 

Mr. John Gr. Bergen. — I think it is highly necessary for the committee 
to have ample time to cool off. In my opinion, if we should report imme- 
diately, we might be accused of the same enthusiasm and want of truthful- 
ness that have been charged to the statements of Mr. Bobinson about that 
country. The truth is, that we have seen things too wonderful to be 
believed at first sight. 

Dr. Trimble. — And for that reason I want to make the place another 
visit, and take ample time, and when we do report make one that will be 
useful to all who read it. 


Mr. Solon Robinson. — Of one thing I believe the committee are convinced, 
that West Jersey is the g-reat fruit region that is to give the future supply 
to New York. In the production of strawberries alone that soil is the 
most wonderful of any we have ever seen. It is the most easily cultivated, 
most productive, and the surface so clean and the growth of plants so large 
that it requires no mulcliing. We saw the finest growth of plants ever 
witnessed, where at a little distance the surface looked as if covered with 
snow, the sand is so white. Everywhere this white sand or white pebbles 
float upon the surface, but underneath there is a rich loam in which straw- 
berries, raspberries, blackberries, grapes, pears, apples and all culinai^ 
vegetables flourish- beyond conception. 

Cherry Trees for Shade. 

Mr. Edward Pedrick, Pedricktowu, Salem county, N> J., says: ''Will 
some one of the Club please inform me what kind of cherry trees to plant 
around my house so as to have a good upright shaped tree for fruit and 
shade both. If the Club could tell me how to grow them healthy, and not 
show cracks or gum upon the bark, and black knots upon the limbs." 

Mr. Solon Kobinson. — Probably the best thing we can recommend, 
though it is not a certain remedy, is to grow cherry trees from the seed of 
the old Mazzard or black Tartarian variety, or those sometimes called pie- 
cherries, honey-cherries, English cherries. Watch the growth of these, and 
whenever gum or black knots appear, cut them out. 

Do Pumpkin Seeds Injure Stock ? 

This question is sent by Mr. L. Buckingham, from Flat City, Mich. * 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — He is answered that the opinion prevails that 
pumpkin seeds increase the secretion of urine, and decrease the flow of 
milk. Producing the same effect upon hogs would naturally tend to lessen 
the rapid promotion of fat. 

Mr. Bergen said that whether good food or not for hogs, they will always 
eat the seeds first. 

Mr. Theron P. Parker, Byron, Ogle county. 111., says he has proved by 
experiment that pumpkins, without removing the seeds, are good feed for 
milch cows. He has fed two from September 1 to November 25, and they 
give as much and as rich milk as when running upon good pasture. He 
also fatted an old dry cow almost entirely upon pumpkins. " I have also 
a span of horses that are fat, which I fed almost exclusively on pumpkins, 
without watering; indeed, they would not drink. One has the heaves, but 
it cannot be easily detected with such feed. In a little time they become 
so fond of pumpkins that they frequently leave corn to eat them. 

Dr. Crowell says it may be natural instinct, as pumpkin seeds are the 
best known remedy for the tape- worm and other parasites of the intestines. 

Dr. Trimble. — I have seen ducks quite paralyzed by eating pumpkin 

Storing Cabbage for Winter. 

Mr. Buckingham inquires: " What is the best way to secure cabbage 
for winter?" 

[Am. Inst.] 


Mr. Solon Robinson. — I will name two or tliree good ways, and you may 
take your choice. 

Dig a trench three feet wide, one and a half feet deep, and as long as 
necessary, descending so that it cannot retain water. Commence at the 
upper end and set the cabbage, covering the roots in sand nearly up to the 
heads, and thus pack the trench full. Cover the top with boards, straw 
and earth a foot thick. The cabbage is come-at-able all winter, and loose 
heads grow harder. 

Set a single row in the same way, and cover with two boards nailed 
together like a roof. If the ground is wet set the cabbage on the surface 
and cover by earthing up. 

An effectual way to preserve the heads and loose the stumps, is to wrap 
the loose leaves closely around and set the heads on the ground in a row, 
covering six or twelve inches with earth. This requires the least labor of 
any way. 

Mr. John G-. Bergen said a common method was to pull the cabbage and 
set several rows in one, through the field, as close as possible, with the 
heads on the ground, and then run one or two furrows upon each side, and 
finish by throwing up earth in a ridge so as to cover the heads. 

Mr. P. T. Quinn said his method was to set the cabbage in beds, 12 to 
16 rows wide, heads down, and shovel earth three or four inches deep over 
the heads, and thus they keep and can be got at any time in winter, as 
only the earth thrown over freezes. 

An Extensive Grape Region. 

Mr. George W. Stebbins, Portland, N. Y., gives the following interesting 
information about grape growing in western New York: " One of the 
most successful grape growing regions in the United States is that 
extreme western portion of New York lying on the shore of Lake Erie. 
Grapes are here grown as easily as western people grow corn. Trenching 
is never thought of; many vineyards are in grass, and mowed every year. 
The crop is sold this year at from $500 to $700 an acre, the buyer being 
at the expense of picking. Isabellas are most grown at present. Eastern 
men say they are as good as Delawares at the coast. Flavor is one of our 
strong points. We expect in a few years to develop a New Johannisburg 
hereabout. There are three wine companies within thirty miles. The 
Lake Shore Wine Company at Brocton, in this town, has a capital of 
$100,000, and is making 14,000 gallons of wine this season. Seven cents 
a pound is paid for Isabellas. New vineyards are springing up eve^^y- 
where; they are creeping up the hill-sides, where the grapes have the best 
flavor of all. The business has received that impetus, that it must go on, 
until the south shore of Lake Erie becomes one of the greatest wine pro- 
ducino* regions in the world. In this state of things, I suppose that 
whoever makes the grape-cuttings grow, where only one grew before, is a 
public benefactor. I think the best means to make cuttings grow is by 
irrigation. I am preparing to put out a bed in the spring, and I purpose 
to let out the water in furrows, three feet apart, running east and west, the 
ground having a slight descent to the north, xiny suggestions would be 


thankfully received, and the result shall be reported to- the Farmer's 

Mr. P. T. Quinn said that he was becoming more and more convinced 
that Concord should be. substituted for Isabella. He noticed on the recent 
trip to West Jersey, that everywhere Concord was flourishing, and he 
believed it the grape for the million. 

Dr. Trimble said it was a failure at Cincinnati this year. 

Mr. John G. Bergen said that it had failed two years with him, one very 
dry and one wet one. I once was enthusiastic over this grape, but I have 
learned within these two years, from my own experience and others, to 
somewhat modify my opinion. 

Mr. Powell, Brooklyn, said he had some experience in several localities, 
and had been more successful in Columbia Co., N. Y., with Isabellas than 
with Concords. Locality in all cases must determine the sort best to 
grow. It is certain that Concords do not keep as well as Isabellas, and 
the most profitable are those which can be sold in winter. 

White Thorn Hedges. 

Mr. Jesse Fell, West Greenville, Mercer Co. Pa., wants information 

about hedging with white thorn, which is indigenous to that soil and 


"How shall I grow the plants from seeds ? They fail to come up." 
Mr. Solon Robinson. — Put the seeds as soon as ripe in a box of moist 

sand, and let that freeze during winter, and plant the seeds in spring in 

a bed, like beets, or in a nursery row. 

Hill's Empire Potato Harvester. 

A certificate signed by Messrs. Peter Lott, John J. Rider, W. Elger, 
Henry Suydam, James Williamson, E. Buffet, John G. Bergen, Edward A. 
McGuiness, Z. B. Van Wyck, A. H. Hubbard and others, practical farmers 
of Flatlands, Long Island, speaks in high terms of this instrument, it 
being a perfect success in a trial made since the last meeting of the Club. 

Mr. Hill said that so satisfied were the spectators with the success of 
the Potato Harvester, that five persons who witnessed its operations, had 
each ordered a machine costing one hundred dollars. 


November 7, 1865. 
Mr. John- G. Bergen in the chair; Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretary. 

Where and how to get a Farm. 

Mr. R. G. Pardee. — Here is a young friend of mine who wants to leave 
the cit}^ and go to some healthy neighborhood, where he can get a few 
acres of land and cultivate fruit. What advice will tlie club give him ? 

Mr. George Bartlett. — It is very important to locate in a section 
country free from fever and ague. It is useless to buy land where chills 
and fever prevail. I should like to know if there is any neighborhood 
around this city where this disease is not prevalent. 


Mr. SolonRobinson thought thehill lands of AVestchester generally healthy, 
and if not so, with their pure water and air, where could we look for 

Mr. R. G. Pardee. — I should recommend any location on the Hudson 
river. Farms can be purchased at from eighty to one hundred and fifty 
dollars per acre. On the northern railroad of New Jersey, land can be 
purchased from one hundred and fifty to two hundred dollars per acre, the 
land is rather cold but good. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Farms can be bought in Westchester county 
within fifteen miles of the city, for two hundred dollars per acre. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter. — I consider the lands in Westchester county very 
suitable for the production of fruit. 

Mr. R. G. Pardee. — I think Jersey offers some advantages to small 
farmers superior to this State. 

In this several of the members, who had lately visited Hammonton and 
Vineland, concurred, and recommended the young man to go there and 
examine for himself. 

Sugar from Sorghum. 

Dr. W. C. Benson, Chicago, 111., says : " It is a fixed fact that sorgo will 
make sugar. It is necessary to use the juice from cane fully matured. 
Juice of unripe cane, of any variety, will not make granulated sugar easily. 
The green tops are always cut off in Louisiana, and from unripe cane mo- 
lasses only is made. To make sugar of sorghum juice evaporate it to about 
45 degrees saccharometer, or until the steam escapes in little puff's; it will 
then hair or stretch out to a long, slim thread when it is rubbed between 
the thumb and finger. This is considered by some a better test than the 
saccharometer. As soon as the sj^rup is sufiSciently evaporated, immedi- 
ately run it off into shallow wooden vats, say two feet by five, and six 
inches deep. The syrup should not remain in a body, while hot, to exceed 
one or two inches in depth. If it retains a great heat for some length of 
time, it has a tendency to give the syrup a dark color and lessen its granu- 
lating properties. 

"After the syrup has cooled off in the coolers to about blood heat, then 
pour it slowly into the granulating vats. Do not put the syrup in barrels 
if you wish to make sugar. ' On the Louisiana sugar plantations, the ordi- 
nary sized vat for granulating southern sugars is six feet long, two feet 
wide and one foot deep. This is a very convenient size for granulating 
sorgo. To keep out the flies, cover the vats with thin muslin or mosquito 
bars. Keep the rooms which contain the syrup in vats about 90 degrees 
Fahrenheit; on no account should it be allowed to get below 75 degrees. 
Stir four or five times per day, and granulation will usually be effected in 
from two to fifteen days. To hasten granulation add two or thr^e pounds 
of dry sugar lo a vat of the syrup and stir it thoroughly. As the sugar 
granulates, it will settle to the bottom of the vat. It is then termed mush 
sugar. The farmers have heretofore experienced great difiSculty in sepa- 
rating the sugar and molasses, or in other words, to dry the mush. The 
difficulty is removed by the introduction of the Eureka Sugar Press, which 
will separate the syrup and sugar effectually. With this press the syrup 


and sugar can be separated in 30 minutes, giving one-half the weight in a 
livelj', light brown sugar." 

Cranberry Culture. 

The following letter from J. W. Lowrie, Camden, Seward Co., Nebraska, 
shows how little the subject of cranberr}^ culture is understood. The 
writer even supposes that cranberries grow upon bushes. There is a fruit 
known as bush or high cranberry', but it is not worth cultivation except as 
an ornamental shrub, and it bears no relation -to the true cranberry {oxy- 
coccus macrocarpus) . Mr. Lowrie says : " I wish to open a farm in the 
spring on virgin prairie soil broken up the last summer, and wish much to 
embrace a few thousand cranberry bushes. There are several varieties 
advertised through the papers, and I do not know which to get, nor yet 
the proper manner to prepare the soil (a rich upland loam, underlaid w^ith 
hard clay), which has always been covered with blue stem grass." He is 
equally mistaken in the quality of soil necessary to grow cranberries. A 
few have sometimes been grown on upland, but he will find their cultiva- 
tion on upland prairie an up-hill business. He also inquires for " the ad- 
dress of some nurseryman of whom I can get a suppl}-." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — I would recommend him to address himself to some 
of the thousands of acres of natural cranberry bog scattered over Michigan, 
Indiana, Illinois, "Wisconsin, and we don'^i know how many other western 
States, but certainly a pretty 'large nursery from which to draw a supply. 

I also recommend to his attention the following article copied from The 
Maine Farmer : 

"1. The requisites of successful cranberry culture are air, light and 
water. With these it will produce its fruit as well upon a bank of clear 
sand as upon a bed of rich muck. It must have moisture, either from a brook 
or springs. The plant will not live in stagnant water. 

" 2. With a piece of mdst, open soil, with water not more than six inches 
from the surface, cranberries can be raised to a limited extent. But to 
have just such a location as is desirable for their successful culture, select 
a piece of low-lying land with a sufficient fall to drain it enough to work it 
without inconvenience, and with an opportunity to flood it, as occasion 
may require, to the depth of six or eight inches. 

"3. Set the plants about the 25th of May, after having eradicated all 
grass and weeds from the spot selected. Distance three and a half feet 
apart between the rows, and 18 inches between the hills. The distances 
apart, however, will depend somewhat upon the number of plants one 
wishes to set upoU a given piece of land. At the above distance they ad- 
mit of good. cultivation; if set closer, the plants soon form a mat of thick 
covering, which keeps down the weeds. 

" 4. The cranberry is liable to be injured by late spring frosts — while 
the vines are in blossom — usually from May 25 to June 4. A fly also at- 
tacks the vines abotit the middle of July, depositing its eggs in the berfy. 
The larvfB of this fly is very destructive to the cranberry. It is its very 
worst enemy. 

" 5. The use of flooding the vines, and the seasons for pei'forming the- 
operation are as follows : 


" In winter, to protect the ground from the severe action of the frost; in 
late spring, to check the growth of weeds and wild grasses ; in July to pre- 
vent the cranberry fly from depositing its eggs in the berry. At each 
season the retarding effects of the water on the plants are very slight. 

" The bell, the cherry and the bugle, so named from a slight resemblance 
n form to each article mentioned — are the varieties; the first two being 
especial favorites." 

In addition, I will say that vines are flooded to keep back the blossoms, 
until danger of frost is past. There are also insects that attack the blos- 
soms and the vines as well as the fruit. There is also danger of injury to 
the berries from frost in September, which makes them too soft for trans- 

How TO Eenovate an Old Orchard. 

Mr. H. L. Salisbury, Holly, Orleans county, N. Y. "I have just come 
into possession of an apple orchard of 100 trees, which was set out proba- 
'bly 40 years ago. The trees are from five to eight inches in diameter, a 
few of them only have some dead limbs, but the whole of them seem 
unthrifty ; the apples are small, and many of the trees have small bits of 
moss on the branches. The roots of the trees I suspect have sometimes 
been disturbed b}'- the plow. Please tell me how I should manage to bring 
the orchard into bearing condition, at least long enough to get a new 
orchard started, if ashes are applied to fruit trees, how and when should 
it be done, and how much to each tree ? Would ashes which have been 
thrown from a potash factory and exposed to the weather for 20 years 
have any value." 

Mr. R. G. Pardee. — To resuscitate an old orchard, I would recommend 
that the 'land be plowed without injuring the roots of the trees — then apply 
the salt and lime mixture to the body and limbs of the trees, which will 
clear them of moss and also improve the soil. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter. — I think plowing an old orchard quite as likely 
to be injurious as beneficial. I have found the hog to be the best animal 
to introduce into the orchard ; feed them there and they will stir the soil, 
and if manure is not made fast enough apply some well rotted manure and 
ashes. Then with some alkaline mixture wash the trunk and limbs as high 
as you can reach. I have seen orchards resuscitated in this way. 

Mr. A. M. Powell. — I know a farmer in Dutchess county who renovated an 
orchard by a thick mulching of rye straw left on the land, winter and sum- 
mer, the trees in the course of three years came into bearing. 

Mr. Solon Robinson thought it much easier, cheaper, and better to mulch 
with clover. Let it grow large and fall down and rot, or be ivallowed 
down by hogs. Rye straw is too valuable near the city, the straw brings 
more than the grain. 

Mr. John G. Bergen is sure that plowing an orchard is not injurious 
where it is practiced from the beginning. 

Mr. R. G. Pardee said that Mr. R. L. Pell, of Ulster county, a large grower 
of fruit, cultivated his orchard by keeping the ground loose, but does not 
grow any other crop among the trees. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Ashes may be applied at any j;.ime that the ground 


is not frozen — spring would be preferable — and in any quantity that the 
owner can obtain, and always on the surface. The ashes from the ashery 
would be beneficial, and the longer exposed the better. 

How Grapes Grow without Pruning. 

Mr. Wi Hard GriflSn, West Granby, Conn., says: "I have the Isabella, 
Concord, Diana, Hartford Prolific and Delaware vines, besides several very 
good native varieties. They bear fruit abundantly, and have never shown 
any signs of disease. They run upon trellises, fences, stone walls, build- 
ings, bushes and trees. They grow as nature dictates, without mucJi 
restriction by trimming or training. I find that they are inclined to run 
upon green bushes and trees, and that they will stand the winter better 
when growing thus, for the reason that living wood is warmer than that 
which is dead. A man living in Waterbury states in that he has 
had a Clinton grape vine that has run 80 feet, and has produced 
this year 40 bushels of grapes. One of my neighbors has a Catawba 
grape vine which covers the east side of a large stone house. It produces 
yearly from 150 to 200 pounds of grapes. He sells about $25 worth a 
year, besides giving away some and using what he wants in his family. 
He trims his vine some, but not so murderously as is generally recom- 
mended. This vine grows in rich warm soil, close to the house, and near 
a tub of water which is constantly overflowing. This is in the latitude of 
42 degrees, where the Catawba does not generally ripen. In the agricul- 
tural report for 1858, page 348, is the following statement : * A poor woman 
of the county of Santa Barbara (California) has but one vine. It bore last 
year 5,000 bunches of beautiful grapes, weighing over a pound each, yield- 
ing her the handsome sum of $400. When a girl and leaving Monterey to 
remove to her present home, she picked up a vine cutting to drive her mule. 
This cutting she planted upon her arrival, and after the lapse of seventy 
years such is the result' '^ 

The Effect of Slaughtering all the Calves. 

Upon this subject Mr. Griffin makes the following statement : " I see 
that you propose to levy a tax on slaughtered calves. (I would second the 
motion.) There has been for several years past, in this region of country, 
an almost universal slaughter of calves. The plea has been that it is more 
profitable to fat them than to raise them, and now our farmers are running 
about in a great rage to buy cows, paying from $50 to $100 for them. (I 
hold that no animal should be slaughtered for food until nearly or quite 
full grown.) The meat of full-grown animals is richer, sweeter, more 
nourishing and healthful than that of very young animals. I generally 
raise my calves, and I always found that by allowing them to suck my 
fingers, inserted in the milk, they soon learn to drink/' 

Mr. Geo. Bartlett thought the natural law would soon work a cure of the 
evil. He does not like the plan of increasing the tax to such an extent as 
to operate as a premium upon raising calves. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter said the high price of cattle had already operated 
to preserve a great many calves in his neighborhood, where, a few years 
ago, none were raised because it did not pay. 


Mr. John G. Bergen thought some protection necessary. He knows that 
the high price at which calves have sold# for a year or two past is a great 
temptation to farmers, and the slaughter is out of all proportion to what it 
should be for a healthy condition of business. Mr. Solon Robinson gave a 
number of statistical facts in relation to the enormous destruction of calves 
in this city. He is well satisfied that a tax of $5 per head would operate 
in the most beneficial manner upon the great interests of agriculture, 
throughout the United States. 

Protection of Young Trees. 

Mr. Lewis Zeller, Canal Dover, Ohio, " recommends all persons who plant 
fruit trees to plant at the same time a board or stake large enough to pre- 
vent the hot noonday sun from burning- the body of your tree, and drive it 
firmly into the ground about three or four inches from the tree. This will 
preserve your tree from the too strong rays of the sun. Thousands of 
trees are lost every year without these stakes." He also recommends 
autumn planting, but that depends upon circumstances. To produce the 
largest g-rowth in the shortest time he would 'set the trees SO feet apart, 
and till the ground with corn or potatoes five or six years, manuring 
heavily. To keep the trees healthy, the following is his advice: "After a 
few rainy days, in autumn, scrape the moss and old bark from off the trunk 
of your trees, and clean them of suckers and sprouts. Then, in the winter, 
when the frost is in the ground, and the snow the deepest, take your sle^ 
and haul some manure into your orchard, and spread on the snow beneath 
every tree as far out as the limbs extend, to the depth of about three 
inches. The manure on the top of the snow will keep the frost in the 
ground longer than it would be otherwise; your trees will bloom so much 
later, and your fruit escape the late frost. The manure kills the sodj 
makes the ground mellow, like an ash heap, and gives nourishment to the 
tree. Then, in April, take a half pail of soft soap, fill up with water, stir 
together, and with a whitewash brush wash your trees as high up as- you 
can reach. This will give your trees a new and healthy growth, and in 
one or two years you can lop off all the old limbs, and your tree will have 
new life and vigor, and the fruit will not only then come to perfection, but 
its quantity will be largely increased. We often hear persons remark: 
'Our fruit trees are so short-lived. Why is it?' Permit me to answer. 
You are constantly picking off the tree its golden fruitage, while you give 
it no encouragement to bring you more. You go to your tree only when 
you wish to pluck something to gratify your palate. The fact of it is you 
must take. care of your trees or even 'that which they have shall be taken 
from them.' Feed them, nourish them, care for them, and when the chilling- 
blasts of winter come, they will. not die for you, but will live to a ripe old 
a^ge — from 100 to 200 years, as they do in Germany." 



November 14, 1865. 
Mr. John G-. Bergex, in the chair; Mr. Johx""\V. Chambers, Secretary. 

Bergen Pear. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpentef presented, for the inspection of the Club, speci- 
mens of the Berg-en pear, whicli he considers an excellent variety for early 
winter; it is a very juicy pear and recommends it to fruit cultivators as a 
valuable variety. 

Apples for the Greeley Prize. 

The Secretary exhibited two splendid varieties of apples sent in for 
"The Greeley Prize," viz: The Northern Spy and the Baldwin, grown by 
Mr. Jeremiah Brown, Battle Creek, Michigan, and specimens of the North- 
ern Spy^ grown by Mr. C. Snj^der, Rosendale, N. Y. 

Mr. Solon Robinson said the Baldwins are as high colored as those grown 
in Massachusetts; very large, smooth and high flavored. 

Isabella and Concord Grapes. 

Mr. A. M. Powell, presented some very handsome bunches of Isabella 
grapes grown by Mr. Geo. Powell, Ghent, Columbia county, N. Y., which 
proved delicious, as that variety always is when well grown and fully 
ripened. The region where these were grown is a slate formation, like 
that at Pleasant Valley, N. Y., where the Isabella and Catawba both 

Mr. P. T. Quinn recommends the Concord as far more trustworthy and 
equally good as the Isabella. He said that Mr. Knox had written to him 
from Pittsburgh, a .high commendation of Concord, and John A. Mottier, 
Cincinnati, had lately spoken of it as a wine grape of such good quality 
that he intended to plant ten acres. 

Mr. Bergen said, as Concord had failed two years with him, he could not 
recommend it as a good market grape. 

Long Island Vegetables. 

Mr. A. McCotter, Holbrook, L. I., presented samples of various kinds of 
vegetables grown on his farm at Holbrook, L. I., fifty miles from this city, 
upon lands generally called the "barrens." The soil is a sandy loam, with 
a small mixture of clay, from three to four feet in depth, with a second 
growth of oak timber, easily cleared, and will, as I have practically proved 
for the last ten years, with proper cultivation, prove as productive as any 
part of our State. And here, within two hours of New York, these good 
farming lands can be purchased for $25 an acre. 

Mr. John G. Bergen said he could confirm all that was said of this land, 
and he believed nearly the whole of the "barrens" equally productive. 
What is wanted is some Landis to take the matter in hand, to cause their 
Settlement. They will produce vegetables and fruit just as good as they 
Qan be grown on the New Jersey lands of the same character. 

Mr. B. J. Dodge. — The specimens are very fair, but we cannot tell a^ 
what expense they were grown. I wish Mr. McCotter was present to give 
B8 an account of his mode of cultivation. 


Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter. — I hope the Club will be careful and not recom- 
mend any land, wherever it may be, unless the facts have been thoroughly 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — I detest this mode of throwing out doubts in rela- 
tion to the so-called barren lands of Long Island and New Jersey. I be- 
lieve that crops of wheat will be raised on these lands. Talk about the 
rich lands of the West producing such crops, but what will they realize 
after paying the cost of freight. I believe that a man, by manuring these 
lands, will realize more money than he can on the lands of the West. 

Mr. John G. Bergen. — It is very easy to bring manure or guano from 
New York, and if such manures are applied, these lands will certainly pro- 
duce crops. Many farms on Long Island are of first quality. 

Col. Henry, Flushing, L. I., spoke of the great growth of peach trees he 
saw in Tennessee, and urged people to procure healthy seed and grow 
seedling trees, and then, no doubt, fruit can be grown on Long Island, and 
other localities, as it was formerly. 

Pruning Peach Trees. 

Mr. J.Wilson. — I have searched many agricultural journals, but searched 
in vain, for instructions in pruning the peach. If any member of your Club 
would give some instructions, I should feel much obliged. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — If your trees are seedlings, and you do not intend 
to bud them, when one year old cut off the Avhole top, so that the branches 
will start directly from the ground, and grow trees with two or more boles 
instead of one. If budded, treat them in the same way, one year after 
buddin'g. The object is to grow low bushy heads. The only after-pruning 
necessary will be to cut away dead wood and water sprouts, and take care 
of the horns. 

Apples for Indiana. 

Mr. Amos Bachelor, Orland, Ind., wants to know if the following is a 
good list for an orchard of 200 trees, with Chicago in view as a market: 
Golden Russet, Golden 8weet, Bellflower, Talman Sweet, Sour Swaar, 
Yandevere, Rainbow, Northern Spy, Baldwin, Rhode Island Greening, Red 
Streak, Seek-no-Further, Sour Bough, Fall Pippin, Culvert. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Some of our outside members in that locality may 
be able to tell him how to improve the list; we cannot do it here. 

An Owl Trap. 

Mr. Bachelor saj^s: "Set a -post near your fowls, and a muskrat trap on 
top; the owls will light on the post to look, and get caught. 

Thornless Raspberry. 

Mr. Joseph Sinton, Angola, Erie county, N. Y., sends us a plant of 
"thornless raspberry," of which he says: " They must take the place of 
the Doolittle, as I believe them to be even more productive, and as hardy. 
They are from a seedling that came up in a garden near where some black- 
caps were cultivated. They have preserved their thornless habits through 


four generations of plants. They are thrifty, hardy, and very productive. 
Ladies can walk among the bushes, wearing the finest fabrics, with impu- 
nity, and the most delicate hand can pick the fruit without a scratch. 

"As an ' outside member ' of many j'ears standing, I take the liberty of 
asking the Farmers' Club if this is something new. All who have seen 
them say they never saw anything like them before. I will send some of 
the fruit to the Farmers' Club next summer." 

Grape Culture at the West. 

Mr. J. A. Sanborn, Vandalia, 111., says: "I have watched the grape in 
Western vineyards for the last ten years, and seen first one, then another, 
come forward, like Major Generals on the Potomac, make its bow, promise 
great things, receive the adulations of the grape-loving public, and then 
suddenly retire from the front, completely discomfited by those arch ene- 
mies, mildew, rot, &c. The Isabella and Catawba are now pretty well 
discarded by vinej^ardists in the West as untrustworthy and unprofitable 
grapes; while Norton's Virginia Seedling, the Concord, Delaware, lona 
and others, are being extensively planted, in their places. But I do not 
think we have any grape that will not sufi'er more or less from rot and mil- 
dew, so long as the present system of culture is followed. 

" Now I regard these evils to the grape as resulting from the coexist- 
ence of the three following causes: I Heat. 2. Moisture. 3. Stagnant 
air. The first two will not seriously affect the fruit or vine unless the 
third is also present; and the three together for any considerable time are 
sure to produce injur3^ The vine loves heat, but not much moisture, and 
does best where * gentle breezes ever flow,' fresh air being as necessary to 
the grape as to man. 

*• In fact, I think a great cause of failure with the grape is owing to a 
non-observance of nature's ways and laws. There is too much of an en- 
deavor to make a dwarf-tree of a vine. Why not as well prune an apple 
tree to a single straight stem, and train it as a vine to the side of a house, 
as to behead the grape vine until it becomes a sickly stalk? 

" My plan of grape growing for wine is this: Select a piece of timbered 
land of the right slope and exposure — the western slope is best here, and 
the eastern for the Atlantic States, probably — then proceed to thin out the 
smaller trees, leaving only the larger ones so scattered as to allow one- 
third the ground exposed to the sun; then the upper part of the tops of the 
taller trees may be sawed off, leaving the lower horizontal limbs for the 
vines to spread upon; then the trees should be three-quarters girdled to 
prevent too much shade, a vine planted at the foot of each tree, and you 
have your vineyard complete. 

" A grove may thus be made doubly useful; or where there is no grove, 
trees may be planted out and the vines kept back till the trees will allow 
them to be left mostly to themselves. Now see the benefits of this system: 
1st. You can get four or five times the amount of fruit (and consequently 
of wine) from the same area, as when stakes are used. 2d. You have no 
rot nor mildew. 3d. No ordinary. frost will hurt them. 4th. They can be 
left on the vines much longer. 5th. Strawberries, rhubarb, etc., can be 


grown under the trees. 6th. You can drive all around under the trees 
with a team for manuring, cultivating and gathering the fruit; also, for 
any necessary pruning. 7th. The wind has a free circulation under the 
trees, and all stagnant air, moldy dampness, and scorching heat are thus 
prevented or removed. 

" The grape vine is a climbing vine, and nature designed it should 
produce its fruit at a distance from the ground. The reflected heat of the 
moist earth is prejudicial to the grape and apt to impair its good qualities. 

" Ic 1860, about 30 miles southwest of Cape Girardeau, Mo., I saw the 
tallest corn I ever saw. An old settler had made a recent clearing, cut- 
ting out the brush and small trees, and deadening the large ones, about 
ten of which were left on an acre. At each tree he had planted a vine — 
Catawba — and at that time the whole tops of those trees were literally 
breaking down with their loads of luscious fruit. The quantity on each 
tree was wonderful. It was an experiment with him, and he considered it 
the best he ever made in the fruit line. The ground was all in cultivation, 
yielding its fifth crop of corn. I pulled down and measured with a tape 
line two stalks, they were 18J and 19 feet high respectively. I have 
never seen the equal of that field in appearance. No section of country 
this side of California can equal South-Eastern Missouri as a fruit country. 
For pears and grapes, it cannot be beat. Peaches never fail there. Its 
tobacco equals any grown, a few acres making a man rich. In hemp, it 
is great. It can ship direct to St. Louis, Cairo, Cincinnati, Memphis or 
New Orleans. Farmers get the best of prices. Unimproved land is now 
$2 to 85 per acre: improved is SIO to $20, as per location. If ^ny one 
between Maine and Minnesota desires to grow peaches out doors, and 
does not succeed, I can tell him how he can." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Every member of the Club wants that information. 
"We want to know how to grow peaches successfully. 

New Variety of Corn. 

Dr. Eobert Anderson, Cross Creek Tillage, AVashington County, Pa., 
thinks he has made a new variety of Indian corn, "the best ever produced, 
being productive of ears with 18 to 26 rows, 50 to 65 grains in a row, and 
yielded this year T5 to 100 bushels per acre; planted May 1st, and ripe the 
last of September." 

Hay as a Crop on the Mississippi. 

Dr. John D. Mills, Stanhope, N. J., wants to know "if the business of 
hay-raising up the Mississippi or Missouri is an extensive one, and where 
(beside St. Louis) are good markets — what is good timothy hay worth at 
the river landings — how many years will the grass continue to do well 
without 'running out?'" 

Poultry Disease — R-EMEibT. 

The Rev. S. A. Ransom, Jasper, N. T., says: "Tell Mr. George Ba 
Squires of Buffalo, to feed his hens on black peppers, and he will probably 
wire them. To a flock of eighty, in which the disease prevailed, in about 


two weeks, I gave a quarter of a pound of ground black pepper, mixed 
with their food, and saved them all. Eight were saved that became so 
diseased as to have had an eye on each run out." 

Butter Packages. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — In a late conversation with a dealer in butter, he 
remarked that in this city much of the butter is rendered unsaleable, at 
first class prices, on account of the packages in which it is sent to market. 
In some parts of the State, and generally in Canada, they are all made of 
ash, which is wholly unsuitable. The only wood which should ever be 
used for butter-firkins is well-seasoned white oak. The proper'dimensions 
are 22^ inches in length, 13 inches across the heads (outside measure), and 
the weight, which should be branded upon the firkin, should be 20 to 22 
pounds. Such firkins are suitable for shipment to the Southern States. 
California or Europe. All country coopers are earnestly recommended to 
provide stuff the coming winter, as farmers will certainly learn by the 
experience of this season that they cannot afford to send their butter to 
market in any other style of packages. The butter product of Canada for 
1865 is estimated at $3,000,000 value in gold. Much of this butter 
comes to New York in Welsh tubs and ash firkins, not one of Avhich is 
suitable for shipment. The butter must be repacked, or sold to the local 
trade, of course at the expense of the shippers. 


Cider — To Keep it Sweet. 

Mr. X. Steenburg, South Wales, X. Y. : " Have your casks entirely clean 
when filled with sweet cider. As soon as it has done fermenting, add 
grated horseradish, a heaping tablespoonful to each gallon, and bung tight ; 
the cider will remain in the same condition until wanted for use." 

CuRCULio — How TO ELead Them. 

Mr. Thomas Landers, Aft on, X. Y., tells how he headed the curculio : 
"I have some very fine, healthy plum trees in my yard, which blossom full 
every season, and the fruit generally arriving to the size of peas or a little 
larger, when they are stung or sought by this troublesome insect, and the 
the fruit invariably drops off. This season I selected two trees and fixed 
an old tin pan under the lower limbs, with a little ashes in the bottom, and 
immediately after the fruit is fairly formed, or one-half the size of peas, I 
applied a handful of tobacco leaves and smudged the trees once in three or 
four days, for ten or twelve days. The result was that I was oldiged to 
tie up all the limbs of these two trees, to keep them from breaking down 
from weight of fruit, and I gathered one-half bushel of the nicest plums 
(the trees being small), while from the other trees in the same yard, upon 
which no application of any kind was made, not a plum matured." 

Where to Get a Farm. 

Mr. A. Williams, Cattaraugus, says : '• There are a large number of 
farms offered for sale in Sussex county, Delaware : many of them for $10 
or §15 per acre. Could a northern man of moderate means buy there and 


better himself on those cheap lands, get a living by raising peaches, sweet 
potatoes, and other fruits for city markets ? Or are those cheap farms 
advertised worn out and not worth the price they are offered at ? Is not 
the soil there rather thin and poorly adapted for grass, grain, corn ; that 
is, compared with New York State ? Is west Jersey any better location as 
to good soil, society and so forth ? I should like to get into a milder 
climate, along with many others here. The winters here are long and cold. 
The elevation of the land, 1,500 feet above Lake Erie, makes the springs 
and autumns cold and frosty. There is not a peach tree that bears, nor a 
grape vine in this locality. Does West Virginia offer any inducements to 
emigrate there ? and would it not be better to look west for cheap farms 
than in Delaware ? Can the Club tell me ?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — If you are not satisfied with the information pub- 
lished in the reports of the meetings of the Club, the only advice which we 
can give you is to go and see for yourself. Some of the Delaware farms 
are what is called worn-out, but they are all capable of renovation and 
profitable cultivation by the use of lime and other fertilizers. As to west 
Jersey, read the accounts of the late visit to that region. If you would 
know anything of West Virginia, go and see. It is of no use to tell you 
that cheap lands are abundant and fertile. You won't believe it, or if you 
do, probably some one else will tell you that we have lands there for sale, 
which you may believe or not. I tell you truly that I have not a foot of 
land for sale on earth, and no interest to induce me to recommend west 
Jersey or any other country. Of Delaware lands, I am pleased to see my 
old friend, Maj. Gen. John Jones, is present to-day. He can give you per- 
sonal experience of what has been done, and his opinion of what can be 
done in the renovation of those " worn-out farms." I know that his is now 
as fruitful as the richest prairie land of Illinois, and I know that when he 
bought it, thirty years ago, it was one of the most poverty-stricken in the 

Maj. Jones said that, having failed as a contractor upon public works, he 
was glad to get even a worn-out farm, which he could buy on credit ; and 
he got this one upon the "Bohemian Manor" at $10 an acre, upon ten 
years' credit. It had always been tilled with slave labor by tenants, and 
it was a forlorn hope to try to renovate it without capital to' buy manure. 
He succeeded in getting Peruvian guano, which was then worth about $45 
a ton, and was an almost untried experiment, though highly recommended 
by Mr. Solon Robinson, and that at about 200 pounds per acre, made clover 
'grow ; and that, with lime, brought the product of the land from nothing 
up to an average in 1834, upon 32 acres, of 37J bushels of wheat per acre, 
not including rakings, which were lost. In 1845 his crop of wheat was 
2,884 bushels — more than had been grown upon the farm probably in 
twenty years before he bought it. That was the commencement of improve- 
ment in that part of the State, which has so enhanced the value of that 
poor, despised, worn-out land that his son has been offered for that same 
farm $5,000 a year rent for 330 acres, including a 50 acre peach orchard. 
Yet, productive as the land now is, it does not yet produce more than half 
what it is capable of producing. As to the capacity of this kind of sandy 



loam land to grow grass, he sowed a piece of it to timothy in 1830, which 
has been used as a pasture and not since broken up, and that grass is still 
good. All that is needed to grow good grass is to give the land good 
treatment. In 183t, he bought a farm of 840 acres, or rather a tr'act of 
land which had been a farm, at $8 an acre, and brought it up by guano and 
lime to be so productive that it sold two years ago at $60 an acre. Any 
of those old farms can be made by lime and clover, in two years, to yield 
30 bushels of wheat per acre, and as good corn crops as the Illinois prairies. 

Clover — Its Geat Value as a Manure Crop. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — I received a letter from the Hon. Geo. Geddes, of 
Onondaga county, N. Y., one of the most successful farmers in the State, 
under date October 20, and as it contains too much valuable information to 
all American farmers, to be kept by any individual for private use, I read 
it for the information of our members. 

" Your remarks, in regard to clover as a manure, made to the Farmers* 
Club, appears to me to be so just, that I am led to express my hearty con- 
currence. I have been long trying " by precept and example too,'' to get 
the farmers of the country to believe that the clover plant, stimulated by 
gypsum, wherever experience proves that gypsum does aid its growth, is 
the most valuable manure, when we take into account the cost that can be 
had. In my report on the county of Onondaga, I said: 'The agriculture 
of Onondaga county is based on the clover plant,' and I now repeat that 
assertion. Yesterday a farmer living within two miles of the center of the 
city of Syracuse, called on me, and while passing over the farm, remarked 
that he would not draw -manure from the city to his farm if it was given to 
him, preferring to manure with clover and plaster. This was the opinion 
of a man who has spent fifty years of his life in earning a handsome for- 
tune as a working farmer, and whose knowledge of scientific matters is 
quite limited; in short, a man who is governed entirely by practical results. 
He knows just the value of barn-yard manure, for he has made and used 
large quantities every year on the farm where he now lives and has lived 
for thirty or more years. Nothing was said by me to draw out his opinion. 
It was given unprompted, and having long since learned to value the 
opinions of such men, I was very much gratified at hearing his views. 
Within the last four weeks, I have seen a heavy crop of clover plowed 
under, and the harrow and drill to sow wheat at once put in operation. The 
farmer expects to get a good crop with this single plowing, and to enrich 
his land for future crops. How could he do so much for his land in any 
other way at the same cost? He has cut one crop of hay, and from the 
middle of July to the middle of September the grass had so gVown that' it 
was hardly practicable to get it into the furrow. The crop of hay has paid 
the interest on the value of the land (fully ten per cent), and the crop of 
wheat will probably pay still better. Now what has this manuring cost? 
Do your own figuring. 

"Do any of your Eastern farmers manure as heavily as this ? They pay 
more money, but do they manure as highly ? 

"Let us look at the future of this land. The wheat will come off next 
year, and a fourth of a bushel of clover seed sown next spring — having put 


timothy grass seed on when the wheat was drilled in — the butts of the 
bundles of wheat will at harvest be full of the tops of the grasses. A 
little pasture will be had next fall, if the season is dry; if it is wet and 
warm, the clover will blow out before frost. The following .year corn, or 
perhaps barle^^, will be sown on the new clover and timothy sod, or hay 
may be cut that year in July, and a crop of clover seed taken off in Sep- 
tember, and corn or barley the next year. If barley, wheat will be sown 
on the stubble, and a like round of crops be repeated. 

" I thought, as I saw this man turn under the clover last month, that he 
was plowing in from one and a half to two bushels of clover seed to the 
acre, that he had better cut and save and put his land into barley next 
spring, following with wheat next fall. But he took his way, and by doing 
as he did, he has clover seed that will be coming up in his crops for years. 

"Will this manuring with clover last? I can only say it has answered 
for at least 66 years on a field on my farm. This field's history is known; 
it has been cropped constantly with hay, pasture, corn, barley, oats and 
wheat, manuring with clover and plaster only. No signs of poverty yet, 
but on the contrar^^, increasing fertility. Barley was harvested from it 
this season, and it is now in wheat. Come next summer and see it har- 


Information for Iowa Farmers — Plastic Slate Roofing. j 

Mr. E. B. Chase, Bosegrove, Hamilton county, Iowa: "The farmers in 
this section are very much interested about a matter of which they have 
recently read in the reports of the Club. As it is something new to us, 
we want a little more information. This is a prairie country, where timber 
is scarce, and good shingles are worth $8 per thousand. There are but few 
buildings in our township, but a good many persons have taken up home- 
steads, and intend to build houses next year, and want to know if they can 
use that new roofing which the Farmers' Club talks about. Answers to 
the following questions are therefore very important to us: 

I. If the roof is sheeted with boards, what other preparation is neces- 
sary ? 
^ II. Is the new roofing difficult to put on? 

III. What thickness is the composition on the roof ? 

IV. Will not the hot prairie sun warp the boards on which it is laid and 
crack the cement ? 

V. In what proportion is it to be mixed? and how? 
Yl. How many square feet will a given quantity cover? 
YII. As I do not know as the materials can be got short of New York, 

especially the slate flour, what is the cost of each per barrel in New York? 

YIII. Tar being of a very combustible nature, will it not be liable to 
take fire easy? You see by this time that I want full instructions in re- 
gard to cost, preparing it, and putting it on to completion." 

Mr. Solon Bobinson. — Although I had thought that I had answered all 
the questions which the "public generally" required about this new roof- 
ing, I find myself much mistaken. It is a greedy public, or else some of 
its component parts are hard to understand. I will try once more to en- 
lighten them. 


I do not wonder at the interest felt in this new discovery. It is a very 
important one to farmers, particularly where "shingles are worth 88 a 
thousand.'' I will answer the questions briefly as numbered: 

I. It is necessary to sheet the roof with boards as smoothly as possible. 
These boards are then covered with what is called roofing-felting', which is 
a thick, coarse paper, made in part of woolen rags and saturated with coal 
tar. Some persons prefer to use the felting in two thicknesses. The 
strips, which are about two feet wide, are laid horizontally, the edges 
lapped and carefully nailed with broad-headed tacks, using stout cotton 
tape to hold the heads, which must be about one inch apart. 

II. No more difficult than any ordinary mechanical work — it requires 
some skill and practice to make a perfect roofer. 

III. It has been used from one-eighth to one-half inch thick. It is not 
yet fully settled what thickness will be the most satisfactor^^ It is to be 
presumed that a heavy coat will be the most substantially durable. 

IV. The boards should be well seasoned and firmly nailed, and then let 
the sun shine. It will not be lik(*ly to crack the cement; and if it should, 
it is easily repaired with a little of the same composition. 

Y. It may be mixed by simply stirring the slate flour into the coal tar at 
summer temperature, to any desired proportion. If it is thick as cream, it 
will spread freely with a whitewash brush; and when one coat has hard-, 
ened, another may be laid on if required. If thick as muck, it can still 
be put on with a brush and paddle. If still thicker, it can be laid on with 
a plasterer's trowel and leveled and smoothed off in the same way the 
mason does a plastered wall. It is somewhat difficult to mix the slate and 
tar together, particularly in cold weather, and in time it will be done by 
machinery where it is largely used. 

VI. A ton of slate flour mixed with two barrels of coal tar will cover 
seventeen squares of roof. A "square" is a builder's measure, lO-flO 
feet. I cannot tell the w^eight of felting required, but suppose that a square 
would not weigh ten pounds. 

VII. The coal tar can be got at any gas works or oil refinery, and the 
slate flour can be made wherever slate rock abounds, in any common grist- 
mill, being no harder than corn to grind, and its cost need not exceed $5 a 
ton at the mill. Tar is worth $1 to So a barrel, and felting four or five 
cents a pound, in the present state of high prices for paper, &c. The ma- 
terials are too heavy for long transportation by land, as from New York to 
Iowa. The best of slate exists at the West, and the flour is being ex- 
tensively manufactured in Michigan. 

YlII, Pine tar is "verj^ combustible/' but that is not suitable. Coal tar 
is not very conibustible, and when mixed with the slate makes a roof abso- 
lutel3^ incombustible. 

There is one question you have not asked, which I will, however, answer, 
and th;it is the royalty due the patentee of this new slate roofing. As it 
is a discovery of immense importance to the public, it is luck}'' the patent 
has fallen into the hands of men who are liberal in their views. I think 
the patent fee need not be estimated at over 25 cents a square, and gene- 
rally this will be paid in the purchase of the slate flour which is manu- 
[Am. Lvst.] P 


factured under a license, and royalty paid npon each barrel, so that the 
farmer who puts on a roof will not be at any other trouble about the patent, 
than to see that the barrels have the proper roj^alty stamp affixed and can- 
celed. Without this, no one has a right to put on a "plastic slate roof/' 
unless he first obtains a license of the patentees; and I am certain that no 
one will grudge this trifling fee, when he learns, as I have, by actual ex- 
perience upon my own house, the immense value that this new discovery 
will prove to farmers, particularly those upon the western prairies; for it 
will not only enable them to make cheap roofs, but to build adobe houses 
and cover the walls with a cheap water-proof plaster. 

November 21, 1865. ■ 

Prof. S. D. Tillman in the chair ; Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretary. 


Profits of Orchards. 

' Mr. Solon Robinson. — Mr. Chairman, I desire to introduce the subject of 
fruit raising, and I ask the farmer, what can you grow upon ycur land that 
will afford more profit upon the labor bestowed than fruit trees? After the 
orchard is in bearing the labor is trifling, and*- you do not feel the loss of a 
ctop, as you do one of grain, or other things which have cost a great deal 
of labor. Tl)e profits of some orchards this year are enormous; in one 
instance in Wayne county, N. Y., $1,200 for the fruit of 82 trees, the owner 
reserving enough for his own use, and buyer finding barrels. In Oneida 
county $900 were offered for the fruit of nine acres. In Monroe county 
some farmers have sold their apples this year for almost as much as they 
would have sold their farms last year. The Brockport Republic says 30,000 
barrels have been shipped from -that village, at an average price to pur- 
chasers of $4.75 a barrel. Think of that as the income of one neighbor- 
hood. Notwithstanding " short crops/' more apples have been shipped 
from there this year than ever before. The price has brought them 

Dr. Trimble. — It is a shame to this neighborhood that we have to look 
to western New York and Michigan for our supply of apples, and that we 
cUnnot get a barrel of good ones for less than %'^. In New Jersey the 
poorest sorts of apples sell for 60 cents a bushel for cider. The reason that 
we have no apples is because we have suffered insects to accumulate to 
6uch an extent they destroy the whole crop. 

Messrs. William S. Carpenter and Solon Robinson both controverted this 
opinion pretty strongly, contending that it was perfectly ridiculous to 
ascribe all the failure of fruit this year to a sudden increase of worms and 
bugs. They assert the great cause of failure is niore attributable to the 
season — to something in the atmosphere which no degree of vigilance and 
care can overcome. 

Dr. Edgar F. Peck. — The hills of the Housatonic w^ere once great fruit 
producers. Monstrous pippins, of over 20 ounces each, great pumpkin 


apples, and superb Kliode Island Greenings and Red Astrachans. Now 
•where are they ? Those fruitful old orchards have disappeared, and the 
people have no apples. A letter from Sharon says there are not 10 bushels 
of good apples in that once great fruit producing town this year. The old 
orchards have perished, and the people have not made new ones. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — The apple is failing all over New England. Peaches 
have 5ilready gone, and apples are going, and it is not because the fruit 
was stung by the curculio, nor because the codling moth made worms in 
the fruit, nor -^orms bored into the trunks of the trees, nor because cater- 
pillars ate the leaves. The trees have perished from a change in the 
clirjnate, commencing far up north on the Canadian line, and working down 
south already through. four degrees of latitude. In some cases planting 
new trees will avert the evil to some degree; in others, it is of no use. 
For the present, in northern Vermont and New Hampshire the apple is 
doomed. Now we are told that those famous old orchards upon the hills 
of the Housatonic have gone the way of those that perished a few years' 
earlier further north, and we are gravely told that it is all the work of the 
bugs. I tell you that assertion is the greatest of all bugs that ever hover 
about an apple tree. Yet I would plant trees, and use all diligence to 
preserve them from insects, but all the care of man will not save the old 

Mr. E, Williams. — I agree fully with this opinion. We cannot grow 
trees as they formerly grew, and it is not insects that cause the failure. 
We cannot grow potatoes as they formerly grew; nor Isabella and Catawba 
grapes and peaches. My apple and pear trees blossomed well and blighted 
before any fruit formed for the curculio to sting. I am willing to concede 
to Dr. Trimble all that is chargeable to insects and neglect, but I won't 
concede to that all the failure of fruit. 

Mr. S. B. Nichols, Hammonton, N. J., said that upon Grand Isle, Lake 
Champlain, apples grow perfect, while upon the adjoining mainland they 
all fail. It is an atmospheric influence there, most certainly. 

Report of the Committee to Visit Hammonton and Yineland. 

Dr. Trimble, chairman of the committee, made the following report: 

To the Farmer^ Club of the American Institute : 

The committee appointed to visit south and southwest Jersey, report : 
That six of their number started on the 26th of October, taking steamboat 
at Pier No. 3, North River, and passing through the upper and lower bays 
to Port Monmouth, and from thence by the Raritan & Delaware Bay Rail- 
road to its junction with the Camden and Atlantic Railroad, and on this 
latter road fourteen miles to Hammonton, The first few miles of our trip 
were through an old cultivated country, and some of it showing good farm- 
ing; but three-fourths of the distance was an unbroken forest, chiefly small 
piues. The objects of interest were the celebrated marl pits at Squankum 
or Farming-dale, the old Bergen Iron Works, the new and flourishing settle- 
ment of Manchester with its extensive cranberry plantations, the villages 
of Whiting's Mills, Atsioa and Jackson. 



This village is midway between Philadelphia and the ocean at Atlantic 
City, thirty miles from each and ninety miles from New York. It is just 
eight 3^ears old, settled chiefl}^ by New Englanders of small means, many 
of whom had an intermediate experience in the western States. The popu- 
lation at present is about 4,000, and rapidly increasing-. 

Here you find all the characteristics of the eastern States, the thrift that 
results from well directed and persevering industry, and a restless deter- 
mination to possess all the knowledge necessary to sjBcnre success. 
Churches and school-houses of course. 

The land here has been divided into small tracts, varying from two to 
twenty acres. You seldom see either the citj- lot or the large farm. Roads 
or avenues (and good ones too) are laid out with great regularity, and not 
so near each other as the streets of cities, nor so far apart as the roads in 
farming neighborhoods. Every crop cultivated on the farm or in the market 
garden is raised here ; but thus far the strawberry and sweet potato have 
been the most successful and profitable products. Blackberries, raspberries, 
grapes, peaches and plums, have been found to grow well and produce 
abundantly as far as tried. The pear trees, both dwarf and standards, are 
very thrifty ; and better looking apple trees are probably never seen any- 
where. The apricot tree lias so far succeeded well, and m'any spoke of 
having had abundant crops of this fruit. Some complained that they had 
been unsuccessful with the cherry, the trees not bearing the winters; this 
was probably owing to their having been budded on improper stocks. 


l!he peach worm is here badl}^, probably brought, in the young trees from 
the nurseries. As this insect comes to maturity in a single year, its in- 
crease is rapid and will require prompt and careful attention. The curculio 
has already appropriated the plums, and has shown itself upon the apricots, 
apples and other fruits. The soil here is so well suited to the habits of 
this insect that its increase may be expected to be rapid, and if unchecked, 
will soon blight the prospects of these enthusiastic young fruitgrowers. 
The apple ii'orm has also found the fruits of this settlement new as it is", 
and the increase of this enemy is very rapid. The apple tree borer and tent 
caterp)iller are found in the older settlements near by, and wnll probably 
soon be there; but the people here are alive to the dangler, and have re- 
solved to make common cause and conquer them before they become for- 
midable. If they do, the prices that such fruits will bring in the New 
York markets will afford a rich reward. 


It was too late in the season to see other veg^etables than turnips, car- 
rots and cabbages growing ; but these looked as well as those grown in 
the market gardens near the great cities. 


The cultivation of this fruit here is enormous, considering the size of the 
place. The crop sold last year for more than $40,000 and is estimated to 



bring" double that sum the next season. Short as the time has been for 
testing this experiment, all admit that the success has been perfect — wonder- 
fully so. The favorite berry cultivated is the Wilson's Albau}-. Instead 
of being short lived it is found to do well for five years. This is probably 
owing to the system of cultivation — planting in rows three feet apart and 
fifteen inches in the row. All runners are cut off, excepting onh' where 
plants are wanted for setting out other plantations. AVeeds are scrupu- 
lously kept down by the plow, cultivator and hoe. The earth is thrown 
towards the plants every year — fresh roots are thrown off above the old 
ones. The plants thus managed, stool out and become enormous, two hills 
often producing a quart of fruit at a single picking. 

Whether the cultivation of the other summer fruits will prove equally 
successful requires longer experience to determine absolutely ; but if it 
should, the important question of where the supply is to come from for the 
millions of New York and other eastern cities is easily answered. The 
hundreds of thousands of acres of land hitherto considered barren, except 
as producing once in about twenty years a small crop of wood for the iron 
and glass manufactories, may become one of the greatest fruit and vege- 
table gardens in the w^orld. 

This region of country borders the Atlantic ocean, running east and west 
— triangular in shape, with a base of thirty or forty miles on the Delaware 
bay, and stretching to a point near Sandy Hook, and l3'ing in the counties 
of Monmouth, Ocean, Burlington, Atlantic, Cumberland and Cape May. 

So far as 3'our committee is able to judge from what we have seen or 
heard, nearh^ all this region is mucli alike — at least three-fourths of it as 
capable of improvement as the lands at Haramouton. Vineland, althouo-h 
but half the age, already"gives evidence that the land there is equally pro- 
ductive, and we heard similar accounts from Absecom, Egg Harbor City, 
Atsion, Manchester, Toms River, &c., &c. Even the swamps and morasses, 
hitherto abaiijdoned to a sparse growth of white cedar, have been so far 
tested in cranberry cultivation as to be proved valuable. This crop so far 
has been found very profitable. The soil at Hammonton and Vineland is 
about three or four inches deep — the surface in many places covered with 
a white drifting sand. The subsoil is a yellow sand mixed with clay of the 
same color; and without any hard pan or other stratum tenacious enough 
io prevent the sietiling downwar da of the rains or the upward circulation of 
moisture in dry weather, thus inswing in a great measure against drought. 

AVe have made no analysis of the soi^., nor did we feel that there was any 
eccasion — the strawberr}^ plants had done that to our full satisfaction. 
Liebig or Johnson need not go there for such a purpose. 

Although there are no hills in this country, neither did we observe dead 
levels or stagnant streams except as caused by mill pones. There are no 
rocks or stones for the plow to encounter, and it would be found impossible 
to find land more eas^' of cultivation. 

Every where, both at Hammonton and Vineland, we saw people setting 
out strawberry plants, and were told that this was done nearly all the year 

The natural growth of this whole country is pine and oak. 

In many places we saw tracts of land covered with pines about the size 


of ordinary telegraph poles, and conld distinctly see under, the liills where 
corn had grown — evidently abandoned plantations. 

The forest about Hammonton had been recently cut when it was first 
settled eight years ago, and much of this tract is still in what is called 
"The Brush." To clean this off and to take out the stumps cost from six- 
teen to thirty dollars per acre. Stump machines are sometimes used, but 
not "often. 

We were told that it was not uncommon to see an acre of ground cov- 
ered with this native brush one week, and the next set out with straw- 
berry plants. Where the stumps are not taken out at the first clearing it 
is found that the ph^w will tear them up in about- four years. 

We saw a farm near Hammonton of six hundred acres that could be pro- 
nounced a model, either grazing, hay, wheat or c:rn. Ashes from glass 
works, marl, some lime and the manures of the farm had all been used. It 
may be said that such manuring would m.ake a model farm almost any- 
where — possibly it would. But no model farms are made without manures. 
We saw also in the vicinity of Vineland a piece of land in the midst of 
surrounding desolation reclaimed in the same way, and producing heavy 
crops of turnips, cabbages and corn. 

Spots of the waste lands of Long Island have been made productive. 
The worn out and abandoned lands of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia 
have been reclaimed and made greatly productive by the use of lime, 
clover and manure, but these lands of New Jersey, even if naturally no 
better, possess an advantage by being so near to, and much of them under- 
laid by the green sand marl — that wonderful fertilizer that has worked such 
mighty changes in several of the counties of this state. This marl belt 
crosses New Jersey in nearly a similar direction as do these wild lands — 
running from Sandy Hook to the Delaware river, and comprehends about 
900 square miles or nearly 600,000 acres. 

The best of these marls — those from the Squankum pits for instance, 
have been found by analysis to contain all constituents and in the same 
proportion as the ashes of straw, thus proving its fertilizing power. 

The farming lands of New Jersey by the census of 1850 were found to 
be more valuable by seven dollars per acre than the farming lands of any 
other State in the Union. By the census of 1860 that disproportion was 
found to have been incrc^ased to more than twenty dollars per acre. 

This is partly owing to its lying so near to the two great markets of 
New York and Philadelphia, but chiefly to the increased productiveness of 
the land of several counties by the free use of marl. 


• For the transportation of marl and other manures — for the carrying to 
market the fruits and vegetables destined to be grown in such abundance 
in south and southwest Jersey — railroads, main lines, branches, and spurs, 
become a necessity. The question arises not only in this State but every 
where out of it, can the people have a free railroad system in New Jersey 
•where the Camden & Amboy compan}' have not only a monopoly of the trade 
between the cities of New York and Philadelphia, but have hitherto so 



controlled the legislative action as to prevent the chartering of roads in- 
other sections except as those roads should be in their interest and under 
their management? In other words, is New Jersey to continue to be the 
State of Camden and Amboy ? We answer: Let outsiders flock in and 
settle this whole region of country as they have settled Hammonton and 
Vineland — where rum is abolished, and Copperhead receives but one per 
centum of the votes, and that question will soon be settled forever. Rail- 
roads can then be made anywhere that the traveling public or the wants df 
agriculture may require them. 

At present the Raritan and Delaware Bay Railroad is equal to the wants 
of a large portion of this country. Branches and spurs for which charters 
have been procured are now being made or projected. 

In conclusion, we appeal to the owners of these wild lands of South 
Jersey to perfect their titles, and then at once imitate the examples of the 
proprietors of the Hammonton and Vineland tracts, sell out at the lowest 
rates consistent with a reasonable profit, to actual settlers, make liberal 
arrangements as to improvements so as to make each settlement tempting 
to sober, industrious men of moderate means. Give them good roads, 
.churches, school houses, post offices, stores, mechanics, &c., &c. Let it be 
understood that no outside fences will be required, and that rum will have' 
no rights that either white men or black men are bound to respect. 

In our travels through the wild portions of that strange country, we 
would occasionally encounter some of the old style Jersey wcod-choppers — 
men who have probably had an abiding faith in whiskey. They looked as 
Rip Van AVinkle was supposed to when awaking from his twenty years 
sleep, utterly bewildered at the new order of things that was coming upon 

We have heard of remarks made already, calculated to disparage this 
report, so that the information it is intended to give may not only be 
rendered useless, but that the disinterestedness of the committee will be 
called in question. To all this the chairman replies, that his home and 
business are a hundred miles away from the section of country here spoken 
of — that he is not interested directly or remotely one single dollar either in 
stocks or lands in all that part of the State, and that he believes the other 
members of the committee are equally disinterested. Our only object in 
making this trip, and reporting what we saw, has been for the good of 
agriculture — to be the instruments as far as we have the opportunity, of 
promoting the interests of both producers and consumers of human food. 
And we call on those who doubt, if their doubts are troublesome to them, 
to go and see for themselves, as we have done. 

Nov. 21, 1SG5. J. P. Trimble, Chairman. 

Solon Roblxson, 
John G. Bergen, 
A. M. Powell, 
P. T. Quinn, 
E. Williams. 

. Mr. Robinson moved that the report be accepted and the committee con- 
tinued, to make further examinations. 


Mr. Wm, S. Carpenter. — Before the report is accepted I hope some of the 
strong- points will be modified. It is stated tliat the land is the best 
adapted for fruit ; I have no doubt it is good for strawberries. I have 
heard that Hammonton was unhealthy. 

Mr. Solon Robinson said that if it was so people belied their looks very 
much. Here, is a Hammontouian; let him speak. 

Mr. S. B. Nichols said he w^as a Vernionter — that he went to Hammon- 
ton four or five years ago, because physicians advised a milder climate for 
his wife, who was supposed to be rapidly declining with consumption. 
As he could not go into the Rebel States, he sought a home at Hammonton, 
where his wife had rapidly recovered. Since I have been there, in a popula- 
tion of 4,000, we have had but 14 deaths, and but little sickness — of nostalgia, 
none. There, we are pursuing what has so truly been said of New Eng- 
land people — " they build school-houses and raise men, as a natural pro- 
duct of the country." In answer to the question of productiveness of 
strawberries, I will state that the last crop, with field culture, in patches 
of I to 3^ acres, to the number of 200 acres, averaged $400 per acre. 
The yield was 100 to 150 bushels per acre, and many lost for want of 
facilities to get them to market. I received $180 for the product of one- 
quarter acre, and $1,000 from only a partially saved crop of young vines 
upon eight acres. 

Dr. E. F. Peck then addressed the Club at great length about Long 
Island lands, which have always been called barren, which recent culti- 
vation has proved, may be as successfully farmed as those spoken of in 
Jersey, and of the great benefit that would result to this metropolis, if all 
these lands, which have been so long kept unproductive by persistent 
lying, could be made to produce such crops as those spoken of by the 
committee which visited West Jersey. Eighteen years ago a committee 
of this Institute reported equally' favorably upon Long Island, but the old 
settlers there are so determined to keep the center of the island as a 
hunting ground that they have in a great measure succeeded. 

Mr. John G. Bergen, — I see no reason why the Long Island wild lands 
should not be cultivated. I have seen good crops raised on these lands, 
but it requires an outlay to clear them and apply the necessary manure. 

On motion the report was then accepted, and the committee continued. 

Autumn in Iowa. 

Mr. John Wragg writes from Broome Post-Office, Dallas Co., Iowa: "It 
may be of interest to the Club to know that here, in DalUis county, 12 
miles due west from Des Moines, we escaped frost till Oct. 27, sweet 
potato vines being green up to that date. This is a good countr}^ for 
emigrants to settle in, but there is no Government land to be had here. 
Good wild prairie land can be bought from $i to $S per acre, and timber 
from $10 to $30. During a twelve years residence in Iowa, I never saw 
such good crops of all kinds as we had here this season. The best plan 
for .a new comer is to rent a farm for the first year (that is, if he has not 



much capital), so that he can make his own living, while he finds out more 
about the country than any one can tell him. 

*^ Scratches, I have just cured by first washing with soap-suds, and then 
with a strong solution of blue vitrol.'^ 

What shall I do with my Land. 

Mr. Matthew^ F. Newcomb, Brewer, Me., wants to know what he shall 
do with a piece of Michigan land of the following description: "It is 
mostly a sandy plain, rising gradually to about 20 or 30 feet, then, with 
rather a sudden roll, sinks to a swamp that has the appearance of being 
easily drained; the timber is scrub pine, oak, poplar and hemlock, low 
cedar in the swamp. Is such land worth the trouble of securing under 
the Homestead Act ? What is it best for ! Can an industrious man with 
a small, very small start, get his living on such a place ? The difficulty 
of finding tlie corners or lines, as this land was surveyed more than 30 
years ago, and has been slashed all through by lumber men, together with 
the expense of hiring pretended woodsmen to help me to look up land 
at from $5 to $10 per day, caused me to take it hap-hazard. If your 
opinion of such land is favorable, I shall move my family out in the spring. 
Your opinion will be a benefit to many, as there is much land of this 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — I am an old western pioneer, and am well 
acquainted with an abundance of just such land as the w^riter describes, 
and mj^ advice to him is, to let it alone. If it was given to him, give it to 
somebody else. If he has bought it "hap-hazard," follow the old proverb, 
which says: "If you bu}' the devil you may sell him again.'' While there is 
an abundance of good soil all over the Western States, there is no present 
necessity of occupying such land as 3Ir. N. describes. 

Interesting Collection of Grasses. 

Mr. James B. Olcott, East Greenwich, R. I., writes: "I send j'ou by ex- 
press, to-day, a box of live grasses, as follows: Two samples of Festuca 
pratensin; one sample of Timothy {Phleum pratensis)-, one sample of Red 
Top {Agrosiis vulgaris)] two samples of Foa pratensis, and one sample of 
Foa compressa; one sample of ' R. I. Bent.' 

" With the exception of the sample of Festuca pratensis, marked Xo. 1, 
these sods (they were mostly isolated plants) were taken from a gravel knoll, 
from which the soil had been entirely stripped, and which had been occu- 
pied by several compost heaps in four j'ears past, but is still unmistakably 
a gravel knoll. The withered appearance of the leaves is a memento of the 
August, September and October drouths. 

"I thought such samples might be of value in settling some mooted 
questions of identity, and perhaps assist the members of the Club in know- 
ing these grasses as they meet them in the fields. 

" I wish particularly to call the attention of the Club to the samples of 
R. I. Bent — a most valuable grass upon dry soil — for pasture, and as hay, 
second to none in quality. Mr. Flint saj^s it is identical with Agrosiis vaU 
garis. The samples of the two in dried grass grew upon the same square 


rod, under the same culture, I should judge, and the same remark is appli- 
cable to the green specimens. 

'* If Poa compresm is the real Kentucky Blue grass — which I tliink is 
still a question — it may be interesting to know that it is very common in New 
England, in old pastures and meadows, and is not sufficiently esteemed. I 
am sure there is no grass more relished by cattle and sheep. It will bear in 
this latitude the closest feeding, and springs up green after every rain, early 
or late. I do not agree with your Waj-ne county, Ohio, correspondent in his 
low estimate of June grass-, which I believe to be a most desirable grass 
anywhere for pasture, and for hay about the house (where it is desirable to 
mow earl}^ and have green grass after) it has no equal. When these grasses 
are known and appreciated, the two Poas and R. I. Bent, with white clover, 
perhaps, will form the standard mixture for a fine green pasture sod upon dry 
soils. You will find, as the gentleman from Wayne county observes, that the 
seed stalks of Poa compressa are still green, which, in consideration of the ex- 
cessive drouth upon the gravel it grew in, is remarkable. As I find it about 
here, it does not reacli a foot in height, but I have a sample from Mr. Doug- 
lass, the 'Rural' of the Chicago Times, which is two and a half feet in 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — I think there can be no mistake about the Poa 
comj:)ressa being the real Kentuck}" Blue grass. I have been extensively 
acquainted with it where it grows to the greatest perfection, and do not 
find as much difference in its appearance between Kentucky and Rhode 
Island as there would be in the appearance of the same variety of Indian 

Comparative Yalue of Fodder. 

A correspondent sends us the following table, made up from European 

experiments, to show the comparative value of different kincs of fodder, 

taking goo'd English hay (100 lbs.) as a standard: 


Clover in full bloom 90 

Clover before the blossom expands 88 

Clov6r, second crop 93 

Green clover 457 

Green Indian corn 275 

Dried stalks of Indian corn 400 

Cabbage leaves 541 

Indian corn 57 

Linseed cake 69 

Wheat bran 105 

Raw potatoes 201 

Carrots 276 

Turnips 504 

Mangel-wurzel 839 

Barley » 54 

Oats 59 

Buckwheat 64 

Oat straw 196 

Bye straw 442 

Millet straw 250 

Our correspondent wants information. He says: " These results are so 
different from the popular idea that I want the practical men of your Club 
to help me with their judgment of what I had best bu}^ by giving their 
estimates of the comparative value of hay, oats, corn, barley, and the lead- 
ing articles of feed on sale." 


'Mr. Solon Robinson. — My own opinion, based upon experience of many- 
years in the great corn region of the West, as well as in buying feed in 
New York city, is that nothing that we ever feed to cattle is more economi- 
cal than corn meal. Whatever the price of hay or other feed ma}'- be, corn, 
according to its value, is almost sure to sell lower than an^^ other sub- 
stance used for fodder. That being relied upon for the life-sustaining prin- 
ciple, it matters very little what may be used for filling up. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter fully concurred in this opinion. Last year, being 
able to sell his corn for $2 a bushel, he did so, and bought damaged flour 
at a low rate, to feed porkers; but found at killing time that he had made 
a bad bargain. Corn, at any price it ever sells at in this market, is com- 
paratively the cheapest food for cattle, sheep, hogs or horses. 

Pruning Pines. 

Mr. Amasa Edes, Newport, N. H., w^ants to know how much and when 
to prune young pines of one to six inches diameter. 

Mr.- Wm. S. Carpenter said they may be pruned at any period of the 
growing season. Pines bear the shears well from June to September. 


November 28, 1865. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ei-y in the chair; Mr. Johx W. Chambers, Secretary, 

Red Bud Tree. 

Mr. P. B. Hampton, Illipolis, Sangamon county, Illinois, sends seeds of 
this tree for distribution, 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter. — There are several varieties of this tree; it is the 
Judas tree, this is a red variet}^; there is also a white variety; they are 
rather ornamental. There is also a new variety lately introduced by Mr. 
Thomas Hogg, from Japan, said to be perfectly hardy. 

North Western Missouri. 

Mr. Chas. G. Comstock, Albany, Mo,, says: "North Western Missouri is 
one of the healthiest, best watered, and most fertile countries in the Uni- 
ted States. I have lived here since 1859; there is plenty of timber; land is 
cheap, from $2 to $15 per acre, some of it improved farms at that. The 
country' is good" for grain, grass and fruit, and is rapidly settling with 
emigrants, principally from Ohio. 

Information for Emigrants to Missouri. 

Mr. Solon Robinson said the letter I now read is from Boles, Franklin 
county, Missouri, but the writer wishes his name suppressed to avoid having 
to answer letters. It gives some information which may be valuable to 
those seeking homes in the west: 

" I came from the State of New York, and after trying the climate of 
Minnesota came to this State and county in search of a good fruit region. 
I was satisfied with appearances and moved here in May last, and now feel 


that I can give a trustworthy opinion concerning this neighborhood and 

" Franklin county joins St. Louis county on the west, and has the Mis- 
souri river for its northern boundary — it is large, being about the size of 
Rhode Island, and reaches to within 30 miles of St. Louis, which now con- 
tains about 200,000 inhabitants, and is a superior market for all that the 
farmer does or can raise. 

" The count j^ contains about 20,000 souls. 

" It is hilly but not an acre but what is susceptible of cultivation. Springs 
abound, almost every farm having one or more. 

" The soil is rich and deep, being a mixture of clay and "sand — it has a 
very delicate feeling and appearance when moist, and does not bake in the 
dryest weather. 

" Timber is superior — white and other oaks, hickory and black walnut, 
&;c., on the upland, with cottonwood, paw-paw, &c., on the Missouri and 
other bottoms. 

"The principal mill streams are the Merrimac and Barbos rivers. 

"Minerals, especially lead, abound, though very little attention has ever 
been paid to mining, though several are being successfully worked within 
a few miles of where I write. There are still Government lands subject 
to the homestead law, and railroad lands subject to entry at two dollars 
and a half an acre. 

" The main farm crop has always been tobacco, and lience many farms 
have been exhausted and need a different course. The very best of tobacco 
is raised here; select portions of several of my neighbors' crops sold last 
winter at five dollars a pound. 

" The great Pacific railroad runs from St. Louis to Kansas City and with 
the ' South Branch,' which leaves the main track at Franklin, gives the 
county 80 miles of railroad. Since the road was opened, a few weeks 
ago to Kansas City, the passenger trains consist generally of from six to 
eight cars. 

" Our station is Augusta, one and a half miles from me, and I can hear, 
as I write, steamboats on the Missouri, and the cars puff, whistle, ring and 
rumble, which makes this neighborhood pleasant, in addition to giving us 
the best of market facilities. 

" The great majority of the inhabitants in my neighborhood are from 
Virginia, and sympathized with the rebellion; but a more quiet, friendly, 
moral and religious people I never knew. 

" Emancipation is quietly accepted as a fixed fact, and farmers and land- 
owners are shaping things accordingly, by dividing and subdividing and 
selling lands and going into fruit-raising— for a better fruit country cannot 
be found, nor is there a better sheep and dairy country, as clover and all 
other grasses grow to perfection. 

"As to climate, health, market facilities, &c., &c., this country is pre- 

" The first frost this season was on October 27, except a very light one 
in places on the 15th. 


"Up to this time tiicre have been bnt three nights that made ice, twice 
one-eighth of an inch thick, and once one-half inch. 

"I have not seen a particle of snow yet (Nov. 13), and the roads are as 
dry and dusty as they were in the summer — the days are sunny and pleasant, 
and at this moment, 2 p. m., the mercury stands at 69^ Falirenheit. 

"Many settlers are coming into the State this fall, and next spring, we 
have reason to believe, there will be a great many more. Those that come 
first will fare best, as many of the farmers are disfranchised and wish to 
sell and go, but are not afraid to stay, and a firmer feeling is springing up 
and soon lands will be higher; now, improved farms are being offered 
about here, at from $15 to 840 an acre, and cheaper further from the river 
and railroad." 

Cheap Lands in New Hampshire. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — According to a letter from Mr. P. C. Shaw, Hill, 
N. H., the cheap lands are not all at the west. He describes a farm of 200 
acres i'n good condition, except buildings, for sale for $1,800, only five miles 
from three railroad stations. Another farm of 80 acres, with good build- 
ings, for $1,000. The location is healthy, and good for fruit, grass and 
oats, and great for potatoes. 

Mr. John G. Bergen — Since the Club has undertaken to collect and give 
trustworthy information to those desiring to find new homes, it should 
endeavor to be impartial, and give news of Missouri and New Hampshire 
as well as of New Jersey. 

A Farm Wanted — Where to Locate. 

Mr. Jarvis Jennings, Southport, Conn., exhibits the same desire that has 
animated a great many of the youth of New England for half a century. 
He wants to migrate to a country where there is more room. He wants to 
purchase, somewhere west of New England, a farm of 200 acres. He says: 
"I was brought up on a farm, and know how to do most kinds of f^rm 
work. At home I have not room; but, still, I hardly know where or in 
what direction to look." 

Mr. J. Suliot, Kent, Portage county, Ohio, makes the following inquiry 
in the same direction: " Have you or the Club any information to give 
about the late slave States as a field for northern emigration? Is thei'e any 
place in Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky or Tennessee where an anti-slavery 
man, a radical in religion and politics, might find congenial society, a 
healthy climate, cheap, fertile, well watered land, cleared ready for culti- 
vation, on which ho would be allowed to live without molestation ? I sup- 
pose there are colonies from, the north settling in the south, and forming 
pleasant neighborhoods, but I do not know of any. Information on these 
points would probably be acceptable to others as well as to me." 

Another correspondent writing from North Stonington, Conn., wants to 
know " whether 160 acres of land can be had under the Homestead law in 
the southern part of Iowa. If not in the southern part of the State, can 
land be had under the law in the northern and western tier of counties? 


Are there government lands in the northern part of Missouri, and in what 
counties? What objections are there, if any, to going to Iowa ? Which 
do you consider the better State to settle in, all things considered, Iowa or 

Mr. Solon Eobinson. — There are no advantages in one State over the 
other. Iowa is a little further south, but the difl'erence in climate is hardly 
perceptible. There are excellent Government lands in both States. There 
is but little in northern Missouri, but farms are to be had there cheaper 
than could be made of public land. AVe do not consider either State bet- 
ter — they are both good.* 

Capt. Milton P. Pierce read a most interesting paper upon this subject 
of where to locate. He gave a detail of his t^'avels through most of the 
northern and middle States, with a residence in several long enough to 
become acquainted with their character. Within a few weeks past, in 
company with an intelligent Massachusetts farmer, he has made an exten- 
sive trip through Delaware and eastern Maryland in search of cheap lands. 
The result of that search was that they found all the low-priced lands 
which liave been so extensively advertised throughout New England so 
situated as to be really undesirable. There was no objection to the soil, 
which varied from sandy to clay loam, sometimes underlaid with brick clay, 
and seems admirably adapted to the production of fruit, and exhibited some 
few fine peach orchards, though nearly all the land is devoted to the cul- 
tivation of wheat and corn. Most of the farms for sale have been miser- 
ably managed and are worn out. The ground is shallow-ploughed with 
small ono-fiorse plows, and if harrows are used, the}' are without iron teeth. 

Transportation is nearly all upon a rickety cart, drawn by one ox. The 
area of a field is not measured by the acre, but the number of cornhills it 
will contain; and the people know no such measure as a bushel of corn; 
the yield is measured by so many barrels, and so many hills to a barrel. 
The nearest estimate they could obtain of the yield of land was that it pro- 
duced " right smart." The houses are generally small and poor, and out- 
buildings rickety hovels. There is scarcely to be seen in the whole 
country any establishment that bears a favorable comparison with a New 
England farmery. In one case, adjoining Federalsburg, they found two 
farms thoroughly fenced and tilled, with buildings of modern style. One 
of these native Marylanders has recently traveled through New England, 
and has returned with a "live Yankee mechanic," erected a large building 
for manufacturing purposes, put in a large iron (turbine) water wheel, 
circular saws, turning-lathes, and the various paraphernalia of a New 
England workshop. And these were the only cases of the kind met with. 

And now in regard to the pWce of lands. The more desirable places 
which we found for sale could not be bought for less than from $50 to $100 
per acre, and additional for the crops just put in the ground, including the 
fertilizers used. For "right smart of farms" (from 50 to 100. acres), six 
to ten miles from post-office, schools or church, they asked from $20 to $40 
per acre, according to improvement. After leaving Delaware and Mary* 
land, the gentlemen made a thorough examination of south and west Jer- 
sey, and Capt. Pierce says: " In conclusion, I will give the following as my 


convictions, based npon the various facts stated, particularly a residence 
in different States, extensive travel, close observation and careful research. 
That of all sections of the country now open to enterprising settlers, I 
know of none which presents so many advantages as southern New Jer- 
sey. What tlie^e advantages are, j'our committee have already told the 

Corn Stalks for Milch Cows. 

Mr. Harvey Abbott, Charlestown, N. H., says: "Several of my neighbors 
say they are satisfied by experiments that green corn stalks tend to dry up 
cows. Pastures being short from drouth, they have been obliged to feed 
cows, and they give more milk when fed with dry hay than when fed with 
corn stalks. On the contrary, I have fed green corn with good results. I 
commenced in May to sow a little patch, and before July so\yed three or 
four more; so before July was gone I commenced feeding moderately, and 
increased as the pasture failed, until I gave my cow as much as I could 
conveniently carry, and the result was a good flow of milk, and with one 
cow we made butter enough for a family of seven or eight, beside using 
what milk and cream we needed." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — This has been the experience with several mem- 
bers of the Club, who never before heard' the question mooted, that such 
feed was not first rate for producing a large flow of milk and good yield of 

Borden's Extract of Beef. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — I have just received a letter from Gail Borden, 
with his regrets at his inability to be with the Club to-day according to 
promise, but he has sent a representative in the person of Mr. S. L. Goodale, 
who has long been known to the countr}^ as the Secretary of the Board of 
Agriculture of the State of Maine. And while he is preparing this extract 
so as to give every one present a taste, I will make a few remarks to give 
the Club some account of a product which Mr. Borden is about introducing 
to the public, for it is of great interest to producer and consumer. To the 
farmer, who lives remote from market, it is of great interest for him to 
know that all the most valuable portio'n of a bullock can be extracted near 
its home on the great Western pastures, and put into such a form that it 
will save all the waste and nearly all the weight of transportation to 
market. To the city consumer, and .above all the sick, this extract is of 
the utmost importance, for it insures the finest nutriment in the world, in 
the most health}^ condition, and concentrated form.. Ladies and gentlemen 
may see from these specimens that the extract is not gelatine, in the form 
of glue, for it is more like soft leather. Yet, in a little hot water, it readily 
dissolves into an almost clear liquid, which is palatable to all tastes, when 
seasoned to suit, and nutritious, stimulating and refreshing to a person, 
faint for want of sustenance. 

Now look at this little cake, jveighing only two ounces, yet it represents 
two and a half pounds of beef of the very best quality, for the bullock 
fresh from the pasture was killed and put into the great chemical retort 
before any process of deterioration could have possibly begun. In short, 
then, this is nothing more nor less than the juices of choice beef cooked in 


the most perfect manner, concentrated by evaporation in vacuo (without 
addition of salt or any condiments) into the smallest possible bulk, and 
comprises the nutritive value of 20 times its weight of fresh beef of the 
first qualit}^ 

Without the cattle fed upon the Western prairies this city could not 
enjoy its roast beef, steaks and soups. Without railroads how should we 
get the vast number received? — last year over 267,000 head. If they 
came on foot, they might be healthy, but the fine rich juices of the meat 
would be nearly all wasted upon the long march over plains and moun- 
tains. Upon railroads, do the^^ reach the city in a health}^ condition fit 
for human food ? Sometimes, and sometimes far from it. I have known 
droves arrive which had been five daj^s upon the cars ivUhoiit food or 
drink. Think of giving such food as such meat would make to a sick 
friend. Thanks to the inventive genius of Mr. Borden, we are not now 
obliged to go to the butcher and risk the purchase of wdiat would tend to 
kill sooner than cure, Avhen we need something peculiarly nourishing to 
the convalescent. Here it is. It comes from a great manufactory which 
Mr. Borden has established at Elgin, Illinois, 40 miles north-west of 
Chicago, where the extract is made from mature, healthy, grass and corn- 
fed bullocks. 

It may not be as well known to you, as it is to me, that beef fresh from 
prairie grass is the most delicious of any in the world, yet such a bullock 
transported to New York loses largely in weight, and almost inconceivably 
in quality. The fine aroma and the delicious nutritive juices obtained from 
the sweet prairie grass are all gone. You will find them all concentrated 
in this extract, which is not to be confounded with, nor mistaken for, any 
preparation of gelatine, made in Europe or this country, for there is noth- 
ing else like it. This is an American discovery, and a pure genuine 
American article. 

" Gelatine was formerly thought to be nutritious. This is an error. It 
has been ascertained that it is not capable of contributing to any of the 
requirements of the organism, but is excreted mainly by the kidneys very 
soon after its absorption into the blood. 

" B}'^ protracted boiling in water, the tendons, membranes and cartilages 
are converted into gelatine, and the same substance may be obtained in 
large quantities from bones, skin, hoofs, horns, etc. 

"Soups, properly made, consist of the juices of meat extracted by 
maceration v/ith hot water. If bones, cartilages and tendons, in large 
proportion, as is sometimes done, be added to the meat, and the boiling 
long continued, a soup is obtained, which, though it maj'^ appear substantial, 
is reall}^, in a great measure, devoid of nutritious qualities, consisting, as 
it must, chiefly of a solution of gelatine, which, alone, is incapable of 
supporting life. 

" Preeminent among stimulating, supporting and reconstructive aliments 
are the juices of good beef ; and this for the simple reason that they 
embrace those indispensable constituents of an animal organization which 
are, as it were, the fuel and the forces needful to keep up healthy vital 
action; and so they are able to contribute to the well-being of another 


animal organism in which the powers of life are more or less prostrated, 
by reason of the abstraction from it of these very elements in consequence 
of disease." 

This extract is a great improvement upon "meat biscuit," as originally 
made by Mr. Borden in Texas, w^hich "received the commendation of 
scientific and practical men, both in America and Europe, and to which, 
after full investigation by a committee consisting of Dr. Lyon Playfair, 
Prof. Solly and other celebrated men, was awarded the Great Council 
Medal (the highest award made in any case) at the International Exhibi- 
tion at London in 1851 — an honor shared only by three other contributors 
from the United States. The meat biscuit was used and highly commended 
by Dr. Kane in his Arctic Expedition, as well as by many others upon 
various expeditions, long voyages, overland journeys across the continent, 
and in hospital and household use." 

The tea prepared by Mr. Goodale was then passed around and tasted 
and approved by all present. 

Dr. J. Y. C. Smith, former Mayor of Boston, now Professor of Anatomy 
in this city, gave his experience at some length in the soldier's hospitals 
at the South with preparations of condensed food, made by various parties 
in the country who are anxious to introduce it into hospital use. He 
found generally that the patients relished the soups prepared from it once 
or twice, but soon tired, and none that he tried gave full satisfaction. For 
many purposes, such as traveling over deserts, condensed food is a 
necessity. He had found it so at one time, when for thirty days he was 
on camel back, but he became so tired of it that he thought he should 
prefer a soup made of bones which we throw away. He hopes this article 
will prove more valuable than anything which has preceded it, even 
Borden's meat biscuit, of which mention has been made, and which he is 
aware has been so serviceable to travelers. 

Mr. S. L. Goodale said this article differed materially from anything 
which has preceded it. Mr. Borden has been for twenty years earnestly 
endeavoring to produce something which would be highl}^ valuable for 
hospital purposes. He at length succeeded in producing the article before 
us about a year ago, and so far it has met the universal approbation of 
physicians. Beside the higher degree of concentration, this extract differs 
from the meat biscuit, as it contains no farinaceous constituent, and the 
flavor and essential qualities of the meat are more fully preserved. 

Professor S. R. Percy gave two cases in his practice w^iere this extract, 
used as a medicine, produced the most beneficial results. A gentleman 
who had been two weeks suffering with typhoid fever, had become very 
much reduced, when Dr. Percy was called in consultation. He found the 
patient in a very prostrate condition, with a rapid and feeble pulse, and a 
stomach so irritable that it rejected almost everything that was taken. At 
the first visit a perfect change in the diet was ordered. Borden's beef ex- 
tract alone was given in teaspoonful doses. Within four hours from the 
change of diet the pulse had become more quiet and fuller, the vomiting 
entirely ceased, and he slept quietl}^ No medicine was given for several 
days, but the beef extract alone was used. He recovered quickly. The 
[Am. Inst.] ' Q 


second case was that of an officer in the arm}^ who had served in the west 
and contracted miasmatic fever and dysentery of the very worst form. 
When Dr. Percy first saw him, he had been sufiering with this dysentery 
for about seven months, and was now entirely given over as incurable. A 
quantity of Mr. Borden's beef extract was obtained and fed to him in tea- 
spoonful doses every half hour. The Collinsonia ca?iac?e?isis was alone used 
as a medicine. A marked improvement was quickly seen, and on the 16th 
day he was able to be carried out of doors and walk up and down in the 
sunshine. For two weeks no food of an}^ description was givem to him but 
this beef extract. There is one peculiarity about the use of this extract 
with debilitated persons — its effects are always recognizable by the pulse, 
making it fuller and stronger; and this may be noticed within half an hour 
of its administration. He could say much on the use of this beef extract 
in cases of sickness, but would not occupy the time of others; the article 
was so good that it needed only to be used to recommend itself. 

Peach Tree Disease in Illinois. 

Dr. W. Matthews, Mason, 111., writes: "About six years ago the peach 
trees in this section of country began to be afiected with the curled leaf, 
and the disease m.ay be said to have steadily increased since its first ap- 
pearance. It is a singular fact, in connection with the disease here, that 
the seedling or native trees, usually considered hardier than the cultivated 
varieties, have sufl'ered very much worse than the budded ones. Indeed, 
many of the seedlings are dying out-right, while nearly all show unmis- 
takable signs of decay. Have the Club ever fully investigated this affec- 
tion, and has a trustworthy remedy been discovered ?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — There is no remedy for this peach tree disease. 
This statement upsets the theory that seedlings would be more healthy 
than grafted trees. 

Apple Trees in Illinois. 

Mr. P. B. Hampton, Sangamon county, 111., says: "xAny thick, rough 
bark seedling will do well and outlive all other kinds in this State. I 
know orchards that were planted out over thirty years ago with, say a 
dozen kinds, all mixed through the orchard; they all grew well, bearing 
the same, until they were some fifteen years old; then the summer varie- 
ties commenced dying out; next, the fall varieties, then the grafted winter 
varieties. But wherever you find a seedling, it is a healthy and vigorous 
grower and good bearer. Why this is so I am not able to tell, unless it is 
because of the thickness of the bark that serves as a shield from the cold, 
and thus saves the tree. It seems as though we are to be deprived of the 
better varieties in Central Illinois. The question is, had we best continue 
planting out the more popular kinds and let them die out and replant, or 
had we better cultivate seedlings only?" 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter. — I do not understand the meaning of seedlings 
in the same sense that Mr. Hampton conve^^s; if he means the com- 
mon crab, I have no doubt they would be hardier than the improved 

proceedings of the farmers' club. 259 

Charcoal for Orchards — Its Value. 

Mr. Gerard C. Brown, Crotoii Falls, N. Y., wants to know the value of 
charcoal dust, for apple trees. He says: "I have recently applied to a 
three-year old apple orchard of two hundred trees, fourteen barrels of 
braize or charcoal dust — two shovels full to a tree. What is the value 
of this, compared with wood or coal ashes ? Also the comparative value 
of muck or fine manure, with either of the above! "Would you recommend 
the latter to be applied to the surface under, or immediately around the 
trunk of the tree? The ground' is a rich, dry and loamy ridge, with au 
eastern slope. I also wish to know what you would recommend as a deo- 
dorizing agent, for a deposit of night soil, of 25 years' accumulation, and 
which I desire to make use of as a manure, for corn in the hill, next 
season, as well as to get rid of a noxious pest. Would coal dust, charcoal, 
or lime, answer the purpose ?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — The charcoal dust, which you have applied to the 
trees, with the smallest modicum of advantage — only so far as it contained 
ashes — would have completely deodorized your vault. Lime is not a deodo- 
rizer until it is converted into a chloride. This you may do by slacki;ig 
with water, saturated with salt, and exposure to the air. Add lime, thus 
slacked, to your muck, and it will decompose it, and then it will be an excel- 
lent thing to mix with and deodorize the contents of 3'our vault, and out of 
which you may make fifty loads of the richest manure. You may always 
spread manure upon the surface under young apple trees in any quantity 
and quality to good advantage, but most so, if you use it to produce clover, 
to rot on the ground. 

EENOVATiNa Old Orchards. 

Mr. Samuel W. Curtis, Stoughton, Mass., gives the following method of 
renovating old orchards : " Old apple trees, no matter how large or how 
old, if sound trunks, may be made very valuable by the following process: 
Begin by plowing in carefully a good dressing of manure, or enrich the 
soil in any other way, every year. Wash thoroughly, twice a year, as high 
up as any moss appears, with potash water, made by leaching ashes, or 
soft soap and water about one-half each. In July or August dig around 
each tree, so as to lay the roots bare near the tree, about two feet from the 
trunk ; saw or cut carefully the large roots entirely off, leaving so many 
as will barely support the tree in a wind. Cut off a piece of the root so as 
to be out of the way of the growth of new roots; cover over again with the 
rich earth. New, fine roots will immediately strike out. After two or 
three years, head in the top thoroughly, graft any tree that you may wish 
to change the fruit — in the meantime the new young roots will get firmly 
established, after which, the remaining old ones ma)^ be taken off in the 
same manner. These rules followed, and you will have trees of the vigor 
and health of young trees, and all the more valuable for their size and age. 
This the writer has proved by actual experiment. Trees of any size may 
be safely transplanted by first making new roots in this manner.'' 

Prof. Nash. — I desire to say a word upon the value of ashes. When I 
lived in Massachusetts, I estimated every bushel of wood ashes worth fifty 
cents, but I would sooner use them on my own land. 


Mr. John G. Bergen. — Their value depends entirely upon location and 
soil. Some Long Island farmers esteem them of great value, yet where I 
live upon the Island, and where I have always saved and used the ashes 
upon the farm, as my father did before me, I have never been able to see 
that they did any good. My soil varies from sandy to heavy clay, and as 
I have seen no good results, why should I buy and use ashes at the prices 

Prof. Nash. — I am glad these remarks have been made, the land of Mr. 
Bergen requires lime. Farmers in Connecticut used to send to the slopes 
of the Green Mountains and buy up the ashes, costing there twenty cents 
per bushel; when applied to their lands they were found very beneficial. 

Mr. S. Edwards Todd said he was opposed to root pruning, as he believed 
all the benefits, and more too, which were ascribed to it, could be obtained 
by under-draining. Upon a farm which he bought in Cayuga county he 
found the apple trees scrubby and unhealthy, although growing upon a 
piece of land which the former owner supposed could not possibly need 
underdraining. Mr. Todd drained it thoroughly, and the orchard was at 
once renovated and started into vigorous growth and fruitfulness. 


December 5, 1865. 
Prof. S. D. Tillman in the chair; Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretary. 

Seedling Apples. 

Mr. David Thompson, Green Island, near Troy, N. Y., presented six spe- 
cimens of seedling apples raised by him. The specimens were tested and 
pronounced very excellent apples. 

Protection Against the Codling Moth Apple Worm. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — I have to report that the committee appointed to 
examine what effect the hay rope around apple trees, as described by Dr. 
Trimble, has in protecting the apples from destruction by the apple worm, 
which disfigures and nearly ruins so much of our fruit, have made the ex- 
amination and are satisfied that the advantages claimed by Dr. Trimble 
are such as to make the plan worthy of trial by all fruit growers. 

We met upon the small fruit farm of Joseph Pierson, upon High street, 
in Newark, N. J., where Dr. Trimble has experimented for two years. 
There were present Mr. Pierson, Dr. Trimble, Col. Swords, Marcus L. Ward 
(Governor elect), Isaac Winans, Gen. Halstead (President New Jersey 
State Agricultural Society), P. T. Quinn, all residents of Newark; and John 
G. Bergen and Solon Robinson, New York. The Doctor removed a number 
of the hay bands, and excavated a groat many worms, which, upon leaving 
the apples, descend the tree until they find a convenient hiding place to 
lay up for the winter. The hay band affording the best shelter, the whole 
of the worms descending the tree take shelter here, instead of under scales 
of bark, where they usually hide, and here they are easily found and de- 
stroyed by hand; or, if the band should be removed, the worms would be 


likely to be all taken by the birds which hunt and eat them with avidity. 
The Doctor believes that perseverance with these hay bands will enable us 
to procure sound apples, and his arguments and exhibition appeared to be 
convincing to most of the gentlemen present, and the committee, therefore, 
commend all fruit growers to experiment upon this plan. The ropes may 
be wound twice around the boll of the tree, about midway between the 
ground and limbs, in June, any time before the first crop of worms are 
leaving the apples, and the3^ niay be removed any time before winter. 
About thirty of Mr. Pierson's trees had been treated, and some of them had 
been found to have 100 to 200 worms under the rope, so that many, if not 
all, can be thus destroyed. 

Mr. AVm. S. Carpenter objected to having the Club fully indorse the ha}-- 
rope plan as one that would speedily rid us of the apple worms; because, 
by Dr. Trimble's own showing, the highest number of worms ever entrap- 
ped upon one tree was 240, when it was certain that there were frequently 
ten times that number upon one tree. He has, however, no objection to 
any one's trying experiments with this kind of a worm trap. 

Boiling Corn for Hog Feed. 

Mr. Charles Thorn, Sandy Lake, Mercer county. Pa., asks the following 
questions: " Is there any advantage in boiling corn in tbe ear for hog 
feed? Ail agree, I believe, in the advantage of cooked food; but shelling 
the corn' is quite a job, especially by hand, and if ground you lose one-tenth 
in toll. In boiling corn in the ear, is there any of the strength absorbed 
into the cob? I have noticed that in feeding raw corn, whole grains are 
found in the excrement; when boiled, none are found." 

He is answered that there is a decided advantage in cooking corn in this 
way. Boiling upon the ear does not absorb any of the strength of the 
grain. But after all it is a mere question of expediency, dependent upon 
circumstances affecting each individual and locality, whether cooking or 
grinding corn is advisable. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Mr. D. A. Lillie, Kane county. 111., in a recent 
number of The Prairie Farmer, answers the question: '' ' How much pork 
from a bushel of corn?' A series of carefully conducted experiments have 
established the following rule upon this subject. A bushel of good, raw, 
unground dry corn, fed to a middling good breed, in comfortable quarters 
without much sun, and not allowed to root, and before cold weather, will 
produce ten pounds of pork, and if the breed is very good, fifteen. The 
same amount of fermented corn meal, one-half more, and if cooked also, 
about three-fourths more than the first named. Hence it is easy to find 
how much pork should bring to correspond with the price of corn. Take, 
for instance, raw corn, the most common way it is fed; pork at five cents 
per pound is equal to corn at fifty cents per bushel, and so on, above or 
below, in the same ratio. The good of our farms and pockets demand that 
we sell our oats and corn in beef, mutton, pork, butter, cheese and wool." 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter. — I think this estimate too hio-h for this resrion 
My opinion is, that we cannot depend upon more than eight pounds of pork 
to a bushel of corn, and that it pays to grind and cook. I approve of boil- 


ing upon the cob, and do not believe that it absorbs any strength of the 

Ml'. Hines, Marion county, Ind., said his experience was against cooking 
in that section where corn is only 35 cents a bushel. In winter the boiled 
ears freeze, and the hogs waste more than of raw corn, and thus over- 
balance all advantage of cooking. 

Selecting Seed Corn. 

Mr. Robert Anderson, Crosscreek village, Washington county^ Pa., 
urges farmers to more care in selecting seed corn, taking the very best 
ears, and none which are not perfectly sound. The best time is before the 
crop is gathered, selecting in the field. Store the ears in a dry, open, airy 
place; before planting select again, so as to be sure all the seed is perfect. 

Fish Guano. 

Mr. Thomas J. Edge, Jjondongrove, Chester county. Pa., wants informa- 
tion about fish guano, how and where it is manufactured. 

" I hold a farm of 115 acres, under a lease of 28 years' duration, upon the 
English system, and for several years have been applying pure raw bone- 
dust, at the rate of from 800 to 1,000 lbs. per acre. I do not wish to go 
over the same ground again with bone-dust, but would prefer some lower 
priced manure, more rapid in its action, which I could apply at the rate of 
1,800 to 2,000 lbs. per acre, say at the rate of $30 per acre. If thee knows 
of any manure of this description likely to suit my purpose, I would be 
glad to have it recommended, I am about 40 miles from Philadelphia, in 
a southwest direction, and of course the nearer it can be obtained to the 
latter place, the better for me." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — We cannot answer the above question further than 
by saying that it is manufactured in Rhode Island, Long Island, and on 
the coast of New Jersey. I doubt whether there is anything cheaper or 
better than bone-dust, if he will use that made by the Boston Milling and 
Manufacturing Company, and which is in reality dust of bone. 

Laying Tile Drains. 

Mr. D. W. Mapes, Adrian, Lenoir county, Michigan, wants information 
about laying tile drains. 

" Will it answer to have the outlet in a ditch which is flooded in high 
water? In laying drains through basins, how are we to determine the 
proper fall, and how much per rod is the least that will answer ?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — In a perfectly constructed drain one-half inch to 
the rod, has been found sufficient for the purpose. But in ordinary farm 
drainage, we would advise two inches to the rod rather than less. In 
passing a basin, for a short distance the tiles may be laid nearly level, but 
in no circumstance must they make a bend below the line of inclination. 
Practical operators in draining consider a fall of four inches in one hun- 
dred feet the least that can possibly be adopted with safety. No farmer 
should undertake to drain a field without having it first surveyed and the 
grades established by a practical engineer. 

proceedings of the faemers' club. 263 

Renovating Old Orchards. 

Mr. John N. Abell, Hebron, Tolland county, Conn., says that unless 
somethiijg- can soon be done to renovate his orchard, it will soon lose its 
character as the best bearing one in town. 

" As I cannot plow under all my trees, would ashes be of any benefit 
applied to the sward? Would horse-manure, larg'ely intermixed with hog-. 
hay, be beneficial, spread over the surface before cold weather? Do you 
really mean to be understood as recommending- leached ashes in preference 
to unleached ? As I should infer from your remark, that ashes from the 
ashery are more efficacious, as they have been longer exposed to the 
weather. If so, then you would recommend me to leach the ashes which I 
have procured, and apply the ley to the bodies and large limbs, would you 
not? I have commenced scraping the trees and applying strong suds, 
spading up the earth underneath. Some of them I have overspread with 
manure from the barn-yard, and with a coating of ashes on the top. Should 
these be applied together or separately? To others I have applied a mix- 
ture of air-slacked lime and ashes unleached, about a bushel and a half to a 
tree. Others I have saturated tlie soil with the contents of the privy, 
diluted with the urine of the house. One small orchard I have yarded my 
cattle therein some time, and design plowing and planting with potatoes 
next summer. In fact, it is my intention to plow the ground under the 
most of my trees, manure with ashes, and plant with potatoes to keep the 
ground loose and mellow during the summer. Please give me your views 
of my plans and practice, and also whether it would be economy to procure 
ashes, when they can be purchased for 17 cents per bushel, to renovate a 
piece of moist ground; I mean moist, in distinction from a dry, sandy soil, 
no running or standing water being therein, and easily worked with the 
hoe and plow. People of extensive e:»perience tell me that ashes will not 
pay where the soil is moist. My health is poor, and I am without means 
to try experiments which I know are the most satisfactory." 

Mr. Solon Eobinson. — The brief answers to these inquiries are that 
ashes would be likely to benefit the sward more than the trees. The horse 
manure and bog hay used as a mulch would be beneficial. If used heavy 
enough to kill the sod all the better. Manure made of bog hay is nearly 
worthless. Many persons think old leached ashes worth more than 
unleached. There is nothing better for unhealthy trees than a wash of 
ley. Scraping the trees is beneficial, but in applying suds, one drop of 
water to a bucket of soap is sufficient. Spreading barn-yard manure is 
beneficial — coating it with ashes is not. Lime and ashes may be mixed, 
both are good; so are the privy contents. Yarding the cattle, plowing 
the ground, and planting the orchard with potatoes, is a course which we 
think all persons will commend. Ashes upon moist soil do not generally 
prove of much value. 

Fur Skins — How to Dress. 

Samuel Read, a farmer's boy, Bordentown, N. J., inquires : " Can you 
tell me the way to tan small animals' skins with the fur on, such as coon 
and mink, suitable for making caps, gloves and robes. I think I could 


get enough to make a nice robe if I knew how to tan them myself. By 
answering the above you would not only oblige me but some other farmer's 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Dressing skins with the fur on is a simple process. 
Carefully avoid getting blood or dirt upon the fur before and while skinning 
the animal. Then stretch the skin tightly upon a board, and scrape with 
a dull knife until you remove all the flesh. Mix two quarts of milk, a 
teacupfull of salt and half an ounce of oil of vitriol. Warm this mixture 
to somewhat more than blood heat, but not scalding, and soak the skin in 
it 40 minutes, stirring and squeezing it in the warm liquid. Press out the 
liquid and let the skin dry a short time, and then commence rubbing the 
flesh side with all your strength across the smooth edge of a board. 
Continue this work until the pelt is entirely dry. 

Another process is to cover the flesh side of the skins when first taken 
off with powerful alum and salt in equal quantities, which may remain 
from one to four days, and then be washed off in warm soap-suds, partially 
dried, and afterward rubbed until thoroughly so. In rubbing dry you may 
use powdered chalk, and afterward sprinkle with powdered alum, and fold 
up for a few days, when the skin will be thoroughly cured and very soft. 

For making glove leather, the hair must be first removed by lime or ley 
upon the flesh side, then thoroughly wash in soap-suds, and afterward soak 
several days in a paste made of brains; then rub dry, and cure by smoking 
moderately for a week in a cool place. This will give the fine, soft durable 
Indian moccasin leather. (See Am. Inst. Tr. for 1864, pp. 366, 383, 390.) 

Grapevines upon Trees. 

Mr. J. B. Garher, Columbia, Pa. — In a late report of the Club, I observe 
some remarks of training grapevines upon trees. " I have seen an Isabella 
vine, running over three large apple trees, that stood 32 feet apart, the 
branches of the trees interlocking and the vine binding the tops and 
spreading over all. The vine bore immense quantities of very fine grapes 
every year, and was in no danger of being robbed, as the longest ladder 
could not reach the fruit, hanging in tempting clusters all through and out- 
side the branches of the apple trees — food for birds. And beside, to train 
the vines so high up over trees will require almost a life time. That plan 
won't suit me, and I prefer to stick to ray old plan of grafting new varieties 
on strong roots, and the next year eat the fruit, Now it is generally 
recommended by writers on the vine to plant on dry hill-sides, to trench 
or sub-»oil and uuderdrain, with thorough cultivation; some advising high 
manuring, others no manure; but all seem to think a dry sub-soil requisite, 
pruning scientifically, pinching, &c., &c. 'When doctors disagree, &c.,' 
how are we novices to know which plan to adopt ? This last seasou I 
have examined many grapevines, and some vineyards through York, Lan- 
caster, Lebanon and Chester counties, in this State — in all kinds of soils, 
exposures and various modes of treatment; on deeply trenched ground, on 
simply spaded, and on ground hot cultivated, yet almost everywhere the 
same complaint — mildew, rot, &c. It appeared to be the general opinion 
that there was too much wet, bringing on the mildew, checking circula- 


tion, thus causing the leaves to drop, and as a consequence the fruit did 
not mature. At one place I saw 300 Delaware vines that had been planted 
some four or five years; they were extra large vines when planted, and 
cost 8400 the lot. The ground is a micaceous loam, descending slightly 
southward. It was trenched three feet deep at an expense of 860 per 
acre; the soil kept in the highest state of cultivation, and this last season, . 
when tons of truit were looked for, I venture to say not 10 pounds of 
perfect bunches could be found on the whole patch. The leaves had all 
dropped by the middle of August. 

" As they made no new wood, the owner intends to cut them at the ground 
and make a fresh start. I think he had better dig them out, root and 
branch. Everywhere the Delaware appears to have mildewed worse than 
any other variety. If this continues another season it will be discarded as 
an exotic. Generally, grapes are supposed to succeed best in dry seasons. 
During this, with me, wet season, when grapes were ruined by mildew 
upon dry ground, I have seen the finest, largest bunches and berries from 
vines of Isabella, Catawba and Concord, the roots of which were growing 
in water. A gentleman, not far from me, has quite a number of grape- 
vines planted around his spring-house, and along a small stream of water; 
some are surrounded with water, and all are on ground where the water 
is within a foot of the surface. Healthier and more thrifty vines I have 
not seen anywhere; the fruit all perfect, and ripe two weeks before others 
on drier ground, the leaves remaining healthy and on the vines till the 
frost took them off. Perhaps this is on the principle that when a thirsty 
man gets wet outside he takes something inside to counteract the outside 

"Here there was no trenching, subsoiling nor under-draining, no, not 
even cultivation! The ground is covered with a sod, which is mowed off 
two or three times duriuo- the season: the vines are onlv occasionally 
pruned, when the mass of wood becomes too thick. Digging holes to stick 
in the plants, and putting up a trellis eight or nine feet high for them to 
climb up on, is about all the treatment they get, and nature does the rest. 

" The soil is a slaty, sandy, stony and rock}' conglomeration of debris, 
very little true ground, and has not been disturbed for 50 years, if ever. 
The vines have been planted, some perhaps twenty years, and some later. 

" M}' own vines, of many varieties, are growing on a limestone soil, good 
corn ground, subsoil yellow clay, beneath which are limestone rocks. Part 
has been trenched and part only spaded. There is no difference in the 
growth of the vines or ripening of the fruit. ^Yhen we have a " dry spell" 
during Juh' and August, m}' grapes do well, but when these months are 
wet, then mildew injures them sadly." 

Preserving Eggs. 

Mr. W. M. Brown, Brownsburg, Ind., "wants to know if there is any 
way to pack eggs so as to keep them good from spring until the winter 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — There are various modes of keeping eggs, none of 
which are quite successful. Sometimes eggs packed in water saturated 


with lime keep perfect!}^ well, and sometimes they don't. Some persons 
say tliey can keep them in water saturated with salt; others keep them 
packed in fine dry salt; others in charcoal dust. If packed in sand and 
kept in a very cool cellar, they will remain through the year. They should 
always be packed small end ud. The best way to preserve eggs is to 
store them in one of Professor Nyce's preservatories. 

Prof. Smith, Columbia College, said that the common way of preserving- 
eggs in the north of Europe, and which appeared to be more effectual than 
any other mode he had ever seen, was this: The eggs are placed in a bar- 
rel, keg, earthern jar, or any other suitable vessel, and then melted tallow, 
only just warm enough to flow, is poured in, filling all the interstices, and 
thus hermetically sealing the eggs from the air, which appears to be all 
that is necessary for their perfect preservation. When wanted for use 
they are easily obtained by warming the open end of the vessel to soften 
the tallow. 

The Secretary. — Take 1 quart of fresh slacked lime, 1 quart of salt and 
1 oz. of cream of tartar, make a solution to bear an Qgg, in which place 
your eggs. They will keep good for a year. 

Mr, S. Carpenter said he had found no difiiculty in preserving eggs in 
fine dry salt. He packs them endwise, and about once a month reverses 
the ends of the cask, or rather box, v\^ith straight sides, so that a board 
and cloth or paper fits down and holds the contents in place when reversed. 

Prof, Tillman gave it as his opinion that anything which would exclude 
air would preserve eggs. Recent experiments in France have developed 
the fact, that varnishing the shell destroys the value of the eg^ for incu- 

Mr. E. Williams said he had seen eggs perfectly preserved by packing 
in meal. 

Seeds and Plants by Mail. 

Mr. E. Williams, Montclair, N. J., gave several statements of the great 
benefit to farmers of the present postage law, which allows sending pack- 
ages by mail, not exceeding four pounds weight, at a cost of only eight 
cents a pound. He sent three packages (twelve pounds) of potatoes to A. 
E. Treadway, Havre de Grace, Md., which, ''notwithstanding the drouth," 
Mr. T. says, " gave me of the Coppermine 41 pounds; Rustycoat, 50 pounds; 
Cusco White, 79 pounds — 5J bushels from the 12 pounds of seed sent me 
by mail last spring. 


Mr. John M, Staples, Newtown, Bucks count}^, Pa,, wants to know how 
to build a cistern and how to filter the water. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — If the ground is solid enough for the sides of the 
excavation to stand, dig it smooth and plaster the sides and bottom with 
three successive coats of Rosendale cement, so as to have the plaster one 
inch thick. Build an eight-inch wall of brick across the center, using bricks 
which are burnt hard enough not to dissolve in water, and not so hard as 
to be glazed. Let the water in upon one side, and it will percolate through 
this wall filter into the other side, from which you will pump it for use. A 


circular cistern, eight feet across and eight feet deep, receiving the water 
from the roof of an ordinary "sized dwelling house, will always afford an 
ample supply for family use. If possible, we should prefer to have it 
arched over with brick. 


Mr. "Wm. R. Prince, Flushing, L. I. — I send to the Club some cuttings 
of the Crevelling or Catawissa grape, for distribution. In March, 1862, I 
described this variet}^ and urged the importance of its cultivation. I 
planted five hundred vines myself. I notice by the recent proceedings of 
the Fruit Growers' Society that at last some others have discovered its 
merits. It is a vine of exceeding hardihood and great vigor, producing 
most abundant crops. It is the earliest ripening grape, good for the table 
and the market. It precedes both the Adirondac and the Israella, and will 
prove itself to possess qualities superior to either of them. The berry is a 
large ovaL of the same color as the Isabella, very sweet and of excellent 
flavor, and free from all the mustiness of the Hartford Prolific and some 
others. The clusters are large, well formed and handsome, similar in size 
to those of the Isabella; sufficiently compact, hang permanently and never 
drop, as the Hartford Prolific, Northern Muscadine, and some others do. 
"When detached, the berry is red, whereas that of the Isabella is white, 
which distinction, as well as its very earl\- maturity, will guard against 
deception. So much for this grape, Avhich will prove a most estimable one 
for wine as well as for the table. 

Now I will add a few words on other subjects. I sent j'ou, some weeks 
ago, 2,400 assorted bulbous roots for distribution. I send you to-day 100 
tuberous roots of the American Dioscorea, a very hearty and most vigorous 
climber for trellises aud walls, with beautiful foliage. It will form a dense 
covering to the height of ten feet, and the rpots will increase and spread 
rapidly, I also send you two hundred tubers of the Chinese Dioscorea, or 
Chinese j'am, which is also a vigorous climber, or may be allowed to trail 
on the earth like the sweet potato, which jon are aware is an Ipomea. The 
Chinese species produce blossoms of an exquisite aromatic odor. 

Sulphur for Mildew on Grapevines. 

Mr. W. Pi. Prince. — I observe that sulphur is highly recommended for 
the cure or prevention of mildew on the grapevines. As long ago as 
1830, my father published a treatise on the vine, in which he recommends 
the use of sulphur. I will read the extract for the benefit of those whose 
vines are suffering from this malady. 

"Much discussion has arisen as to the point whether this substance is of 
an animal or vegetable nature, but be it plant or animal, certain it is, that 
sulphur alone or a solution of sulphur or lime will totally suppress it. The 
first mode adopted in using the sulphur, was to apply it in a powdered 
state to the bunches of fruit when they were wet, so that the moisture 
might cause it to adhere. This was found a perfect remedy for the mildew 
or mould, without any ill effect whatever being produced on the grapes. 
The same application to the leaves of the plant, if not absolutely successful, 


is a very great check to the prevalence of the insects which infest the foli- 
age. The sulphur should be shaken over the leaves while the}'' are in a 
moist state, and if not fatal to the insects the first time, this ought to be 
repeated. The effect seems to be to render the leaf less palatable to them, 
the expense is trifling, apd the labor small in comparison to the value of 
the fruit. The introduction of the use of sulphur may be considered as 
forming a new era among us in the cultivation of foreign grapes; but of all 
the means that have been tested for the suppression of the mildew, the 
following has proved the most successful, and in fact renders ns completely 
master of its effects in so much that it can never hereafter be deemed a 
preventive to successful culture. Take a pint and a half of sulphur, and a 
lump of the best unslacked lime of the size of the fist, put these in a vessel 
of about seven gallons measurement, let the sulphur be thrown in first and 
the lime over it, next pour in a pail of boiling water, stir it well, and let it 
stand half an hour; then fill the vessel with cold water, and after stirring 
well again, allow the whole to settle. After it has become settled, dip out 
the clear liquid into a barrel, and fill the barrel with cold water, and it is 
then fit for use. You next proceed with a syringe holding about a pint and a 
half, and throw the liquid with it on the vines in every direction so as to 
cover completely foliage, fruit and wood; this should be particularly done 
when the fruit is just forming, and about one- third the size of a pea, and 
may be continued twice or thrice a week for two or three weeks; the period 
for the whole process for one or two hundred grape vines need not exceed 
half an hour. So all powerful is the influence of this application, that 
even at Newport, R. I., where it is well known the atmosphere is exceed- 
ing moist and often surcharged with fogs, the most eminent success has 
attended its use; whereas those who omitted there have wholly failed in 
obtaining crops on account of the superabundance of mildew, which even 
extended its influence to the vines of the Isabella and other native grapes." 

December 12, 1865. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ely in the chair; Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretary. 

Potato Culture. 

Dr. Wm. A. Harrison, Philadelphia, Pa., read the following valuable 
paper detailing his experience in potato growing: 

"The following paper on the culture of the potato is respectfully sub- 
mitted for the information, as well as the criticism of the intelligent gen- 
tlemen composing your association. The method I have pursued the pre- 
sent season is, as a whole, in direct opposition to that practiced and ap- 
proved in this section, and, in many of its features, is the reverse of the 
traditional systems of the whole country. It was adopted from a convic- 
tion that the degeneracy in the quality and productiveness of the potato, 
and its increasing tendency to disease, especially in the older varieties, are 
due, not to an inherent, inevitable process of deterioration, decrepitude and 
decay, but to the erronepus — I may say vicious — modes of culture and cul- 
tivation, so long prevalent. The worst features of the common system of 


cultivation are: 1. The use of small or half grown tubers for seed; 2. Cut- 
ting the tubers, whether large or small; 3. The employment of fresh or 
fermentable animal manure. To these I attribute the failures as to quality, 
health and productiveness, so commonly charged to the soil, the seasons, 
and the so-called 'running out' of varieties. 

Deeply impressed with these views, founded upon much personal experi- 
ment, the fragmentary experience of others, and large individual observa- 
tion, I laid down and put in practice the following rules and methods: 

1. In late autumn, plowed deeply and subsoiled. 

2. In early spring, plowed and subsoiled across the winter furrows, har- 
rowed and rolled. 

3. Marked out, as for corn, three feet equi-distant, opening the fwrrows 
eight inches deep. 

4. At the intersection dropped a whole potato, the largest I could procure 
of each variety, and spread upon it a handful (40 bushels to the acre) of a 
compost of eight parts oak wood ashes, four parts fine ground plaster, two 
parts fine shell lime, and one part salt, as recommended, many years since, 
in the American Farmer's Magazine. The cost of this application was $8 
per acre. Then covered and rolled, and spread 1,000 pound per acre of 
artificial fertilizer at a cost of $25 per acre, the soil being extremely poor. 

5. As soon as the young plants appeared, run the cultivator close to, and 
between, but not over them, in each direction. Afterward, before the weeds 
came up, cultivated both w^ays with Knox's horse hoe — so arranged as to 
leave the surface entirely flat — and as shallow as possible. Repeated this 
at short intervals three times, and then hand-hoed thrice also, still main- 
taining a flat surface. No hilling was allowed at any stage of the process, 
nor any weeds permitted to grow. 

6. Dug in clear, dry weather, as soon as the tops were dead, with heavy, 
five-tined digging forks; spread under cover to dry, and stored in a cool, 
dark, dr^'', airy cellar, sprinkling one pint of freshly slacked lime, in pow- 
der, on each bushel of potatoes. 

*Z. Gathered and composted the haulm for application next autumn; then 
plowed as before for a winter fallow. The ground occupied is a high 
upland, sloping gently to the southeast. Tiie soil is a heavy clay -loam, 
with much micaceous debris, or ' rotten rock,' as it is here called, inter- 
mixed, and is quite stony. It had been completely exhausted of vegetable 
fiber, by many years of penurious culture; that portion on which the first 
plantings of the early varieties were made, was especially chosen as the 
most impoverished of all, in order to test the capabilities of the different 
sorts under the most unpromising conditions. On this part of the field corn, 
peas and turnips had all utterly failed the previous season. It is, there- 
fore, only the relative, and not the possible or even average productiveness 
which is shown in the subjoined tables. The earliness, also, of the crop, 
was most certainly affected unfavorably by the want of nutritious vegeta- 
ble fiber in the soil. 

A portion of one field was top dressed late in June, with 200 pounds per 
acre of a mixture of two parts sulphate of soda and one part nitrate of 
soda. Although applied too late to give its full effect, it caused an aver- 


age increase, in the most productive varieties, of about 36 bushels per acre. 
Another addition I would recommend and shall use, next year, in connec- 
tion with the ash compost, is acid bone phosphate, an excellent specific 
for the grub. 

Except the Early Stevens, which was dug as soon as full grown, for 
family use, none were harvested until the vines were dead, and the roots 
thoroughly ripe. It will be observed that the Early Goodrich, planted 
late, matured in less time than the early plantings, yet the actual date of 
ripening is in favor of the latter. Fine, large tubers of this variety were 
dug, for the table, the first week in July; this, too, on a soil essentially 
late in character. 

^ "S 'B i „, 'S i-^ 

Kinds Planted. <„ ^'^ °i ^1 c9 <^ ^ ' ^-^ 'ZP "S ^ 

^ A ^f. .S ^ ^iS M . 03 

- ^ bC_, CO;:-' r^C, —s "^O 

Mar. Aug. 

Early Goodrich, large 28 30 6 137 12 192 6.4 162 

Early Goodrich, medium 28 16 3.2 139 14 163 10. 147 

Early Goodrich, small 28 13 2.6 140 15 157 12. 144 

Seedling Mercer 28 18^ 3.6 146 21 171 9.4 153 


Monitor 28 23^ 4.6 163 7 245 10.5 222 

Apl. July 

Early Stevens 3 11^ 2.3 dug 24 81 7. 70 


Buckeve 3 26i 5.2 154 4 165 6.5 139 

Jackson White 3 16^ 3.2 355 5 195 ,12. 179 

Early AVendell 3 12 2.4 157 7 90 7.5 78 

Dalmahoy 4 9^ 1.8 161 11 186 20.5 177 

Garnet Chili 4 31^ 6.1 162 12 129 4.1 98 

Bluecoat 4 15| 3.1 162 12 86 5.5 70 


Early Goodrich 14 18| 3.7 128 20 234 12.5 216 

Goodrich No. 380 15 22 4.4 115 8 181 8.2 159 


Goodrich No. 241 15 17| 3.5 140 2 179 10. 161 

Harrison 15 25| 5.1 144 6 305 12. 280 

Goodrich Calico 29 21 4.2 139 15 170 8.1 149 

Gleason 29 22 4.4 139 15 151 7. 129 

Cuzco 29 254 5.1 139 15 225 9. 200 


Cuzco 5 25 5. 136 18 262 10.5 237 

Snowball 18 20J 4.1 120 15 171 .8.3 150 

The Seedling Mercer and Buckeye were much affected by the scab, the 
Jackson White and Bluecoat quite knobby, and the Early Stevens and 
Dalmahoy, though fair and good, were of small size. All the rest were of 
good size, appearance and quality. The Monitor was very large, 50 roots 
often weighing 60 pounds, yet solid, white and mealy when cooked. 

The late planted Early Goodrich and Cuzco were on better soil than the 
early ones. I made no experiments this season on the relative value of 
whole and cut potatoes, as the results of very careful trials in previous 
years had entirely convinced me of the superiority, in every respect, of 
the large over the small, and of the whole over the cut potato, for seed. If 
compelled to make the choice, I should certainly prefer a small, whole 
tuber to a set, of the same size, cut from a large one. 

An elaborate series of experiments was made in 1851 on the farm of the 
N. A. Phalanx, Monmouth Co., N. J., and admirably reported, with all the 
minutise, in the Working Farmer, Vol. 6, page 274, from which I extract 
the following leading items, omitting fractions. 


Description of Seed Planted. u.^ ^"5 "B w t,^ 

M S>^ 

02 K-" K" ^ 

Whole potato, large size 39 223 184 100 

Half potato, large size 21 156 135 73 

Quarter potato, large size 9 123 114 62 

Whole potato, medium size 24 189 165 90 

Half potato, medium size 12 112 100 55 

Quarter potato, medium size 5 86 * 81 44 

Whole potato, small size 12 146 134 73 

Half potato, small size 8 106 98 54 

The variety was the Mercer, planted 18 inches apart, in rows three feet 
apart, manured with marl and barn compost. As in all my own experi- 
ments, the small seed and sets produced a large proportion of small, un- 
marketable potatoes. 

Mr. George Maw has given, within the year, in the Gardener^s Chronicle, 
of London, the results of trials with 8 oz., 4 oz., and 2 oz. potato sets, 
showing the decided superiority' of the former. 

The present season, also, Mr. David Landreth of Philadelphia, whose 
reputation as a seedsman is w^orld-wide, reports, in his Rural Register^ on 
some experiments made at his farm of Bloomsdale, as follows: 

" In each case the same measure of seed was used, and the quantity of 
ground and the quantity and quality of manure were exactly identical." 

" From a given amount of large potatoes, planted ichole, the j^ieid was 
211 pounds; lar'ge potatoes, planted cut, the yield was 156 pounds; medium 
potatoes, planted ichole, the yield was 192 pounds ; medium potatoes, 
planted cut, the yield was 127 pounds." 

The variety planted was the Peach Blow. 

Feargus O'Connor, in his truly valuable little work on The Management 
of Small Farms, after relating his experience in planting cut potatoes, and 
how he first came to plant whole ones, says: 

"From that day to the present I have never planted any other seed than 
the largest whole potatoes I could procure, and plant them when I could, 
wet or dry, cold or warm, I have never had the failure of a single stalk." 

In my own field of 11 acres, this year, I found but four roots which 
failed to germinate, and these were eaten by field mice. 

It appears to me strange that intelligent farmers should, in the culture 
of the potato, reverse entirely their practice as to all other seeds. They 
will go far and pay dear for the best seed of wheat, corn, oats, barley and 
the like, but of potatoes they always sell the best and plant the worst. 
Is not degeneracy inevitable under such a system ? 

I do not claim any novelty or discovery in the ideas and the practice 
here presented. All the different features of this system have been, at 
various times, practiced by others, but there has been no methodical com- 
bination 01 them into a definite rule of action; and for having done this, I 
would ask whatever credit, if any, belongs to this mode of culture. For 
it I claim the following advantages: • 

1. No possible entire failure of crop. 

2. No rot in healthy varieties. 

3. The largest yield the soil and variety are capable of. 


4. The largest proportion of large potatoes. 

5. No degeneracy, but continued improvement. 

6. No necessity for rotation of crops; the potato can be grown almost 
indefinitely on the same soil, with, perhaps, at long intervals, a seeding to 
clover to maintain the supplj'- of vegetable fiber in the soil. 

7. The greatest economy of culture and harvesting. 

8. The highest table quality of potato. 

One important advantage of whole over cut potatoes, especially in the 
early varieties, is that in case a late spring frost cuts off the first growth 
of shoots of the whole planted tuber, the weaker eyes push forth and the 
crop is saved, although a little late. In the same event, when but sets are 
planted, the crop is either lost or nearly worthless. 

It may be justly remarked of the compost I employ, that its principal 
ingredient, wood ashes, is not to be had by one in a hundred farmers. To 
this I would reply, top dress your fall plowing heavily with barn manure 
before winter sets in; in spring, apply the other ingredients. But by no 
means use the barn yard compost the season of planting. It may increase 
the crop, but is almost sure to engender disease, especially in wet seasons. 
I have been often told of experiments on cut and whole potatoes, resulting 
in as large a crop from the former as the latter, but, in every such case, I 
learned that they had all been planted in drills and equally close. Now, 
amj)le space is indispensable for large, w^iole tubers; no success is possible 
without it. The roots require a large amount of soil to feed upon, and the 
tops need abundant air and sunlight, as their food. I have often found 
both tops and roots, planted three feet equidistant, to overlap and inter- 
lace to the extent of at least a foot in every direction. Why, then, plant 
more closely ? A valued friend in Minnesota plants large roots four feet 
equidistant, and has an average crop of 400 bushels per acre, whereas the 
average of the State and of his neighborhood is about 100 bushels. 

Small, whole seed and cut sets yield a larger return in fold than large 
whole ones, but not so large a net profit per acre. Moreover, the propor- 
tion of small, unmarketable potatoes is much greater in the former case. 
I have found that shallow planting, and also the common practice of hilling 
up, are both conducive to a product of many small potatoes. I endeavor 
to cover the tubers with six inches of soil; in all the subsequent culture, 
the soil is stirred as often as possible and as shallow as possible. All deep 
cultivation should, in my opinion, be done in the fall and spring plowing. 
After the planting I have no use for the plow until after the crop is 
harvested. I regard it as a w^asteful implement for that purpose, nor have 
I found any form of potato- digger to do as clean and economical work as 
the digging fork. 

The percentage of small potatoes of Early Groodrich was carefully noted; 
the large whole seed produced eight per cent, the medium size about eleven, 
and the small size fifteen per cent. The average of the entire crop was 9| 
per cent. 

* There are many other features of this system which present indisputable 
claims to our preference, but I will not intrude further upon your time and 
courtesy by alluding to them now. In conclusion, allow. me to add my 


testimony as to' the value of the Goodrich seedling-s. Foremost among 
them are the Earl}' Goodricli, its twin brother, the Harrison (g-rown from 
the same seed ball), and their parent the Cuzco. These, and the Monitor, 
are tlie only varieties I shall plant the coming year. For productiveness 
and quality combined, I do not know their equals. 

Dr. Isaac M. Ward moved that a vote of thanks be presented to Dr- 
Harrison, for his valuable paper on the culture of the Potato, and that he 
be requested to furnish a copy for the Transactions of the Club, which was 
unanimously adopted. 

John Borland, Bristol, Pa., presented to the Club specimens of a potato 
lie has been growing for the last three years. The seed originally came 
from Indiana. He considers them the best potato he has ever grown. 

Dr. Trimble. — I have tried these potatoes and think them almost equal 
to the old black kidney or Mercer, in their best daj's, which is saying a 
good deal. Tliej' are of roundish form, with deep sunken large e^^es, few 
in number ; the skin a reddish, rusty color; flesh white, and cooks dr}^ and 
floury; tubers very dense; a bushel counting fifty often weighs 60 pounds. 

Dr. John A. Warder thinks these look like the Shaker Eussets. Mr. 
Hicks saj^s the}' are unknown on Long Island. Dr. Harrison and E. Wil- 
liams, Montclair, N. J., call them the Monitor potato, an excellent new 
variety, mentioned in Dr. Harrison's paper. 

The foUowing interesting paper was read b}' Mr. Solon Robinson, upon 
the moat important subject of using peat more extensively for fuel: 

Peat — Its Value and Preparation for Fuel. 

Mr. Willard Converse writes from New Oregon, Howard Co., Iowa, that 
he has on his place " a bed of peat covering ten acres to an average depth 
of five feet. Timber is scarce, wood for fuel worth in the town from 88 to 
$10 per cord. The top of the bed when dried appears loose and burns 
quick; deeper down, seems more solid and durable. Can the Club give us 
any information about the comparative value of wood and peat? Also, 
what treatment it requires to prepare it for market." 

Mr. R. V. Ankeny, Freeport, 111., writes another request for information 
about the preparation of peat for fuel. He says: " We have immense beds 
of it in northern Illinois, but as yet it has no value, and I think only be- 
cause of ignorance in its preparation and value. AA^e are paying S9 to 
$12 for wood, and many of our farmers are hauling it from 10 to 15 miles, 
with fuel in abundance in their slouohs." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — In Massachusetts, peat is now extensively dug, 
and generally manufactured for use by condensation, or some process to 
free it of water, which is very difficult to evaporate. This makes the fuel 
more solid, as in that condition it burns better, and occupies less room in 
transportation and storage. 

In some places the peat is mixed with water in large tanks, where, as it 
softens, it is thoroughly stirred and completely disintegrated. Then it is 
allowed several days to settle, when the clear water is drawn from the top, 
and the pulpy mass at the bottom is run out and spread upon the ground 
where it parts with its water, and soon becomes hard enough to cut up into 

[Ail. Inst.] R 


cakes which are turned up on one edge until they are dry enough to handle 
and pile up under cover to finisli the curing. There is a peat company in 
Boston which has a machine for the manufacture of peat. The crude article 
as it comes from a swamp is dumped into a hopper, whence it passes 
through a mill and is finely pulverized. This appears to be necessary, 
since the w^ater cannot be entirely pressed out. The mill delivers tlie peat 
in molds, like bricks, which are dried in a similar manner. The statement 
is made that the machine will manufacture forty tons of crude peat per day, 
which will make from ten to fifteen tons of condensed fuel. The machine 
costs $600, and requires three-horse power to work it. It is equally neces- 
sary to have drying sheds as it is to have sheds for drying brick. There 
are many acres in the country which would 3'ield one thousand tons of con- 
densed fuel per acre, and a ton of it is worth as much as a cord of good 
solid maple, beech or oak wood. It makes an exceedingly agreeable lire 
in an open grate. It has but little odor, and what it has is pleasant; so 
that as fuel, it is not only economical, but popular. It is better than coal 
for making steam; is equal to charcoal for refining iron; is superior to any 
substance for making gas ; and it has another very valuable quality — it is 
one of the most efficacious substances known as a disinfectant and a 

At Pekin, Niagara county, N. Y., a peat condensing machine, invented 
by M. S. Itoberts, has lately been tried, giving full satisfaction to those 
who witnessed its operation. The machine consists of a steam engine of 
thirteen horse-power, a condenser, a revolving elevator and a conveyor, the 
whole being so constructed as to run on wdieels, and be readily moved from 
place to place. The elevator is 15 feet long, and runs from the top of the 
machine to the ground, where the peat is dug out, placed upon it and car- 
ried up and dropped into a revolving wheel, which cuts it up and separates 
it from the coarse particles, bits of sticks, stones, &c., and throws them to 
one side. The peat then falls into a box below, and sufficient water is 
mixed with it to r.ender it of the consistency of mortar, after which, by 
means of a slide under, the control of the engineer, it is sent to the rear of 
the machine. Here the conveyor, 100 feet long, takes it and carries it to 
within two rods of the end, at which point the peat begins to drop through 
to the ground to the depth of about four inches. When sufficient has 
passed through to cover tiie ground to the end of the conveyor, the con- 
veyor is then swung, around about two feet, and the same process is re- 
peated. Eighteen rods can be so covered without moving the machine. 
At each swing of the elevator the peat spread out is cut into blocks by 
means of knives attached to the elevator. The peat lies in this state for a 
week, at which time the blocks are turned over to facilitate the process of 
drying. After remaining upon the ground for two weeks, it is carted off 
and packed under cover, and in a short time thereafter is ready for use as 

At Lexington,. Mass., Mr. Albert Betterly is engaged in preparing peat 
for fuel upon. a. large scale. His method is the one already mentioned of 
mixing the crude article with water, in large tanks. His are 40 feet high 
and 15 feet diameter,, by wiiich he gets a pressure of 3,600 pounds pev 


square foot of peat at the bottom of tl'ie water. He has concluded that 
tanks 25 feet high will answer the purpose. 

The |2:reat trouble always has been, that in the production of manufac- 
tured peat for fuel, or peat so treated as when dry to be hard and dense, 
it has been found that the water at first contained in the crude peat can- 
not be separated from the solid and valuable matter by straining", on 
account of the* loss of a very large portion of th3 solid material, which, 
owing to its extreme fineness, passes off" with the water. To evaporate 
the water by artificial heat, though practicable, is not practical, on account 
of the expense involved. To get rid of the water by atmospheric exposure 
takes too much time, and unless great expense is incurred in roofing, the 
results are uncertain and dependent upon the weather. These objections 
have hitherto prevented the successful practical production on an exten- 
sive scale of dense manufactured peat. Peat merely taken from the bo^ 
and sun-dried is too bulky and too friable, ever to become an article of 
commerce. In Mr. Betterly's process, if the peat is mingled with roots and 
stones, they are removed by a raking or straining process; if there are no 
large roots, sticks or stones, the crude peat is triturated or rudel}^ ground- 
the effect of either process being to break up the cellular structure of the 
peat so as to set free the water therein, making a semi-fluid or pasty mass. 
If the peat is found free from these obstructions, it is conveyed into the 
tanks directly from the bog. The tanks being open at the top, but water, 
tight elsewhere, are filled one after another as fast as may be, each tank 
being made large enough to contain all the peat which can be taken in one 
day, in proper condition, by one set of men from the bog. Each tank is 
then left long enough undisturbed, to allow the solid matter to separate 
from the fluid by precipitation. Near the bottom of the tank there are 
three little iron gates attached to a lever, upon the raising of which the 
pulpy mass flows out upon an endless railwaj^, and is conveyed away to 
the place where it is to be piled up and left to dry. The inventor claims 
that, by the employment of the tank, a large portion of the water contained 
in crude peat, can be got rid of in the production of manufactured peat, at 
a cost little exceeding the interest and repairs on, and the depreciation in, 
the value of the tanks. 

A party has lately been organized in Westchester countj-, X. Y., to dio- 
peat for fuel. They are about to commence upon the farm of Isaac L. 
Valentine, in East Yonkers, about a mile and a half from the Harlem rail- 
road station at West Ml Vernon, If successful, it is probable the busi- 
ness will be largely'- extended, as there is not a doubt that peat exists 
abundantly in mau}^ parts of the county. Some taken out of Mr. Valen- 
tine's swamp last summer and dried in its natural condition in the sun, is 
quite compact and burns freely, making a hot fire, and has no odor, which 
in some peat is objectionable. By those well acquainted with Scotch and 
Irish peat, this is pronounced every way quite as good. The bed is thinly 
overlaid with muck, ^hh a most distinct line of separation between it and 
the peat, which extends down to an unknown depth. This is the character 
of a great many peat bogs in the country. Their value only begins now 
to be appreciated. If I owned a peat bog in Iowa which I intended to 


■work, I should first visit and carofully examine all the processes now in 
operation in New York and Massachusetts. 

Mr. S. B. Parsons made some pertinent inquiries about the cost of pre- 
paring" peat for fuel, as upon that, and not. as to whether American peat 
will burn, will hinge all the efforts to convert it into substitutes for wood 
and coal. 

Mr. C. F. Hovey said many farmers in Massachusetts have used peat, 
prepared by simply cutting it out and drying in cakes the size of bricks, 
for many years, and are well satisfied that it is economical. He uses con- 
siderable quantities, not only for fuel, but as one of the very best things 
that he can mix in compost for the propagating house. He has noticed 
that some peat dries in the sun without any process of condensation, almost 
as hard and heavy as coal. By all who have used it, whether prepared at 
home or purchased, it is considered more economical than coal, and more 
pleasant for famil3' use. lam very g-lad that this Club has brought the 
subject before the numerous readers of the reports, as it will invite inquiry, 
and prove how valuable a deposit of fuel we have in our numerous deposits 
of peat. 

Mr. P. T. Quinn. — For the purpose of informing those who would like to 
try the experiment of preparing peat or turf, I will give them the manner 
of cutting and curing turf in Ireland. The implement is called a slane, 
being a spade with a lip to cut the end of the blocks, which are the size of 
bricks, and very wet and solid when taken from the bog\ They are dumped 
from hand-barrows, in promiscuous heaps to undergo the first process of 
dr^'ing for some ten days, and are then piled in small heaps and then in 
large ones, six or eight weeks, until dry enough to carr}^ home to shelter, 
or be put up in stacks for winter use. Peat has been dug in New Jersey 
to a small extent, and it makes good fuel. The work must be done before 
frost, as freezing causes it to crumble. This v/ould net hurt it for the pro- 
cess of condensino;'. 

Mr. Sleight, Dutchess county, N. Y., said peat had been dug there to 
some extent this year, and cured as it is in Ireland. It makes a g^ood fire. 
It is best in basins which have no outlet for water. 

Mr. S. B. Parsons said the great want of those who would dig" peat or 
muck for manure is a portable excavator, easily moved from place to place, 
and workable by steam or horse-power. 

Mr. Solon Robinson said he was often inquired of for such a machine. 
He thought here was a great opening' for American inventors. 

Mr. Boyd Elliott, of this city, in connection with a Mr. Avery, of Syra- 
cuse, has a peat bed near the salt works, of 200 acres, part of the deposit 
being 30 feet deep, and, from some samples exhibited, appears to be of ex- 
cellent quality. They have worked it barely enough to prove the value of 
the peat for fuel, and estimate it worth $6 per ton compared with coal at 
$S.50, and wood at 84 a cord. 

The Practical Entomologist. 

Dr. Trimble. — I beg leave to call attention to a new periodical, ''The 
Practical Entomologist," published in Philadelphia gjKituilQusly. Those 


wishing to receive this work can send tlieir names, with 12 cents to pay 
the pos(a3:e, to E. T. Cresson, corresponding secretary-, Xo, 518 Soutli 13th 
street, Philadelpliia. 

Dr. John A. Warder said tlie work contained much valuable information 
for the farmer. It is supported by advertisements. 

Mildew on Grapes. 

Mr. S. B. Parsons. — I Iiave been informed that the Absecom vineyard 
was entirel}' free from mildew the last season. 

Mr. Nichcjls. — I have a small vineyard at Ilammonton, X. J. I observed 
that m}' Delawares, Catawbas and Isabellas were all affected by mildew. 
Concords were the only exception. 

Mr. Isaac Ilicks. — I know of no g-rapes on Long Island this year with 
but one exception, Mr. Townsend T>. Cock, Locust Valley, Queens county, 
that vincj'ard was treated with sulphur blown over the leaves. 

Mr. S. B. Nichols. — 1 have tried sulphur thoroughly oumy vines without the 
least benefit from its use. 

Mr. A. M. Powell. — I understand that the vineyard alluded to by Mr. 
Hick.^, as being free from mildew, was treated with the new fertilizer, 
"Flour of Bone," shown at our late Fair. Mr. Cock, who grows a great 
many bunches of grapes, considers this fertilizer produces an immediate 
eflect upon grapes and strawberries, and has no equal in supplying those 
elements to the soil that are so necessary" to produce a luxuriant growth 
and fine flavored fruit. He has tried the various fertilizers in the market. 

Pruning Grapevines. 

Mr. X. Iline, Absecom, X. J., wants "to know whether in trainino- the 
grape on tiie renewal sj'stem to stakes, it is advisible to pull out the side- 
shoots when growing, or let them grow until pruniiig time in winter? As 
it is the custom of some vine-dressers to clip the ends of the heavy vines 
after the fruit is set, I would like the opinion of the Club on that mode of 
pruning, and what stage of the growth of the fruit is the proper time to 
clip them?" 

Mr. Xichols. — I think we have run wild on the subject of summer prun- 
ing. In the future 1 intend to leave my vines alone, after the fall pruninir 
but shall train them low. 

Mr. AVm. S. Carpenter. — I am convinced that after the vines are trimmed 
in the fall, or early spring, we should let them grow as long as they will. 
I have seen the bad effects of summer pruning. 

Mr. E. Williams. — The more I read on the subject of pruning the less I 
know. I am of opinion that great injury is done to our vines by our 
notion of pruning. 

Mr. John G. Bergen. — The Club knows my opinion on this subject, but 
don't let us run to the other extreme. I think judicious pruning is neces- 
sary; in seasons of rampant growth of wood it is advantageous to pinch 
in the laterals. 

278 transactions of the american institute. 

Clover — The First Crop. 

Mr. Eli Kose, Maryland, Otsego county, N. Y., wants "the Farmers' 
Club to tell farmers how they may successfully grow the j^?'s^ crop of clover 
on soil deficient in lime, and where plaster exerts no perceptible influence, 
and where farm manure is not plenty. We all know that clover land will 
produce good crops of wheat, corn, rye, oats, barley, and clover again. 
The great trouble is to make the first start successful; to get one good 
growth of clover on the ground, after which, a judicious farmer need have 
no fears for the future. If guano, bone dust, poudrette, superphosphate, 
lime, or other commercial fertilizer is to be used, the kind, price .and 
quantity should be stated, with necessary instructions.*' 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — I am strongly in favor of the flour of bone, manu- 
factured by the Boston Milling Company. The quantity recommended for 
wheat, rye, oats, barley and grass, is from 400 to 600 pounds per acre. 
AVith such a dressing we are sure that a first crop of clover can be produced. 

Mr. S. Edwards Todd. — The first step I would take with such land would 
be to plow it deeply in autumn, and again in spring, giving it such manur- 
ino- as I could, and then sow it with Indian corn, three or /our bushels to 
the acre. In August or September turn under this crop with a plow that 
would cover it thoroughly and let ic lie until late in autumn, and then plow 
again. The next spring, plow, harrow and Sow clover seed. Let that 
clover grow without pasturing or mowing one year. The gentleman may 
then get a crop which he may feed to sheep, buying corn to fatten them, 
upon which he will make- a profit while he is making manure for future 
crops. What farmers overlook in their attempts to grow grass or clover 
is that the plants need vegetable mold, and this a crop of corn will furnish. 

Mr. Wm. H. Brimmer, Stephentown, N. Y., says the recommendation to 
sow corn for a green manure crop to produce clover, will not answer upon 
all soils, for the corn won't grow without manure. He recommends buck- 
wheat in preference: " It is a good crop to plow under, and will grow upon 
poor land. I have seen buckwheat plowed under upon poor land, the 
ground seeded, and a good crop of ha}^ taken off annually for 10 or 12 
years. If you will plow in one crop of buckwheat, the first crop of clover 
will make your land rich and mellow, and in fine condition for future crops." 

A Remedy for Borers. 

Mr. W. C. Woodruff, Smithboro, Tioga county, X. Y., gives the follow- 
ing' remedy for borers upon the authority of a friend from Fond du Lac, 
Wisconsin, who says he has proved it hj experiment: "Buckwheat straw 
placed about the roots of fruit trees is sure death to the borers, as it is to 
the eggs of allinsects deposited in the soil about fruit trees. He observes, 
it may be noticed when buckwheat straw is allowed to rot, no worms of 
any kind are found, while all other kinds of rotten straw are the breeding 
places of almost all kinds of worms. He has not tried it for the currant 
worm, but has no doubt it would prove effectual. His currant bushes 
standing upon overflowed land are entirely exempt from tlie ravages of the 
worms, while neighboring bushes growing above high water are entirely 

proceedings of the farmers' club. 279 

Sheep — What Kind for Stock ? 

Mr. Woodruff also makes the followirii^ inquiry: "I wish to stock my 
farm with breeding ewes, the market being- as good for lambs as for wool. 
Do not wish to keep fine wools. What varieties of long wools are most 
profitable and best adapted to our markets, and where can a few stock 
sheep be procured ? 

Mr. Solon Robinson, — At the time they were written they applied to the 
condition of the market better than they do now; for then there was a 
strong demand for blanket wool, which, since the close of the war, has 
greatly fallen off. The present writer was not the writer of those articles, or 
he would have shaped them somewhat differently. From many years ex- 
perience in the markets of New York, he is fully satisfied that the most 
profitable breed of sheep for a farmer is one that produces a medium 
quality of wool, and which in fair condition for the butcher will range from 
95 to 115 pounds, live weight, for mature sheep, say two to four years old. 
Whether Leicester, Cotswold, Oxfordshire, or sheep from any other partic- 
ular shire are preferable is still a mooted question. We reconmiend any 
one desirous to purchase a stock of long-wooled sheep to go to Canada 
West, and he should do it before the middle of March, for after that reci- 
procit}' is at an end, and sheep and all other Canada products must pay 

Grape Country and Culture — Insects. 

Mr. N. Iline, Absecom, N. J., sends a section of grapevine, "on which,'' 
he says, " are the eggs of some insect unknown to me. Can the Farmers 
Club tell what they are? Is it something that will injure the grape? Have 
seen the eggs attached to other things." 

Dr. John A. Warder. — These are the eggs of the grape curculio, which 
has made its appearance in Northern. Ohio. I am sorry to hear of it in 

Dr. Trimble. — The gentleman is certainly mistaken. These are the eggs 
of the katydid. Tney may be known alwa3's by the symmetrical manner 
thc}^ are arranged, looking like grains of fiax-seed stuck upon the twig in 
two rows. 

Mr. S. B. Nichols, Hammonton, N. J., said he found the same things upon 
pear trees, and showed them to Edmund Morris, who declared he knew 
them to be katydid eggs. 

Mr. Solon Robinson.— Gov. W. F. M. Amy, of Santa Fe says: "The 
whole arable land of the southern portion of New Mexico is admirably 
adapted to the culture of the grape and the manufacture of wine; this is 
especially true of the valley of the Rio Grande. The wine known as 'El 
Paso Vino' from the valley of El Paso, Mexico, has obtained a wide spread 
reputation, yet little art is exercised in the manufacture of wine, and little 
care upon the culture of the grape." 

Major Emery, says: "In no part of the world does this luscious fruit 
flourish with greater luxuriance than in these regions, when properly' culti- 
vated. Those versed in the cultivation of the vine represent that all the 


conditions of soil, humidity and temperature, are united to produce the 
grape in its greatest perfection. 

Mr. Williams, an agent of the Patent Office, in his visit to El Paso Val- 
ley, describes it as the Eden of the grape. *' The estimate is from 250 to 
300 gallons to the acre, and with xlmerican skill in the management of the 
vineyards, and American appliances in making wine, the product must be 
more than double." 

Col. Doniphan reported in 1846: "The most important production of the 
valley is the grape, from which is annually'- manufactured not less than 
200,000 gallons of perhaps the richest and best wine in the world. This 
wine is worth 82 per gallon and constitutes the principal revenue of the 
city. The El Paso wines are superior in richness and flavor and pleasant- 
ness of taste to anything of the kind I liave met vrith in the Tnited States, 
and I doubt not that they are far superior to the best wines ever produced 
in the valley of the Rhine or on the sunny hills of France." 

Gov. Arny thinks that "as the countr3' progresses and American energy 
becomes dominant, tlie wine and the gr'^pe will be a source of great wealth 
to the valley and furnish employment to many laborers/' 


December \9, 1865. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ely in the chair; Mr. Jonx W. Chambers, Secretary. 

Potato Planting Experiments. 

Mr. Isaac Hicks, North Hempstead, L. I., gave his experience in potato 
planting, to tr}' to determine what size of seed should be used. First : 
two rows with tubers, 1| in. diameter, whole. Second: 2 J in. diameter, 
whole. Third: Large potatoes, cut with two or more e3'es in each piece. 
Fourth: Large whole tubers, with all but one eye dug out. Fifth: Large 
whole tubers, with all the eyes, but all but one sprout destroyed when two 
or three inches above ground. Variety: peach blows; culture: clean till 
ripe; yield: 140 bushels per acre. Comparative results, upon rows of 
equal length — First and second: eight bushels. Third: same measure and 
best potatoes. Fourth: nine bushels. Fifth: ten per cent less yield. The 
second gave the most small potatoes, and the cut seed the best results. 

Farmers here grow from four to fifteen acres of potatoes annuall}', and 
are anxious to discover the most economical mode of planting, as well in 
seed as manure. So far, all experiments favor large tubers, cut into two 
to four pieces. Good stable manure gives the greatest satisfaction; it is 
dear, but necessary and better than any patent fertilizer. Lands, with a 
good deal of vegetable matter, sometimes produce good potatoes without 
manure, if deeply plowed and frequentl}^ stirred. 

Dr. Sylvester, Lyons, Wayne Co., N. Y., cuts his potatoes to one eye 
and plants them with Nevin's' machine, which plants, hoes, and digs, and 
saves more than half the labor, keeping the ground clean, and by revers- 
ino' the teeth turns the soil to the row. The seed is crcpped twelve inches 
apart and covered three inches deep. Varieties prefei'red: Hall's Early, 
White, and Garnet Chili, which is the best and most profitable variety 

proceedings of the farmers' club. 281 

Petroleum for Bugs and Worms. 

Ish. Isaac ITicks sug'gests an application of crude petroleum to fruit trees 
to prevent the borers. He says kerosene or benzine is an effectual remedy 
for bed bna'S and ants. A kerosene barrel placed in a room vvhfere ants 
infested sugar barrels, caused tliem to leave the place. The Chairman 
cautioned persons against bringing kerosene in contact with food sub- 
stances. A suit is now pending in court here for damages to sugar and 
tea in a railroad car, caused by the odor of kerosene. 

Mr. R. J. Dodge said petroleum cars all go back empty because experi- 
ence has proved that everything is damaged carried in them, even iron. 

Mr. Solon Robinson cautions families against keeping batter and lard in 
the] same a[)artment with kerosene. All fats- readily absorb and retain 
odors, and the fine aroma of butter may be injured by very slight contact 
with kerosene. As to using petroleum on trees, it must be done very 
cautiously, or the trees as well as worms will be killed. 

Mr. P. T. Quinn read from The Gardeners Monthly a statement about 
kerosene being used to kill the scale insect. Dr. Sylvester has used it 
without injurj^ upon plum trees. 

Mr. S. Edwards Todd recommended shaving all the rough bark from 
locust trees, and then painting them with warm pine pitch. 

Dr. Trimble contended that would not prevent damage by locust-borers, 
since they work all over the limbs as well as upon the body of the tree. 
He does not believe any .odor will drive away worms; it certainly will not 

Electricity as a Fertilizer. 

Mr. Samuel Williams, near Rochester, Sangamon county. 111., wants to 
know what has become of the theor}', or those who advocated it, some3Tars 
ago, of fertilizing the growing crops with electricity. " Has electricity any 
such power as was ascribed to it? According to recent opinions, it seems 
to be a very general agent in producing those vast changes which are con- 
tinuall}^ g'O'fig" on in the great chemical workshop of nature. Tliis beino- 
so, may not salt, lime, and unleached ashes-, when applied to land as 
manures, impart some of their respective benefits to field crops by an accu- 
mulation of electricity, produced b}- their chemical action on v^egetable 
matter, silex, &c. ? If these premises are valid, then with the present 
facilities for procuring- electricity^, who knowlbut that a proper application 
of its quickening agency, may^ add, in some degree, to the stimulation and 
growth of vegetable and other productions? During some of my recent 
meditations on late electrical discoveries, my mind reverted to what had 
been said, 3'ears ago, of its adaptation to agricultural pursuits, andfeelin^* 
some anxiety to see an intelligent solution of the subject, I now present 
the case to the members of the American Institute for their consideration." 

Dr. Sylvester. — There is probably more in electricity, as connected with 
agriculture, than we are willing to give credit for. You perhaps recollect 
a statement published some years ago, about experiments made in France 
for making butter by burying it in the ground. This was said to be caused 
by electricity. I tried that experiment by putting cream in a linen bag 


and that in another bag to keep it clean, which I buried about eighteen 
inches deep, and after twenty-four hours took it up and found the cream as 
thoroughly converted into butter as it is by churning. It was just in the 
condition that butter is in when it has " come" without being gathered 
by the dasher. It was worked in the usual way and made as handsome 
and as good butter as ever was churned. The question is: Was it elec- 
tricity that affected this cream; and if so, is the cream when churned 
affected by electricity? 

Clover — When to Plow In. 

Mr. William Thompson, Houserville, Penn.: "I wish to ask j^ou a few 
questions. AVhich is the better plan — to plow under clover in full bloom, 
or wait until it is dead ripe, when the object is to enrich your land? There 
is an impression with us that plowing down green clover is not good 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — The same impression unfortunately exists in a 
great many places beside Houserville, Pennsylvania. And it probabl}- 
w^ill continue to exist in spite of all we have said or can say of the im- 
mense value of clover as a manure. A committee of this club have lately 
seen and reported instances of the most successful farming upon the light- 
est kind of land by the use of clover as a fertilizer. It may be partially 
pastured and trampled so as to decay, or a first crop may be mowed for 
hay, and the second crop plowed in for manure, which will produce good 
crops of grain, with but a light dressing of an artificial fertilizer, and some- 
times without any. Clover may be plowed in at any stage of its growth, 
the larger the better. 

White Willow Fencing. 

Mr. Thompson also inquires: " Can fence be made of the white willow 
by planting slips of it, about eight inches apart, in a row or straight line? 
There was a man through our section of country selling slips of the white 
willow for that purpose. He says to set the slips along where you want 
the fence, in a straight line, eight inches apart,- and that in the course of 
four years the willows will grow so as to touch each other (that is the stem 
or body of the trees), and thus make a permanent and tight fence; that the 
willow will grow and make fence anywhere that wheat and corn will grow. 
The public is so frequently humbugged in various ways that I thought, to 
guard against it, I would apply to you for information in reference to this 
willow fence." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — With all deference to Mr. Thompson's intelligence, 
Vv^e must say that he has not been a constant reader of the reports of this 
Club, which he saj^s he admires so much, or else he would have learned ere 
this that some of us have not a very exalted opinion of white willow for 
any other purpose than humbugging the people. For fencing purposes it 
is probably just as good as golden willow, and no better. In regions 
where cottonwood abounds, that is equally as g'ood as the willow. A live 
fence can be made with these and other forest trees indigenous to the 
locality which are of rapid growth, but none of them will grow without 


great care, and probably ninety-nine out of every hundred willow hedges 
that have been planted have failed. And so has nearly every other live 
fence tried in the United States. The Osage orange is the most successful. 
It is here worthy of remark, that while American farmers are struggling 
to establish live fences, English farmers are struggling equally hard to 
get rid of them. Depend upon it the same result will happen in this 

Seed Contributors. 

The Secretary of the Club reports the names of the following persons 
who have sent in seeds for distribution. Numerous as the contributors 
are, the applicants are still more numerous, and cannot all be su])plied 
without further and large contributions : " Mrs. J. Ashton, Groton, Tomp- 
kins county, N. Y. ; Mrs. Emily Miller, Springfield Cross Eoads, Erie Co., 
Penn.; Mrs. E. 31. Lewis, Pendleton, Ind.; Mary J. Hanson, Pochester, 
N. H. ; W. S. Thorn ; Mrs. J. M. Cook, Lakeville, :N. II. : Mrs. C. J. Pen- 
noyer, Sharon, X. Y. ; Misses Luthera and Amanda Whitne3% Springfield, 
Vt.; Miss Phoebe Packham, Hamilton, X. Y. ; Miss Jennie A. Remington, 
Chester, Mass. ; Mrs. J. Lewis, Moriah, Essex Co., N. Y. ; Miss Susan G. 
Briggs, Crum Elbow, Dutchess Co., X. Y.; Mrs. H. P. Butler, South Colton, 
St. Lawrence Co., X. Y. ; Mrs. Mary C. Cliancey, Xew Salem, Pike Co., 111.; 
Mi-s. Mary J. Eandall, Albion, Erie Co., Penn.; A. W. Hitchcock; Miss A. 
M. Allen, Xorth Hyde Park, Vt. ; Mrs. Sarah M. Strong, West Addison, 
Vt.; Louisa Johnson, Eureka, Winnebago Co., Wis.; Julia A. Smith, An- 
gola, Steuben Co., Ind.; Miss Mary Cushman, Argo, Carroll Co., 111. ; Mrs. 
D. M. Adams, East Brookficld, Mass.; Mrs. Melvina Stevens, Kingston City, 
Lynn Co., Iowa; L. B. C. Summerset, X. J.; Mrs. M. Kennedy, Perry, 111. ; 
Mrs. Lucinda M. Chambers, Brasher's Falls, St. Lawrence Co., X. Y.; Miss 
L. C. Porter, Busto, Chautauqua Co., X. Y. ; Mrs. H. L. Eiyle}-, Crugers, 
X. Y. ; Lizzie F. Welton, Eichfield, Summit Co., Ohio; Mrs. Elizabeth 
Mills, Fairfield, Iowa ; Mar}^ A. Mayden, Vermontville, Eaton Co., Mich.; 
W. M. Haskill, Marblehcad; Miss Mary E. Marsh, Pontiac, 111.; Mrs. A. AV. 
Hitchcock, West Haven, Vt.; Miss M. J. Farnam, Eaton Rapids, Mich.; 
Mrs. Eunice Johnson, West Pike, Potter Co., Penn. ; Mrs. G. H. Barber, 
S'*merville, X. Y. ; Mrs. John Mead, Reading, Hillsdale, Mich.; Mrs. 
Elizabetli Bush, Busti, Chautauqua Co., X. Y. ; Mrs. Mary Treat, Mystic 
Bridge, Conn.; Miss Harriet E. Penney, Randolph, Vt. ; Hannah M. Devol, 
Gansevoort, Saratoga Co., X. Y. ; Miss Perriuc, Battle Creek, Mich.; Wm. 
R. Prince, Flushinir. L. I. 


Locality for Grapes. 

Mr. Charles Marsh, Patchgrove, Grant Co., Wis., says: " Grapes flourish 
beautifully on the ridges or bluffs of the Mississippi and Wisconsin rivers, 
in that county. The soil is a very rich, loamy clay, with a dry, porous 
clay subsoil, four to eight feet deep, free from stones, and the soil contains 
plenty of potash. For ages the fires have run, consuming the grass that 
send up seed-stalks six or eight feet high. In some places the timber has 
been burned and decayed; in other places, it is down and decayed, making 


the ridg;es bald in such places ; in others, it is oak openings — that is, the 
trees are wide apart. Where the trees are out of the wa3% the ground can 
be prepared b}^ the plow for the cultivation of grapes, which can be grown 
as easy as Indian corn, if the vines are planted in ground loosened up one 
foot deep. I have been speaking of the tops of the ridges, which are about 
a quarter of a mile wide; of course the sides of the ridges, where they may 
be steep, would have to be prepared with the spade." 

Mr. Marsh thinks that region will in time become the Johannisberg of 
America. He also wishes to know the address of the manufacturers of the 
octagon fruit basket. He will probably see their advertisement whenever 
they wish to sell their wares. At present we suppose they do not. 

Mr. Sidney Wilder, Arcadia, Wayne Co., N. Y., says: "Grapes were free 
from mildew this season in this section, except where vines were neglected 
and matted together so as to exclude a free circulation of air and sunshine. 
Isabellas ripened well and sold for ten cents a pound. What has become 
of the Yeddo grape, which was announced a few years ago from Japan?'' 

It has not proved desirable for cultivation in this countr3\ 

Preserving Fruits. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — At the recent meeting of the Cincinnati Horticul- 
tural Society, Professor Nyce exhibited the following fruits taken from his 
preservator}^: Pears — Duchesse d'Angoulerae, Belle Lucrative, Louise Bonne 
de Jersej^ Onondaga,. Bartlett, Seckel, and Beurre d'Anjou. Foreign 
grapes — Black Hamburg-, White Sweetwater, Muscat of Alexandria, and 
Royfc.1 Muscadine. Native grapes — Diana, Delaware and Catawba. This 
method of preserving fruits has heretofore been fully described in the 
reports of this Club, and the Cincinnati committee say of the fruits re- 
centl3^exhibited: "The specimens of grapes and pears shown were as sound 
and perfect as when put away in September last, and those tasted by your 
committee retained their fine, natural and luscious flavor and quality, and 
your committee believe fully justify the inventor in what he claims as one 
of the excellencies of his patent right, viz., the preserving of fruits in a 
state unchanged in respect to flavor and quality." 

What is a Good Cow? 

Mr. Henry W. demons, Contoocookville, N. H., in answer to this inquiry", 
. wiites as follows: " I have one ten years old; dropped her calf the first of 
last March. I sold the calf, six weeks old, for $12. She has been kept in 
ordinarily fine pasture. We have used, on an average, one quart of new 
milk for our family per day. We have sold $10 worth of milk, and made 
274 pounds of butter, up to the last of November, and are still making five 
pounds per week, and this without extra feed. The cow 'comes in' the 
middle of March next. AVe think she will yield nearl}^ 300 pounds of but- 
ter during the year." 

Spaying Cows. 

Mr. William A. Drew, Augusta, Me., inquires: "Have any of the mem- 
bers of your American Institute Farmers' Club ever had any experience 


with spayed cows? It seems to me tin's is a subject wortliy of attention, 
especially by persons who keep cows for the dairy rather than for stock. 
It is said that a cow spayed whilst giving her greatest flow of milk, will 
continue to give that quantity for several years, and that the qiialit}' als.o 
will be improved. If so, people in villages or cities, who keep one or two 
cows only for domestic use, and care not to raise their calves, nay, farmers 
who make butter and cheese for the market, or sell their milk to the milk- 
men, would do well to have their cows spayed a few weeks after calving, 
and thus avoid the interruptions and cessations of milk occasioned by the 
animal's seasons of heat and of parturition. The operation is said to be a 
simple and safe one. I am led to this inquiry by the following, which I 
find in a volume on ' Milch Cows and Dairy Farming,^ by Charles L. Flint, 
Secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture, published in 
18G0, pp. 215, 216: 

** ' To secure a more uniform flow and a richer quality of milk, cows are 
sometimes spayed, or castrated. The milk of spayed cosvs is pretty uni- 
form in quantity, and this quantity will be, on an average, a little more 
than before the operation was performed. But few instances have come 
under, niy observation, and those few have resulted satisfactorily, the 
.quality of the milk having been greatly improved, the yield becoming regu- 
lar for some years, and varying only by the difference in the succulence of 
the food. The proper time for spaying is about five or six weeks after 
calving, or at the time the largest quantity of milk is given. There seems 
to be some advantage in spaying for milk and butter dairies, where the 
raising of stock is not attended to. The cows are more quiet, never being 
liable to returns of seasons of heat, v.diich always more or less aflect the 
milk both in quantity and quality. They give milk nearly uniform in these 
respects, for several years, provided the foc^d is uniformly succulent and 
nutritious. Their milk is influenced like that of other cows, though to less 
extent, by the quality and quantity of food; so that in winter, unless the 
animal is properly attended to, the yield will decrease somewliat, but will 
rise again as good food returns. This uniformity for the milk dairy is of 
immense advantage. , Beside all this, the cow when old, and inclined to 
dry up, takes on fat with greater rapidity and produces a juicy and tender 
beef, superior, at the same age, to that of the ox. The operation of spay- 
ing is simple, and may be performed by any veterinary surgeon, without 
much risk of injury.' " 

Where to Emigrate. 

^[r, W. Green, Brooklyn, N. Y., wants the Farmers' Club to tell him and 
many others similarly situated, that is with a very small capital to go 
upon, to which western State he shall emigrate, with a view of working" 
himself up in the world, having a strong pair of hands and a tean^ io work 

The answer is, j'^ou cannot go amiss. Probably one of the States west 
of the Mississippi offers the best opening for 3'ou to take up land so as 
soon to have a farm of your own. If you desire to rent a farm or work by 
the day, you may start at once and take jobs wherever you find them upon 


the road until jo\i reach your final destination, which you may do with 
your team free of expense, and perhaps with more money than when you 

Salt for Bee-Moths. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — It has been recommended to place fine salt under 
the edges of hives to keep away the bee moth; salt being poisonous to the 
moth, but not objectionable to bees. An apiarian in Ohio recommends 
saturating the hives with salt. It is well known that bees have been hived 
in salt barrels and did well, and were nev«>r troubled with worms. Another 
apiarian recommends whitewashing hives, inside and out, with milk of 
lime saturated with salt. It is also said to promote the health of bees. 
This man saj's: " I applied the whitewash to six or eight hives in which 
the bees were dying fast, and had ceased to labor, and the next da}^ they 
were all in- good health and able to do a good day's work. I have never 
been troubled with the bee moth since I adopted this practice. I apply 
the whitewash to the lower edges of the hive and on tiie bottom board a 
few times during the summer. The bees seem pleased with it, and many 
of them take a good dose, though they look well." 

New Use For Flax Seed. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — The following statement, copied from an English 
paper, is of great interest to American farmers, as it seems to open up a 
new use for flax seed, and may greatly enhance the price, so astto make 
fiax growing profitable. This new use is in the manufacluie of an article 
called Linoleum; deriving the name from linum and oleum. It is said 
that it will be a rival of caoutchouc, or, as commonly called, India rubber. 
The new article is manufactured of linseed oil by oxidizing it until it is 
solidified into a resinous substance, as we frequently find it when oil has 
been long exposed to the atmosphere. It is stated that " in this state 
it is combined with resinous gums and other ingredients, whereupon it 
assumes the appearance and most of the properties of India-rubber. Like 
India-rubber it can be dissolved into a cement, and used in the manufac- 
ture of material for water-proof clothing. It can be used as a varnish for 
the protection of iron or wood, or for coating ships' bottoms. It is good 
as a common cement, having properties similar to the marine glue made 
from India-rubber and shellac. It is readily vulcanized by exposure to 
heat, and by this means becomes as hard as the hardest woods, and capable 
of a fine polish. The variety of uses to which it can be applied in this 
form will at once suggest themselves to the reader. The manufacture of 
linoleum has thus far been made solely to produce floor-cloth, for which it 
has proved itself well adapted. Combined with ground cork, it is spread 
on a stout canvass, the back of which is afterward water-proofed with the 
oxidized oil. The fabric is then printed b}' means of blocks in the ordinary 
way. The floor-cloth thus produced is pliable, noiseless to walk upon, 
washes well, preserves its color, and can be rolled up like an ordinary 
carpet. It is very durable, and its component parts will not decompose 
bj heat or exposure to the sun or air, as will India-rubber." 


How TO Make Land Rich. 

Tlie fertilizing" principle of manure is ammonia. Whatever contains 
ammonia the farmer considers valuable to apply to all his crops. Does he 
ever consider that the atmosphere contains large quantities of this valu- 
able substance ? Every dew and shower brings it to the earth. If the 
earth is in the right condition, it is absorbed; if not, it evaporates rapidly 
with the first glow of sunshine. If it falls in the road or upon a field, the 
surface of which is nearly as hard as the road, it is not absorbed, but rises 
and floats away, seeking a proper resting-place. It unites readily with 
all freshly stirred, finely pulverized soil; therefore, to make the land rich, 
the farmer has only to make the land friable and keep it so. The oftener 
the surface is stirred, and more finely it is pulverized, the richer it will 
become. Yon may absorb more ammonia in a single summer than you can 
obtain from a heavy dressing of stable manure. It is therefore only a 
question of cost whether you enrich your land by your own or hired labor, 
or by the purchase of fertilizers. 

The Greeley Prize Apples and Pears. 

Mr. William S. Carpenter reported the decision of the Greeley Prize 
Committee as having made their award to the Baldwin apple and Bartlett 
pear, as the best for general cultivation of any well proved variety. The 
vote of the committee was four for the Baldwin, and three for Rhode Island 
Greening; and four for the Bartlett, and three for the Sheldon. The Hub- 
bardston apple would probably have received the prize if it kept as well 
in winter as some other varieties. 

The following list of apples and pears is also recommended by the 

Summer Apples: The Primate and Red Astrachan. For Autumn : Porter 
and Gravenstein. For Winter: Hubbardston and Northern Spy. 

Pears f 07' Summer : Rostiezer and Manning's Elizabeth. For Autumn: 
Sheldon and Seckel. For Wmter : Lawrence and Dana's Hovey. 

Mr. Carpenter stated that a great variety of very excellent fruits was 
exhibited to the committee, among which were 30 sorts of choice winter 
pears by Ellwanger & Barry: 27 sorts by C. M. Hove}^ among which a 
new seedling, named Augustus Dana, originated by Mr. Dana of Boston, 
bears a striking resemblance to Paradise d'Automne, and is ai surpassing- 
excellence, equal probably to Dana's Hovey, which is considered the best 
of all winter pears. Among the excellent winter pears exhibited were 
Belle de Moore, Belle de Flanders, Columbia, Doyenne d'Alencon, and 
Prince's St. Germaine. 

There were also upon the table a variety of apples, including the King 
of Tompkins County of enormous size, the quality of which they consider 
superior to any of the varieties tasted by the members present. 

Effcts of Flour of Bone on Vegetables. 

Mr. R. C. Campbell, Caldwell, N. J., presented to the Club some speci- 
mens of turnips for the inspection of the members. He said last fall he 
purchased a barrel of this fertilizer and put it on a piece of rather poor 



land and planted with turnips, thus I saved an average of the crop. The 
turnip crop in this section this season was ahiiost a failure. This piece 
of land produced the finest crop I have seen this year. Adjourned. 

December 26, 1865. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ely in the Chair ; Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretar}^ 

Grape Culture. 

Mr. C. 11. Greenman, Wisconsin, writes : " I find by the reports of the 
Club, and by personal observation, that grapes grown east, south and 
southwest, are all more or less troubled with mildew and rot. My vines, 
5''0ung and old, did not lose a leaf or lose a berry by the rot or mildew. 
Concord, Hartford, Prolific and Delaware, all stood the season well, and 
ripened the most of their wood before frost. My soil is a clay loam with 
some sand intermixed. The rows are eight feet apart, and the vines eight 
feet apart in the row. I prepare the ground by setting the plow in four 
feet to the right of where the vines are to stand ; going across the field, 
then returning in the same manner at the left of the row; plowing the dirt 
from the row, and continuing in the same manner until I reach the center. 
Then I commence the same way and go over it again, plowing as deep as I 
can in the center. I then reverse the furrows, and by thorough plowings 
turn the dirt back; this prepares the prairie well enough for me. The posts 
are set eight feet apart, intermediate between the plants, four feet six 
inches above the ground. Six inches above the ground is the first post 
crossing, the second near the middle, and at the top of the third post is 
nailed a strip of wood one inch by three, and so on through the row, npon 
which upright slats are nailed. The vines are trained along these slats, 
so that each vine is sixteen feet long, overlapping each other eight feet; 
this makes the highest point of each vine four feet six inches from the 
ground. The spurs are trained to the upright bars by cutting the last vine 
eight feet and growing on an extra cane on the first vine, raising it two 
and a half feet, conveying it obliquely to. the next post, fills the trellis 
frame from end to end with two tiers ot arms. This plan gives from twenty 
to twenty-four spurs; consequently from forty to fifty canes when the vines 
are established. I have adopted this plan that I may the more easily lay 
the vines down for winter protection. I send a drawing of my trellis, that 
you may better understand what I wish to say. 

Strawberries do well here. I picked from a plat 18 feet by 24 feet, con- 
taining 108 hills this season, two and a half bushels of fruit. The variety 
was Wilson's Albany, cultivated in hills. Triomphe de Gand was a failure 
with me; also Bartlett and many others, as compared with the Wilson. I 
o-row three rows of strawberries between each row of grapes. 


GUiiii>'MAiS'i5 GllAPE TKKLHS. 


Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter. — The plan of Mr. Greenman is a very good one 
for amateurs, but I should not approve of it for a regular vineyard. I 
plant my vines six feet apart, their arms three feet each way. A plan I 
prefer is, to place stakes six feet apart, with small stakes put in between, 
two feet apart; on the top we nail a strip of wood; two vines are planted 
near each of the main stj^^es, which we twist around the stake and extend 
the shoots to the two stakes on each side of the main stake; the main shoot 
is cut back, and one of the new shoots from the side stakes is twisted 
round the main one, and the other side short cut down to two eyes. By 
this means the vines have a certain quantity of grapes of good quality, say 
from ten to twelve pounds each. 

Mr. Thos. Cavanach. — ^T observe that Mr. Greenman thinks the plan he 
has adopted has prevented the mildew in his vines and grapes. The mil- 
dew aifects the vine in different localities. My grapes have not been in- 
jured in that way as yet, but next season they may be. Mr. Greenman's 
vines may be spared for a year or two, and then may be badly injured by 
the mildew. 

Prof. Smith — The principal object in growing grapes is to secure a good 
crop. In those countries where grape growing is one of the principal occu- 
pations of the inhabitants — in Italy for instance — they plant young trees 
and set a vine near each tree, which is allowed to run up say six to eight 
feet high, and these are trained on twine so as to reach another tree; these 
trees look like a chequer board. In Syria the vine is as large as a man's 
thigh, and looks as if large trees had been cut down; from these large 
roots young shoots sprout and run in all directions among the stones. 
While in Jerusalem, the Greek with whom I lived used to supply me with 
wine which I thought was very excellent. I asked him where he procured 
it ; he said he made it in his house. The grapes are brought in and then 
the juice is squeezed out. I found this wine cost about fifteen cents per 
gallon. I think Kansas will be an important country for grape growing, 
as I saw the vineyards at Hermann gradually creeping that way. 

Mr. R. G. Pardee. — Cultivators here cut back the young vine for several 
years until it has strength to bear fruit. I have found that vines, when 
allowed to grow on stone walls a little elevated from the ground, are 
alwa^'s damp and. prove injurious to the grape. The system of allowing 
vines to run on trees has been before discussed. Every country has its 
own peculiar method of growing grapes. I think we apply too much raw 
manure. I prefer to compost all matters that I apply to my vines with the 
salt and iime mixture. 

Mr. John G. Bergen. — I have applied manure composted with salt and 
lime to my vines for the last four years. This past season my vines have 
been badly affected by mildew. 

Dr. Trimble. — I was pleased with the remarks of Prof. Smith, and par- 
ticularly with what he said in relation to Kansas. 

Mr. John G. Bergen. — Mr. Fuller informed me a few days since, that he 
had pursued the following method of pruning vines with great success: 
Plant the vine near one of the cross pieces of the arbor, and let it run the 
whole length; this vine, although only two or three feet from the ground, 

[Am. Inst.] S 


is the top of the vine. The next vine is allowed to run on the second 
cross-piece, and so on until each vine occupies a cross-piece of the trellis. 
Mr. R. G. Pardee. — A few days since I purchased a box of Catawbas 
weighing four pounds, for thirty cents per pound; they were in splendid 
condition, covered with their natural bloom. My reason for mentioning 
this fact is to learn whether any new feature in the preservation of the 
grape has been introduced. 

Cook's Spring Whiffletree ani> Ox-spring. 

Mr. H. A. Cook, Hillsdale, Columbia county, N. Y., exhibited a patent 
spring whiffletree and ox-spring, which he claims are very useful for balky 
and discouraged animals ; and to prevent breakage of harness, plows, 
drags, mowing machines, or any farming implements; useful also for cars, 
canal boats, &c. By its use youn^ horses can now work among rocks as 
well as old ones, and the driver does not get hurt with the plow handles. 
A horse will draw fifty times without being discouraged. It serves as a 
cushion to the horse's breasts, and springs only when striking an obstacle. 

The Chairman said it must be a valuable attachment in cultivating stony 

The Club united in pronouncing it a useful and humane invention. 

Carrot Culture. 

Mr. H. A. Cook. — I am informed that carrots have never been known to 
injure milch cows or horses while at work. In connection with the subject 
I will make a few observations on my mode of cultivating carrots. I 
always prefer to soak the seed for three or four days before planting, and 
if the weather is favorable I in general get a good crop. I weed and thin 
out when the plants are young, simultaneously giving them a deep culture. 
I am cautious not to brush them when large. I find I can raise them at a 
cost of ten cents per bushel, or one acre of carrots as cheaply as I can two 
acres of corn. 

Mr. P. T. Quinn. — I have had some experience in growing carrots for the 
past ten or twelve years. I have raised each year from one to eight acres. 
I first get the ground ready, and I select ground that has been deeply culti- 
vated. I use as much manure as I can get in the ground; for the more 
manure you use, the larger will be the crop. Soak the seed or not, just 
as you please; at all events get new seed, or that which is not over two 
years old. For the purpose of giving early cultivation we throw up two 
ridges about four inches above the ground. If the seed is new it will ap- 
pear in about nine days; if soaked it will save about four days. T use 
three pounds of seed to the acre, and always plant radishes in the row. 
We devote much labor during the first three weeks by the use of the horse 
hoe, and we continually use the hoe, as long as we can get into the crop 
without injury; the carrots must be thinned, allowing each carrot about 
eight inches. 

The radishes bring a good price, realizing from forty to one hundred and 
twenty dollars to the acre. 

As to manure, I have known a field to produce ninety bushels to the 


acre, and by using plenty of manure the same field has produced four hun" 
dred and seventy bushels per acre. In harvesting them we run a sub-soil 
plow near each row, on both sides, and then pull by hand; they are topped 
by hand afterwards. 

Osage Orange — How Far North It Thrives. 

Mr. R-ichard Johnson, East Groveland, Livingston county, N. Y., says: 
" One of my neighbors has a door-yard fence of the orange, on ground not 
naturally drj^ and but partly under-drained, and it has stood the past 
winter as well as could be wished. If the roots are kept from stagnant 
water there is no danger of the frosts of winter killing the top. The high 
prices and scarcity of rails and lumber warn us that we cannot too soon 
commence planting hedges. I have no desire to see the day when we 
farmers will be compelled to keep our cows in close inclosures and deprive 
them of the pleasure of roaming over the green pastures and reposing 
under the cool shade trees. May not the cattle-plague that is making such 
terrible destruction in the Old World have been caused, in the first place, 
by close confinement in filthy stables? I have been flattering myself that 
Osage was just the thing for us; that on good soil for winter wheat it 
would grow finely, and make a fence that would stop everything that had 
not wings." 

Mr. Henry Money writes from Babcock's Grove, 111., that the Osage 
hedges are not killed there, in the latitude of Chicago. " In a term of 14 
years I never knew Osage plants to be killed but once, and in that case 
they were set in autumn, and not properly protected by mulching. We 
think here there is nothing like it. It stands the attacks of summer and 
winter and venerable hulls. Its only failure is when set upon wet land that 
has not been under-drained, or neglected when first set and allowed to grow 
up and be choked with grass. The plants, before setting, should be sorted 
and the different sizes set by themselves, to insure uniformity in growth. 
A few of each size should be put in the cellar to keep them back until you 
ascertain if any fail to grow. You can then fill up the gaps. Thorough cul- 
tivation is necessary, and the plants should never be allowed to get two 
or three feet high before they are cut back, and they must be regularly and 
carefully pruned every year." 

June Grass. 

Mr, A. M. Ward, Freedom, N. H., says the recommendation to sow June 
grass would not be popular, inasmuch as June grass — or May grass, as it 
is called here — fed exclusively to stock, produces a disease (particularly 
in calves and young cattle) called here the Burton or gaunt ail. They 
gaunt up, are costive, and, when very bad, refuse to eat or drink, and die 
if a remedy is not administered at once. The town of Albany, N. H., 
(formerly called Burton, whence the name Burton ail, where the disease is 
said to have originated,) is famous for its gaunt cattle, and it is hardly 
possible to raise a calf on many farms. Wherever the dry, why June grass 
I abounds in field or pasture, there they have the disease, and vice versa. 
If Albany was the ojily place where they have the disease, we might think 


it was something else which caused it; but there are symptoms of the dis- 
ease, more or less, wherever June grass abounds, if there is not plenty 
of clover — or something else loosening to the bowels — to counteract its 
effects. I venture to say, that if you should ask 100 old farmers of any 
town in this county their opinion of June grass, 99 would tell you they 
would not have it on their farms." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — It can hardly be possible that this is the June grass 
{poa prateme) so highly approved by the farmers of this vicinit3^ Mr. Ward 
gives the following remedy for gaunt ail: "Burn a table-spoonful of cop- 
peras to a powder, and mix with half a pint of soft soap and half a pint of 
new milk, and drench the animal thoroughly with it." 

Barren Spots in Land. 

Mr. A. M. Barton, Fulton, Lancaster county. Pa., says " there are places 
in fields bordering on the Susquehanna river, the soil of which is a black 
loam, and which will produce good crops of wheat, oats and grass, and yet 
will not produce Indian corn. The country is hilly — not inclined to be 
stony. The spots will appear in places of nearly a quarter of an acre, 
and all around the spots the corn will be good. It makes no difference 
how much you improve it, the corn will be the same, 'but not quite so bad 
in a wet season. It does not appear in any fields of the farm but those 
bordering" on the river. Please give me your opinion about this matter, 
whether you can tell me the reason or not." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Perhaps some other correspondent may be able to 
throw some light upon this matter. We think to those in attendance such 
cases are unknown. It is certainly worthy of investigation what there can 
be in the soil poisonous to corn and not poisonous to other plants of the 
same genus. 

Pork for Food. 

Mr. Seward Mitchell, Cornville, Me., wants the Club to express an opin- 
ion about the hygienic effects of swine's fle?h as food. " Many persons 
here contend it is unhealthy, while others declare it the most healthy kind 
of meat Is it so, or not?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — That, in our opinion, depends wholly upon custom, 
or how much persons are addicted to the use of pork, and how far their 
minds are affected by prejudice against its use or in regard to its health- 
fulness or unhealthfulness. It certainly does not appear that those who 
live almost exclusively upon swine's flesh are any more healthy than those 
who live almost exclusively on beef and mutton. Yet, if it is true that like 
produces like, it will be easy to account for the leading characteristics of 
some families who do a good deal more squealing than is quite natural for 
any animals without bristles. 

Productive Bees. 

Mr. Augustus Gibbs, Livonia, Livingston county, N. Y., obtained 10 
swarms and 160 pound of cap-honey from five hives«of bees the past sea- 
son, which he thinks beats the account lately given of 49 swarms and 800 
pound from 36 hives. 


Farmers' Clubs — How to Organize. 

Mr. Joseph Evans, Marl ton P. 0., Burlington county, N. J., writes: 
" Some of the most enterprising farmers of this vicinit}^ wish to start a 
Farmers' Club. It being a new business to us, we would be very thankful 
for a little advice — a suitable constitution, by-laws, &c." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Make no written constitution or by-laws. Have 
no more form and ceremony about your meetings than you do when half a 
dozen neighbors meet upon any other occasion, except to ask one of your 
number to occupy the seat as chairman, to keep debaters in order, and not 
let one or two men do all the talking. Whenever you find you have got a 
good chairman, stick to him as long as he will serve. If you have any 
man capable of writing out a brief report of the leading matters debated, 
to be published in some local paper, appoint him secretar3^ For the benefit 
of the antiquarian society, you may have the names of all who take a part 
in the proceedings of your club recorded in a book, together with such 
facts as you consider worth preserving. Don't fix upon any rules of fees 
of membership. Ask everybody, men and women, to attend the meetings 
of the Farmers' Club, and to consider themselves members. If money is 
needed at any time, raise it by a free contribution and have done with it. 
That's the wav to or2:anize and make a Farmers' Club successful. 

Fever and Ague. 

Mr. D. C. Leach, Traverse City, Grand Traverse Co., Michigan, thinks 
we are in error in saying that ague prevails more or less everywhere. 
He is sure the Grand Traverse county is free from it. '' I venture to eaj 
that not a single case of ague ever originated here, and that every case 
imported from the prairies of Illinois or elsewhere has been speedily and 
effectually cured. The surface of this region is gently undulating, in 
some places hilly, and is almost everywhere covered with a heavy growth 
of sugar maple, interspersed with beech, elm, basswood, and, in many 
places, with hemlock. Springs, brooks and lakes or ponds are numerous, 
and the water in them is almost invariably as pure as can be found on the 
continent. The soil runs through all grades, from a light sand (near the 
lake) to a tolerably stiff clay. A sandy loam, ranging from light to 
heavy, is the prevailing soil. Notwithstanding the high latitude, the 
promise for fruit is very fine. Hundreds of bushels of peaches were 
grown around Grand Traverse the past summer. Some of our most intel- 
ligent men will plant extensive peach orchards next season. This region 
has many streams flowing over pebbly bottoms, with beautifully clear and 
drinkable water, and always stocked with an abundance of speckled trout. 
The numerous beautiful lakes are bordered by pebbly beaches, with a 
background of gently rolling eminences. The sands are all calcareous, 
and therefore possess an inexhaustible element of fertility in the lime with 
which it is saturated, and must continue to be supplied as the calcareous 
pebbles undergo a slow decomposition." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — This is the secret of the productiveness cf the 
sandy soil of New Jersey. With such a fruit region as that open to 
occupants, there can be no inducements beside a milder climate to turDj 


emigration from Michigan to New Jersej' for the purpose of cultivating 

Wounds — How to Cure with Smoke. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Burn some woolen rags or greasy wool, or better 
still, taglocks of wool, and hold the bleeding wound some minutes in the 
thick smoke. As soon as the bleeding stops, apply a bandage, and you 
need do nothing more to cause the wound to heal. The same remedy is 
good applied to ulcerous wounds or old sores; but the benefits will be 
most marked upon fresh cuts. The smoke of wood will answer a good 
purpose, though nothing is equal to taglocks. Probably the next best 
substance would be the dried droppings of sheep or cows. 

Planting Trees by the Eoadside. 

Mr. W. 0. Devoll, Hayti, Cayuga Co., N. Y., wants the Farmers' Club 
to " urge upon the legislature to pass a law, the present winter, making 
it the duty of all landowners to plant fruit-trees by the roadsides. If 
this were done, and the refuse stuff that is now thrown in the roads by 
boorish farmers were put as mulching about the trees, more good would 
accrue from the law than any law ever enacted on this continent. Nothing- 
is more easy or practicable than the enforcement of such a law. Let the 
Highway Commissioners be empowered to see that the thing is done, and 
make it the duty of pathmasters to protect the trees and replenish them 
when necessary. The blessed effects of such a thing are too numerous to 
mention. Let it suffice, that the children of the poor would be supplied 
with frait, and taught, at the same time, to love and venerate the trees 
which supplied them with it." 

Mr. DevoU thinks the Club has the power to produce the most beneficial 
reform, and urges the members not to shirk the responsibility. 

A New Earth-Pulverizer. 

The model of a newly-invented machine for pulverizing the earth, pat- 
ented by Mr. L, S, Fithian, Rahway, N. J., was exhibited with a view to 
procure a committee of the Club to examine its working as soon as the 
condition of the ground would permit, so as to test the question whether 
this is an improvement upon other machines for the same purpose. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — We cannot describe this new candidate for favor 
so that it will be fully understood without drawings. The reader, how- 
ever, may suppose a frame five feet wide and ten feet long, supporting two 
axles, the forward one of which is the center of a traction-wheel called a 
motor, upon the ends of the spokes of w^hich iron- plated bars are fixed ^ 
not straight across, but so that they strike to the ground in a t^'iangular 
manner, being intended to represent the way a hor&e^s hoof strikes and 
takes hold upon the ground, and thus avoid the slipping of the traction- 
wheel, which has been the great difficulty in all former attempts with 
earth-working machines. 

Behind the motor-wheel is another, the spokes of which are armed with 
sharp cutting knives, so arranged that the cuts are all diagonal, or as it 
were, like the threads of a great screw, and these shave up the soil in 



thin slices and throw it up into a finely pulverized bed in the rear. The 
earth from the knives which work lowest down, falls upon that from the 
surface, so that the stubble and weeds are quite covered. The great object 
of having a driving-wheel is to give the cutting-wheel a much more rapid 
motion than could be obtained by dragging it over the ground unaccom- 
panied by the motor. Of course the width and depth of the cutting can 
be regulated exactly to suit the operator. The working machine which 
Mr. Pithian has had in operation in various places cuts thirty-two inches 
wide, and six inches deep," and requires four horses to work it effectually 
upon ordinary loamy soil, which must be entirely free of stones; though 
one gentleman certifies that he worked it easily upon the light lands near 
Camden, N. J. Several gentlemen of character who saw it in operation 
there and elsewhere, .have given it as their opinion that this machine would 
become an important addition to our agricultural implements. 

Mr. A. M. Spangler, Philadelphia, whose name is well known to most 
agricultural readers, says he saw it operated in a field thickly covered 
with stubbles and ragweed, all of which was thrown entirely out of sight, 
and the surface left finely pulverized and as mellow as an ash-heap. He 
thinks the machine one of the most important inventions of the day for the 
benefit of the farming interest. 


January 2, 1866. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ely in the chair; Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretary, 

Fruit Growers' Insect Enemies. 

Dr, Trimble stated that fruit growing occupied more of the attention of 
this Club than any other one subject. More trees are planted than ever 
before, and there is more systematic manuring and cultivation; still most 
kinds of fruits are poorer and higher priced every year, and many orchards 
are shorter lived than formerly. 

Throughout large sections of this country the Tent Caterpillar has taken 
possession of the apple orchards — eating off the leaves in May and June, 
so that in midsummer such trees give little more shade than in winter. 
And this goes on year after year. Such trees necessarily become enfeebled 
for want of a healthy breathing apparatus — as men become feeble whose 
lungs are unsound. 

Few birds feed upon hairy caterpillars, and this one seems to escape all 
except the two species of Cuckoos. Parasites seldom control it. But the 
indications for its destruction are so plain and simple that orchardists who 
permit this pest to injure their trees and destroy the crops deserve but 
little sympathy. 

The Apple Tree Borer is another serious enemy. Many apple orchards 
begin to decline about the period of bearing, and although the trees will 
struggle on several years, they mature but little fruit and that alwaj's 
poor. This insect is a still more fatal enemy of the quince than the apple. 
The other varieties of fruit trees escape it. 


The sig'ns of this borer are always present, but especially coiispicnong 
in summer. A little attention when the trees are j^oung- will prevent its 
becoming troublesome. Trees that have been neglected for years are often 
so girdled as to be irrecoverable. The remedy for this pest is mechanical. 
The sawdust-like borings indicate his retreat, and a piece of copper wire 
about a foot long and the size of a quill can be made to reach him — punch 
away till the end of that wire comes out coated -with a fluid somewhat like 
cream. The fruit grower who permits either this or the peach borer to 
have its own way, must do something else for a living. 

The doctor spoke of the Canker worm and some others of the caterpil- 
lars, injurious to the foliage of trees, and then dwelt at length upon the 
Curculio and apple moth — the signs of their presence^ their habits and the 
ways to manage them. 

In conclusion he stated as his opinion, after twenty years o-f investiga- 
tion, both practically in the orchard and from the study of the Avorks cf 
others, that all the insect enemies of both trees and fruit can be conquered, 
that the whole subject can be made one of the JixeA sciences. There need 
be no mystery about it. But all the nostrums must be given up. Most of 
them are utterly useless and none will be satisfactory. 

If I were a young man starting in life, I would plant orchards of necta- 
rine, apricot and plum trees, and if the young fruit formed on these ti'ees I 
would keep it to maturity. The curculio should not have it. My apples 
should not fall in June and July more than one year, even if I had to fight 
these enemies single handed. 

Apples for Late Keeping in Warm Latitudes. 

Mr. Nichols, of Hammonton, N. J,, stated that the greatest difficulty 
which apple growers experienced there was to get sorts that would keep 
till spring. Those from central and northern New York and New Eng- 
land, which there keep quite sound till May, will not keep later than Janu- 
ary in South Jersey. ' Are there not some grown in the southern States 
which will fill this want ? 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter said that he had fifty sorts of scions, obtained 
from North Carolina, Georgia and Alabama, which he hopes to fruit and 
prove within a few years, whether valuable or not. Among the lot is one 
very celebrated G-eorgia apple called magnum bonun:>. 

New Jersey Statistics — Sandy Land not Barren. 

Mr. David Petit, Salem Co., N. J. — '' The soil of southern New Jersey 
has been held, in the estimation of many, to be sandy, poor and unproduc- 
tive. To show that that stigma is not altogether deserved, I send you 
some statistics of the productions of Salem county, compared with other 
counties. According to the Census Report of 1850, the county contains 
105,956 acres improved land, and 38,942 unimproved, making 144,898 
acres ; and produced 1,240,000 bushels wheat, corn, rye and oats, which 
make ll.t bushels per acre for all the improved land, the greatest yield 
per acre of any county in the State, Warren county comes next, producing 
11.47 bushels. Cumberland county next^ 11,1 bushels. Mercer county 


next, 10.4 bushels. Somerset next, 10 bushels, and Hunterdon next, nearly 
10 bushels. 

" It is stated in Lippincott's Gazetteer, that Lancaster county, Pennsyl- 
vania, 'contains 950 square miles, or 608,000 acres. In respect to popu- 
lation, it is only inferior to Philadelphia and Alleghany counties. In the 
value of agricultural productions, it is not equaled by any county in the 
State. In 1850 it produced 1,803,312 bushels corn, 1,365,111 bushels 
wheat, and 1,578,321 bushels oats, making in the aggregate 4,746,744 
bushels. The quantity of oats was the greatest raised in any county in the 
United States ; that of wheat the greatest in any except Monroe county, 
New York, and that of corn greater than any county in the State.' 

" With all these great crops, the product per acre is less than eight 
bushels, while the product of Salem count}'', including the unimproved land 
in the same kind of crops, is 8.45 bushels per acre. Salem produced as 
many pounds of hay and butter per acre as Lancaster, and produces 
now twice as many bushels of Irish potatoes as Lancaster did in 1850, be- 
side 100,000 bushels of sweet potatoes. It produced 53,800 bushels of 
grass seeds — more than half in the State, and more than one-fourth as 
many bushels as New York, which produced the largest amount of any 
State. In 1860 the crop had increased to 82,000 bushels. The crops of 
grain have increased since 1850 to 1,500,000 bushels or more, for an ave- 
rage yield. The crop for 1855 was large, estimated at nearly 3,000,000 
bushels ! In other agricultural productions the Census Report will show 
Salem to have done her share, particularly in fruit. The county has about 
doubled her productions the last 25 years, and having two beds of green 
sand marl and one of calcareous earth, or friable limestone, crossing the 
county and easy of access, the people will be able to double their crops 
again in the next 25 years. And now, having made this statement, which 
may appear to some highly colored, I would respectfully invite a commit- 
tee of 3'our Club to give us a call some time next year, when the crops are 
growing, and view them for yourselves; and if we cannot entertain you as 
you were received at Hammonton and Yineland, it will not be for the want 
of a will on our part." 

Mr. Solon Robinson remarked, that the soil of that county was in all 
essential particulars like that of Cape May, Cumberland, Atlantic and 
Ocean counties, where hundreds of thousands of acres of land still remain 
in forest, never having been touched by hoe or plow, or in any way made 
to produce food for the human family. 

Adobe Houses. 

Mr. George T. Ray, Canton, Lewis Co., Mo., wants the Club to answer 
the following questions: 

"First, the manner of making- the bricks? Second, the best size for the 
same ? Third, what kind of mortar to be used in laying up the walls ? 
Fourth, can the plastering be put right on the walls so that it will stay? 
I shall build the walls about 12 feet high,, put them on a good stone foun- 
dation, and have a covered porch about eight feet wide all around the 


Mr. Solon Robinson. — The answers are: 1. The bricks may be made 
either by hand or machine. The best machine probably ever invented for 
the purpose is the Adamantine Brick press by L. C. Woodruff, Buffalo, N. 
Y. 2, When the bricks are made b}- hand they are frequently made larger 
than when made for burning — generally 4x8x12 inches— and since the 
time of the Israelites in Egj^pt, straw has been mixed with the clay. 3. 
The same kind the bricks are made of, or lime-mortar. 4. It can be put 
on the walls, but it won't stay in any situation where the bricks will 
become damp and be affected by frost. Your stone foundation and covered 
porch may possibly preserve your wall so that they will always remain 
sound. We look for the time when adobe houses will be built everywhere 
upon the Western prairies, but it will be after men have learned how 
cheaply they may cover them with the newly discovered material called 
Plastic Slate, which will adhere to the sun-dried brick and render it per- 
fectly impervious to water. A kind of adobe houses are built at Vineland, 
New Jersey, of what is called concrete brick. T. A. Button, of that place, 
says he presses the brick in a machine, and, when laid up in a wall, they 
do not need plastering upon the outside. 

Bone Mill Wanted. 

Mr. Solon M. Baboll, North Stephentown, Rensselaer Count}', N. Y., 
Dec. 23, 1865, inquires: " Is there any mill suitable for grinding bones, 
which may be run by a two-horse power ? If not, what kind of mill and 
what power is necessary for that purpose, and what is its cost?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — We advise Mr. B., and all others in need of the 
same information, to address the Boston Milling and Manufacturing Com- 
pany, whose process of reducing bones to an impalpable powder is the 
only one of any practical value to American farmers. The same process 
is also used to reduce oyster-shells. 

Mr. Fuller, an agent of that company, happening to be present, stated 
that the mill used was a quartz-crushing machine, costing $6,000, and 
requiring a I5-horse engine to grind bones, which are the most difficult to 
reduce to powder of any substance ever operated upon. They can grind 
quartz, feldspar, or the slag of an iron furnace, easier than bones. But 
thev can, and do, reduce the latter to the fineness of wheat flour. One of 
these mills will be in operation in New York within a few weeks. It 
would not answer for such a purpose as the mill inquired for by the writer 
of that letter, nor does Mr. F. know of any that would. 

Dr. Crowell stated that he had a small mill that would grind feldspar, 
though at a slow rate, which cost only $140. The bed-stone is of quartz, 
42 inches in diameter. It might answer for a farmer to grind' bones, if he 
had some cheap power, such as wind or water, and where rapid perform- 
ance was no object. 

Mr. Lewis Lewis, Prospect, Oneida County, N. Y., wants to know 
" whether soft limestone ground to powder would be beneficial to land, or 
whether it would act the same as plaster does if sown upon clover." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — It would not act the same as plaster, because it is 
a different material. We presume it would be beneficial, biit that it would 
cost more to reduce it by .machinery than it would by fire. 


Strawberry Mulching. 

Mr. George F. Rowland, St. Lawrence County, N. Y., writes: "Should 
leaves, straw or other mulching" substances, be removed from plants in 
spring? If not, how thick a coat of leaves will they penetrate? I 
covered my plants this fall equal to four inches of packed leaves." 

Mr. Solon Robinson.^Then, unless you remove them very early in the 
spring, you will never see a green leaf upon your plants again; and if the 
weather there is as warm as it has been here so far, your strawberries are 
probably already smothered, for no living thing can stand a covering of 
four inches of packed leaves. In this vicinity, v/here strawberries are 
mulched with straw or marsh hay, the ground is not covered an inch deep, 
yet it should be removed from the crown of the roots, as soon as the enow 
is off and freezing weather is over. 

The chairman read, for the information of the Club, the following piece 
of useful information: 

Coal Tar and Phenic Acid in Agriculture and Gardening. 

At a late sitting of the Societe Imperiale et Centrale d^ Agriculture of 
France, M. Chevreul communicated an interesting paper by M. Lemaire on 
the use of coal tar and phenic acid (also called phenol and carbolic acid) 
in destroying parasites and ridding both plants and animals of them, A 
very small quantity of phenic acid, benzine or analine, will destroy micro- 
phytes (mold, microscopic mushrooms, &c.) and a great many radiata, 
mollusca, insects and vertebrata. All the inferior creation avoid the ema- 
nations of these substances. M. Lemaire commends, in the case of the 
oidium, for instance, that three per cent of coal tar be intimately mixed up 
with earth or sand and laid about an inch thick all round the root of the 
vine. Some 20 vines treated in this way yielded an excellent crop, while 
an equal number adjoining the former, and left to themselves, had all their 
grapes utterly destroyed. When insects are to be kept away from plants 
two different cases may present themselves; either the plant is as 3^et free 
from them, or it has already been attacked. In both cases the above men- 
tioned coal tar sand will perform its office, it is said, with infallible efficacy. 
Snails, slugs, larvae or perfect insects will avoid all plants thus protected 
so long as there is a volatile principle left in the coal tar, which, when 
exhausted, should be renowned. This sort of coal tar powder has another re- 
markable effect. When introduced into the soil in proper proportions, it wnll 
not only cause all insects to disappear, but also increase the vigor of the 
plants themselves. If manure be watered before being dug into the earth, 
with water containing one thousandth part of phenic acid, a similar but 
less durable effect will be obtained. M. Lemaire also says that corn and 
all dry agricultural produce in garners or barns may be saved from the 
ravages of moldiness or noxious insects by merely impregnating the air 
with the emanations of phenic acid. 

English Specifics to Destroy Insects. 

Mr. R. U. Thomas, Chester, England, says: "I send you a most nseful 
recipe to destroy all insects which infest peach, nectarine, apricot, apple 


and rose trees. It's the best we have in the old country, and where applied 
will kill. The aphis cannot stand it, and the only harm it can do is to the 
leaves. The best time to apply it is in the winter and again jiTst before 
the buds open. It can be used at any time, care being taken not to paint 
the leaves too much, or see that they are syringed as soon as the aphides 
are killed. It is as follows: Boil a quarter of a pound of quassia chips in 
one gallon of water for 15 minutes, strain, and add to the decoction a 
quarter of a pound of soft soap. Apply it with a painter's brush, or, what 
is better, a soft shaving-brush, painting the branches upward so as not to 
injure them. After trying various nostrums, the above decoction is the 
only one successfully used in Old England." 

Lard -Press for Family Use. 

Mr. John B. Ellis, Delphi, Carroll county, Ind., inquires: "Will the 
Farmers' Club inform me how to make a good lard-press for family use?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Yes, sir. Procure a screw of wood or iron, which 
fits in a frame of wood, so that you can apply its power to a platten that 
will press the scraps of fat into a curb made round or square of any desired 
size, and squeeze them dry. One of Hickock's cider-presses will make a 
good lard-press, though larger than needed for family use. 

Dwarf Apple Trees. 

Mr. B. Cole, Plattsmouth, Cass county, Nebraska, wants to know: "What 
are the advantages and disadvantages connected with dwarf apple trees 
when compared with standard trees, where it is very desirable to raise a 
supply of apples for family use and market? 1. Are they hardy and long . 
lived? 2. What kind of stock is best? S. Will they bear younger? 
4. Would it pay to plant out several hundred or 1,000 trees?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — In answer to your question 1. The principal ad- 
vantage is saving of space and obtaining fruit at an earlier day. It has 
been recommended to persons planting orchards in a new country like 
Nebraska, to set standard and dwarf trees alternatel3^ 2. They are hardy, 
but not long-lived. 3. Paradise. 4. Yes. 5. That depends entirely upon 
circumstances, of which the planter should be the judge, without asking 
advice of others 1,000 miles awa3^ 

Mr. Ellis, in conclusion, says: " I wish information concerning a hy- 
draulic ram. I have never seen one. I have a spring of pure, soft water 
70 yards from my house — 16 feet lower; runs about 16- gallons per minute; 
can have five feet fall near the spring. Can it be permanently and economi- 
cally brought to my house?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Yes, sir; you can have about one-eighth of that 
water, by the power of the other seven-eighths running through the hydraulic 
engine, discharged into a cistern at the top of your house or barn^ and thus 
water the whole farmery. Jt would probably cost you from $100 to $150. 
Such engines are kept b}^ agricultural warehouses. 

The Best Soil for Grapevines. 

Mr. M. B. Bateham, Secretary Ohio Pomological Society, sends us ex- 
tracts from the address of Dr. Warder upon this subject, who says: " The 


pioneer planter of the Lake Region even declares that those vineyards 
which were prepared in the most thorough manner by trenching, always 
heretofore recommended, are the most unsatisfactory in their results, and 
that the best and most productive are heavy soils that were merely well 
plowed, and the roots were placed in holes dug into the hard and previously 
undisturbed clay, and then firmly trodden in at planting. Pure sands are 
not generally successful when used as grape lands, unless they are based 
upon a clay subsoil, in which case they have proved eminently satisfactory 
in some regions, and with some varieties of the grape. About Cleveland, 
and at various points along the Lake Shore Region, there are ancient 
beaches, well known as the Lake Ridges, which are composed of sandy 
soil, containing however quite a mixture of other ingredients, and some- 
times consisting of loamy soil rather than sand. Upon some of these the 
grape is cultivated quite profitably, and there are not wanting advocates 
of sandy soils for vineyards. In these situations it will probably be found 
that there is a sufficiency of alluminous material in connection with the 
sands, or in the lower strata, in the subsoil, as may readily be seen in ex- 
cavations and in the exposed bluifs along the lake. JSIear Sandusky, stiff 
clay is preferred. The natural indications there preferred are the oaks, 
and among the humbler plants, the Pennsjdvania blue grass, or Poa com- 
pressa, which always takes possession of such clays, particularly if they 
contain lime. Around Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and other places, the 
lands of the coal measure are found excellent for vinej^ards. The soil is 
loamy and underlaid with clay that is often exceedingly tenacious. On the 
abrupt hillsides, many of which have been planted with grapes, the shale 
predominates in a less decomposed condition, and is mingled with frag- 
ments of sandstone, so that in some vine3^ards the whole soil seems to be a 
mass of thin layers of rock broken up, rather than earth suitable for plant- 
ing. Lower down, however, there is clay holding water, though the upper 
layers must be well drained. LTpon such material the vines appear to 
thrive. In the valley we find terraces of sands and gravels such as are 
common to most of our large rivers; and here we may also discover exten- 
sive flats of clayey land. Upon the former the grapes have not been re- 
markably successful, but upon the clay deposits they have given greater 
satisfaction. Around Cincinnati the vineyards are in the blue limestone 
region. The Germans selected the steep hillsides of the Silurian limestone 
formation, where the soil is derived immediately from the decomposition of 
the shales that alternate with the limestone. These being highly calca- 
reous, furnish a tenacious clay rich in lime, very retentive of water, and 
becoming hard when dry. 

" Underdraining has not been practised to any great extent in such 
situations, except so far as it is furnished by the stone walls often used to 
support the terraces where the hills are steep, but in such situations the 
surface drainage is abundantly rapid. Upon the hilltops the soil is more 
loamy, and often quite friable, and here it is underlaid with a tenacious 
clay, needing underdrains even on the highest points. In such positions* 
there is occasional!}' a deposit of drift which is sufficiently porous for natu- 
ral drainage. In the great valleys of excavation we find natural terraces 
of sands and gravels along the rivers, resting upon and against great beds 


(jf diluvial clayH, which latter, wlion plantc^d with tb<i grap^i, Ija. o hu^yx'ed^jid 
intH-li hotter than the j.^rav^'lly and Kandy terrar;<;H. 

" 'I'he dfM.'p alluvialK of* the river bottomn have uot proved at all Kati^jfac- 
tory. We may find viiieyardK in all these several hituatiorjK, and there are 
advocatcH for each ; but the general experience j'h adverse to the river ter- 
races and favorable to the clays of the hillsides of the elevated dilnviunris 
of ancient valleys of excavation, and especially to the soils found upon the 
elevated liilltops." 

In conclusion, the vine-planter is recommended to study the habit and 
preference of the paiticular variety of g^rape be designs to cultivate. En- 
deavor to ascertain the soils to which it is best adapted, or the grapes that 
succeed best upon such soil acd situation as he may be possessed of, and 
select accordingly. 


Mr Solon Jiobinson. — Some time since we read at one of our meetings a 
communication from Mr. Ainsworth, of West Bloomfield, N. Y., in relation 
to the propagation of trout. He says he has been overwhelmed with let- 
tors from all parts of the United States, asking further information in the 
various departments of their cultivation, has induced him to communicate 
the following important information required in growing trout, both natu- 
rally and artificially. He furnishes also a full description of the celebrated 
Caledonian Spring Creek, the vast numbers of trout it yearly produces na- 
turall}', with Mr. S(4h Green's gigantic operations in growing this favorite 
fish in it artificially. 

To cultivate brook trout successfully, the water must be pure, clean 
spring water, free from all sediment ; but a tincture of lime, or sulphur, 
does no harm, as far as I have been able to discover in six years' observa- 
tion and practice. I have seen them hatch and flourish remarkably well in 
such water. 

The temperature of the water in the hatching races, or troughs, during 
the time of incubation, must be between 3G° and 48° to insure success. 
The best temperature, in my opinion, all things considered, is from 42® to 
45°. When above this temperature thc}^ hatch too soon, and are too weak 
and tender. When below, more or less die during incubation. Conse- 
quently great care should be taken to place the hatching boxes for arti- 
ficial propagation, or to make the spawning beds in natural cultivation 
where the water will be within these temperatures during the coldest 
weather in winter. The temperature of our best springs is 48° the year 

Trout will not do well where the water rises in the summer above 60° 
or G4* at most. The best temperature to grow them to perfection is be- 
tween 50° and 58°. 

This fact should always be borne in mind when constructing ponds, so 
as to have the size of the ponds correspond with the volume of water in 
the stream supplying them. 

For example: A spring that produces as much water as will run through 
an inch square hole, will supply a pond 20 by 30 feet square, or 600 square 



feet surface, and keep the water below 64*^ through the summer, and if 
covered with a house, or boards, so as to shade the water effectually, it 
may be double this size. I have one of this size shaded, supplied with an 
inch stream, and the temperature never rises above 64°, and the trout 
are always perfectly healthy in it. 

Wlien the spring or stream will fill a four inch square hole, then the 
pond may be 16 times as large, containing 9,600 square feet, or a pond 80 
by 120 feet square, and so on, according to the size of the stream. 

For growing large trout, the water should be from eight to fifteen feet 
deep; for small ones, from two inches to five feet, according to the size of 
the trout. An inch stream running through two perfectly arranged hatch- 
ing troughs, will hatch 200,000 spawn, and grow them till about 1^ inches 
long, when a part of them, from time to time, must be put into other 
streams. This stream will grow 10,000 trout the first year, 2,000 the 
second year, and 500 the third year, thus decreasing rapidly in number as 
they increase in size. 

A 16-inch stream might hatch 3,200,000 trout; grow 160,000 the first 
year, 32,000 the second year, and 8,000 the third year, and 3,000 or 4,000 
the fourth year that would average one pound each. 

Young trout, till from one to two inches long, do much the best in shallow 
water, say from two inches to three inches deep, but as they increase in 
size the water should be increased in depth. By the first of November, if 
well fed, they will be from three inches to five inches long. At this time 
the water may be increased to the depth of three feet. 

The most difficult period in growing trout artificially is about the time 
they commence feeding. This period is from 40 days to 60 days after 
hatching-, according to the temperature of the water. At this time a large 
proportion of them are Very weak, and entirely unable to stand the least 
current, and consequently are carried with the current through the whole 
length^of the hatching-box against the screen (if one) at the lower end of 
the box, and are soon sufibcated and die. I have lost them by the thou- 
sand in this way. To obviate tliis, put a tank 12 feet square at the lower 
end of the hatching-box, so that the water will run into it, with a gentle 
current, carrying the weak trout with it into the tank, where they can rest 
in still water from two to three inches deep. In tltis way they will soon 
recover and come into the very slight current to look for food, and, as they 
grow stronger, run up the hatching-box again. By this arrangement I 
have decreased the mortality so that I lose but a very small per centage, 
compared to what I did before. 

I first feed boiled eggs rubbed very fine, also lobbard milk beaten very 
fine. One egg will feed several hundred thousand trout a day. After they 
get a little larger I feed hashed liver and lobbard milk. Trout feed and grow 
well on meat of any kind, but will not eat any vegetable matter with me. 

The cheapest dam, when the soil will answer, is of dirt. When it is too 
porous, it can be built with a double stone wall, with a two-inch space 
between, and this filled with water lime grout; or when clay is at hand, it 
can be built of dirt with a foot of clay in thickness, the whole length of 
the dam in the center, from bottom to top; or with matched plank, as may 
be the cheapest and most handy to obtain. • 


Depopulated streams where trout have once flourished, can be restocked 
with spawn, or young trout with but proper spawning beds prepared, they 
would increase little expense, and if protected as private streams, and 
with wonderful rapidity, and afford all the sport one or two anglers with 
fly and rod could desire, and furnish a meal of trout daily for a large family 
during the fishing season, and, if the stream is of some size, a large amount 
for sale in addition. B}^ putting a small dam across the stream to raise 
the water a few feet, with a screen on top to prevent the trout from run- 
ning over, with the creek well graveled above to the spring, so as to make 
good spawning beds, the trout would increase naturally tens of thousands 
yearly, and produce a large income at the present price of trout, $1 per 

There is a small spring brook iu the town of Springwater, dammed and 
screened this waj'-, where the trout have increased naturally in a few years 
to over 100,000, and hundreds of them to over two pounds weight each. I 
am told that the proprietor has lately sold the ponds, stream, and trout for 
$8,500. I visited the ponds, three in number, by invitation last summer, 
with rod and fly, and took trout from one to two pounds in weight almost 
every. cast, in certain parts of the ponds. They were beautiful, fat and 
healthy. In other parts of the ponds I found one, two and three-year olds 
in vast numbers. The creek was alive with little ones. The stream did 
not afford more than 30 square inches of water at the time I was there. 
This shows to what extent trout may be increased and grown by pro[ erly 
damming, screening, and graveling small spring brooks. 

The most prolific stream for trout that I have ever seen, or of which I 
have ever heard or read, are the Caledonia Springs, and brook from them. 
This celebrated trout brook rises from the rocks in the village of Caledonia, 
Livingston county, New York. Its whole length is but one mile, when it 
unites with Allen's creek, one of the tributaries of the Genesee, in the vil- 
lage of Mumford. The stream falls about 50 feet from the springs to its 
junction with Allen's creek. The country is all thickly settled, and one of 
the richest and best farming towns in the State. The surface of the land 
is quite level, with banks but little above the surface of the water. 

The stream in places is very rapid, and in others has quite a gentle cur- 
rent, of a mile or more per hour. The springs, as now situated, cover 
about six acres, being dammed slightly for milling purposes. They afford 
about 80 barrels of water per second, atid make a creek from ihret: to four 
rods wide, and from 18 inches to six feet deep, according to the current. 
The bottom is covered with small white shells and gravel. The water is 
clear, pure and perfectly transparent, so that any object can be seen for 
three or four rods very distinctly. It is tinctured with lime and sulphur. 
Its temperature at the springs is 48 degrees the whole year round, but down 
the creek, three-quarters of a mile, it rises in the hottest days in the sum- 
mer to 58 degrees by night, but it is down in the morning to 52 degrees. 
In winter it settles at times to 43 degrees, but generally keeps up to 45 
degrees or 46 degrees. The temperature of the water to Allen's creek is 
very even the year round, but very cold in the summer and quite warm in 
the winter, never freezing the very coldest weather. The water through 
.the whole length of the creek, as well as every stone, stick, weed and blade 


of f^vass, is alive, ard literally covered with numerous insects and larvae 
of flies, s'inuner and winter, so that the trout, howevtu' numerous they are, 
easily obtain all the food they want all times of the year. 

There is but very little surface water that makes into the creek, hence 
the volume of the water is very even, and seldom riley. The first settlers 
of the country found the creek literally filled with trout of great size and 
beauty, and it has remained so 1o this day, notwithstanding it has been 
almost constantly fished, night as well as day, from that time to this. The 
largest and finest trout are tiiken in the evening with a large artificial 
white or gra}^ miller. Dark nights, the banks of the creek in spring and 
summer are often lined with fishermen, when they reel in the speckled 
beauties hand over hand, and often carr}^ them off by back loads. In this 
wa}' tliey someHmes take them tliat weigh four pounds each. The most 
ordinary pupil of Sir Izaak can take them in the evening, when in the mood 
of rising, with the right miller, and with a small piece of angle worm on 
the point of the hook, to induce them to hold on to the hook till the novice 
can make his twitch to hook them. But in the day time none can succeed 
but the expert. The water is so clear, and they are so shj-- and so well 
educated, that it requires a 50 or 60 foot line, a fine 10 foot leader, and 
very small flies or hackles, and those must be cast upon the water so gently 
and life-like to induce them to rise and take the fly, and when tlie}' do take 
it they discover the deception and spit it out so quick that but very few 
a^e ever able to so cast the fly and to jerk quick enough to hook them. 
The fishermen among the oldest inhabi'tants tell me that at the least calcu- 
lation there are 4,000 pounds of trout taken from the creek 3'early, and yet 
they compute the number of trout to-day at 1,000 to each rod of the stream, 
or 820,000 in the creek of all sizes, from four or five pounds down to five 
inches in length. On the 18th of this month I took 110 fine trout in about 
three hours, with the fl}", from the creek, and put them into one of Mr. 
Green's ponds. The day was clear, and the water so clear and transparent 
that I had to fish with a 60 foot line, which took the most of the time to 
get the line out to this length and to reel in the trout against the strong 
current after being hooked. 

The next da}'- I took eighty-five splendid fellows from one place, hardly 
moving from my tracks. These facts show how plenty they were, and 
how ready they are to take the fly in winter. These trout' were as fat, 
active, and gamey as ever I saw tltein in any other stream in May or June. 

Seth Green, esq., the celebrated marksman and fly-thrower of Rochester, 
bought this creek a year ago hist fall, for the purpose 0f growing trout, 
artilicially as well as naturally on an extensive scale. He has since pre- 
pared ponds, races, hatching-house and hatching boxes and troughs for 
0,000,000 of spawn, which he expects to fill during the spawning season, 
which is, with him, from the first of November to the first of April. Last 
winter his two best months for spawn were January and February, and he 
expects the}^ will be this year. 

He has one pond, only 75 feet long, 12 feet w^ide and 5 feet deep, that 
has 9,000 trout in it from 9 inches to 20 inches long, that will weigh from 
a quarter of a pound to three pounds each, all as fat as seals and as 
[Am. Inst.] T 


beautiful as trcut can possibly be^ all caught with the fly, by his own hand, 
siuce he bought the creek, and all can be seen now, any day, at one view, 
by an}'- person who will take the trouble to call on him. On]y think what 
a sight — 9,000 such trout all in the eye at once. What a gigantic and 
magnificent aquarium! 

I am certain that tliis is the largest and finest exhibition of trout in 
America, and probably, in the whole world. This alone would well pay a 
journey of any lover of Sir Izaak from any part of the country to see. But 
this is not all. He has another pond, right by the side of this, 30 by 50 
feet, which contains 20,000 beautiful trout, mostly one and two years old, 
from six to nine inches long, all taken by his own skill, as above. He has 
still another pond, filled with last spring's fry, from three to five inches 

It seems incredible at first thought that such a vast number of large 
trout could live in so small a space, but it is all accounted for and made 
plain, when one learns that the water in the. ponds is changed every 
minute through the day by the large current constantly pouring in upon 
them of tliis cold, pure spi'ing water. 

Some of the trout produced 0,000 spawn each, and from that down to 200, 
according to size. Last year Mr. Green hatched as high as 98 per cent, in 
some instances — in others, about 80 per cent. This year he expects to 
liatch nearl}' all, as he has become master of the business, and knows the 
right time to take the spawn to insure perfect impregnation. I could see 
the young trout in almost every egg that had been taken fifteen da3^s, with 
the naked eye, so that I know his success is perfect so far. With this 
continued success he will very soon be able to stock all the private streams 
and ponds in the country with spawn and young trout, as well as to fur 
nish tons yearly for the table of this, the most delicious and costly of all 
the finny tribe. 

It costs him but little to feed his trout. He tells me they get fully three- 
quarters of their living from the insects (as above) in the water running 
through the ponds. He thinks the trout in his ponds, and in the creek, 
devour fully COO pounds of these various insects daily. 

These facts show how profitable the cultivation of trout can be made 
with proper water, and care, and also the ease with which all the depop- 
ulated waters of the countr}^ can be restocked. 

The spawn can be transported from the 8th to the- loth day after impreg- 
nation, in glass bottles filled with water, by express to any part of the 
country, with saj^t}'', and will nearly all hatch if distributed thinly over 
well prepared gravel beds, in the stream near the spring where the current 
is gentle, and the temperature remains from 40® to 46*^ through the winter, 
and will nearly all take care of themselves after hatching, through the 
spring and summer, and grow to from three inches to five inches in length 
by fall. This is the easiest and cheapest wa}'^ to stock all streams and 
ponds, where the temperature and water will permit. But where they 
will not, then they mu^t be stocked with trout. 

An outlay of from $5 to $500, in spawn and preparing the stream and 
gravel beds, according to the amount any one may feel disposed to invest, 


will produce a corresponding^ show in the earl}^ spring, of j^onng trout. 
Some of tliese young trout will spawn in the fall, and all the fall foUovving 
and with proper care in a few years fully stock the stream or pond, and 
will pay the owner and angler for all tlie expense and trouble, in the very 
exciting sport of taking them with the fly, as well as a delicious meal daily. 

Well impregnated spawn can be obtained, as low as $10 per thousand. 

The cheapest and best time to transport trout is while very small, or 
about the time they commence feeding, say in March or April. Then about 
5,000 can be carried in a barrel half or two-thirds filled with water. They 
can be carried in this way any distance by wagon or railroad. All the 
care required is to keep the water cool, say from 50^ to 60*^, and in con- 
stant motion, to fill it with air as fast as the trout exhaust it, or to change 
it often when standing still. Trout of this age can be had for $50 a thou- 

Large trout can be moved in the same way just as well, only a much 
less number in a barrel, say about 75 one, two and three-year olds. Trout 
of this age are worth $200 a thousand. 

With this information, any one can consult his own desire and purse in 
the manner and extent of stocking his stream or pond. 

From my experience in growing large trout, I would not advise any one 
to grow them for profit to more than three or four years of age, or from 
eight ounces to sixteen ounces in weight. After this age and size, it re- 
quires so much more to feed them, and water to keep them, and they are 
80 m.uch more subject to die, that I find it does not pay, 

I have no spawn nor trout for sale, and have never taken nor grown any 
for that purpose, nor do I intend to hereafter. I commenced raising trout 
artifically in 1859, as an experiment, merely for my own recreation and 
gratification. I have spent some time and money in these experiments, 
but have been abundantly paid in the information and gratification it has 
afforded me for these six years. I have hatched as high as 99 spawn in the 
100, and grown trout by the 1,000 to weigh from one to tliffee pounds each 
during this time, and all with only one square inch of water during the dry 
weather in the summer. 

For the informat on of the readers of these reports wishing spawn, I will 
say I presume they can get them of Mr. Green, and that if the}^ do they 
can be certain of their perfect injpregnation. 

Seth Green's residence and ponds are located near the highway, leading 
from Caledonia village to Mumford village, three-quarters of a mile from 
Caledonia, and one-quarter from Mumford. 

There is an express passing his place from every train of cars passing 
Caledonia, on the Canandaigua and Batavia branch of the New York Cen- 
tral Railroad, and the Corning and Buffalo branch of the New York and 
Erie Railroad, making his place of very easy access from either railroad, 
and from all parts of the country. His post-office address is Mumford, 
Monroe Co., N. Y. 

He would be pleased to have you or any other gentlemen visit his ponds 
and fixtures at any time, when you can see all that I have said more than 
verified, beside seeing one of the best fly-casters in America. 



January 9, 1866. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ely in the chair; Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretary. 

Pruning Dwarf Pear Trees. 

Dr. Crowell exhibited upon the blackboard a representation of a speci- 
men form of 3,000 dwarf pear trees, one year's growth of the bud, and 
asked advice abont the proper manner of pruning them next spring. The 
terminal bud having been pinched in, the trees have thrown out side-shoots, 
and begun to assume the pyramidal form, so much desired. Now the 
question is, how to promote that form the most rapidly. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter said that he would shorten in all the h)V7er limbs 
close to the bole, and cut the upper ones into the desired form as near as 
possible, and shorten the top, if necessary, to increase the strength of the 
limbs, and in transplanting root prune severely. 

Time to Prune. 

Dr. Isaac M, Ward. — It is a nice question to determine when to prune 
and how much to prune — how much an old tree can bear. I am satisfied 
that February and March are good months to prune, though I have been 
successful in August, when trees wanted but little pruning. I should ob- 
ject to tiie recommendation to prune to spurs to be subsequently cut away. 
I prefer to cut close to the trunk at first, with sharp tools. 

Mr. Ely said that he had alwaj^s pruned in winter with success. 

Dr. Isaac M. Ward. — I have nothing to say against summer pruning as 
regards the tree, but believe it equal!}'- healthy to prune in winter when 
labor is not so valuable, and some of the best fruit culturists concur in this 
opinion, including Charles Downing. I have observed that when large 
limbs are cut away in summer, the sap flows and scalds the adjoining bark, 
and causes it to turn black and decay. Such limbs cut off in winter dry 
up, and if the tree is vigorous, it soon heals and is uninjured. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter related his experience in pruning an old neglected 
orchard in winter, some of them severely, the result of which was that 
man}' trees died, and he thoug-iit it one of the very worst practices to prune 
close in winter. The true way, however, is to keep the young trees in 
such a condition that the^^ will never need severe cutting at any time. His 
Lest success has been to prune while the trees were in fruit. It is then 
almost impossible to kill a tree by mutilation. This is proved by trees 
breaking down while overloaded with fruit. 

Mr. Solon Robinson gave some of his experience in pruning, and has 
come to the conclusion that the best way for us is to recommend all who 
have old orchards that need pruning, to do it whenever they have time; 
that trees are just as liable to die from severe pruning at one season as 

An Improved Corn-Siieller. 

Mr. Jacob Brinkerhoff, Auburn, N. Y., elicited a warm interest among'the 
owners of farms by an exhibition of one of his improved corn-shellers, and 
the power necessary to be applied to shell corn was tested by the hands 


of a f^ood many of the members. One of the leading features of tlie im- 
provement exhibited in this machine consists in the fact that one man can 
turn and feed the machine without an assistant, and sliell 80 bus. of Diuton 
corn per day. The grain, cliaff and cobs are thrown into separate places. 
Mr. B. stated tliat in a trial against one of Burrill's machines — which are 
considered tiie best heretofore known — lie shelled half a bushel of ears in 
40 seconds, beating the Burrill machine, though operated by two men. The 
construction of this machine is a wooden cylinder, armed with iron spikes 
working against a concave, which holds the ears up to the cylinder, and is 
so regulated by springs that it can be set to suit ears of different sizes. 
The wholesale and retail prices are S15 to $20. 

Calcareous Marl. 

Mr. H. Parks, Victor, Ontario county, N. Y., sends a specimen of marl 
which he finds abundant upon his farm, where there was once a cedar 
swamp. This ma)'l bed covers eight or ten acres, and he would like the 
opinion of the Club as to its value as a fertilizer upon the surrounding up- 
hinds. He also sends a specimen of petrified cedar, and asks : " Is it the 
action of the water which petrified this, and also moss, sticks and twigs, 
which are found in the waters of a spring adjoining this marl bed? I have 
been a constant reader of Ihe Tribune for the last 20 years, and have re- 
ceived much instruction and profit from the practical discussions held by 
the Farmers' Club." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — Similar marl has been found highly beneficial in 
other localities. It is entirely unlike, and not as valuable as the green 
sand marl of New Jersey, as it contains no potash. Whether it would be 
worth the expense of digging and hauling, can only be determined by 
actual experiment. It is the advice of the Club that Mr. Parks should 
make that trial by giving a piece of land a liberal dressing, leaving a strip 
through the center unmarled, which would show whether the application 
produced any beneficial effect. The petrifactions mentioned are common in 
all limestone water. 

High Price of Freight discouraging to Illinois Farmers. 

Mr. N. C. Meeker writes from Dongola, Union Count}", Illinois, a most 
discouraging picture of farming in that section, but a very uteful one to 
us here, as it fully corroborates all that has been said in this Club about 
the advantages of farming near markets that never can be glutted, and 
where transportation does not eat up all the profits. Mr. Meeker says: 

"My boys raised this year about an acre of sweet potatoes, wliich were 
sent to Chicago, and they sold at $5 a barrel. Out of this is to be taken 
cost of package, freight, storage, drayage, and commission, and they have 
only 90 cents on a barrel left. Hence, it cost $4.10 to send a barrel of 
sw^eet potatoes to Chicago and sell them. At every turn there were 
charges. The boys thought the^^ only got paid for digging. The quality 
was first-rate. More than this, they owe me $6 for seed. You can judge 
whether the coniplaints of Western farmers have any foundation. They 
are talking about digging canals from various points to Chicago. Perhaps 
the next move will be to revive stage-coaches." 


Professor Tillman. — This letter calls to my mind an article wliicli I have 
lately read in one of the English Agricultural magazines, discussing the 
question of the various modes of farming. Tiie result of many experi- 
ments shows that of all methods of using lan^ in the vicinity of large 
cities, producing milk for market is the most profitable. It appears to be 
doubly remunerative to that of grain-growing, considering the cost of the 
two modes. The question is one of vast importance to American farmers. 
It is certain that a very much larger breadth of land in the vicinity of this 
city might be profitably devoted to the production of milk. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter said one of the profits of a milk-farm was not 
sufficiently estimated. A neighbor of his, whose land had very much 
deteriorated by grain-farming, finds his farm almost doubled in value 
during the few years he has been sending milk to New York. The extra 
manure made has restored all the old worn-out fields. 

A Productive Garden Spot. 

Mr. Nelson Hatch, Holly, N. Y., reports the following crop from one- 
fourth acre, which has been planted with potatoes for 25 years continu- 

"It is a hillside of south-eastern exposure, was lightly dressed with 
hog-pen manure, and planted in drills June 1, with medium-sized, uncut 
tubers of peach-blow variety, and yielded 85 bushels of excellent potatoes. 
This is at the rate of 340 bushels per acre." 

Dr. Hexfimer, Mount Pleasant, Westchester County, N. Y. — My last crop 
of peach-blows upon two acres gave 280 bushels. Cusco whites, upon 
one-fourth acre, yielded at the rate of 360 bushels to the acre, 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter said that was a good variety to yield, but has no 
such good qualities as Goodrich's Early. 

Mr. John G. Bergen. — I was in Nova Scotia a few j^ears ago and visited 
one of the best potato-growing regions where it is common for farmers to 
have from 30 to 80 acres, and there, where both climate and soil are suited 
to this crop, I found the estimated average yield was 200 bushels. In 
Kings county, Long Island, where large fields of potatoes are planted, I 
do not think the average, with high manuring, is over 175 — probably not 
over 150 — bushels per acre. 

Apples — Natural Characteristics. 

Mr. C. S. Watkins, Davenport, Iowa, addresses the following to the 
American Institute Farmer's Club: 

"Are there any distinctive characteristics possessed respectively by 
either red or green-skin apples tiiat do not belong to. the other? The 
russet we know to be a distinct species. I am inclined to believe that if 
the apple could be accurately traced to its original home, it would be 
found that the red apples belong to a different latitude from that of the 
green. If there are distinctive features in apples, a knowledge of them 
might tend to improve our grafting operations. My own field of observa- 
tion on these points is so limited that, if the subject be deemed worthy of 


attention, I would like to hear the opinion of some more experienced fruit- 

Mr. R. J. Dodge replied: This brings up the whole question, whether 
the stock has any effect upon the graft, and whether we should graft the 
scion of a sweet apple upon a stock that produces sour ones, and, if so, 
what will be the effect ? Neither books nor chemical analysis gives us 
any information. Chemical analysis does not determine the flavor in any 
given fruit, nor tell us in what flavor consists, yet it is flavor that gives 
value to the apple. 

Dr. Crowell said the chemist can imitate the flavor of any given fruit, 
with fusil oil and the proper acid. 

Prof. Tillman. — If you graft a pear upon thorn, the graft produces pears 
exactly like those upon the original tree. 

Dr. Hexamer said that colors have nothing to do in determining species. 
They are all the same, whether russet, green, red or yellow. 

Rats — The Great Pest of the Farm. 

l[v. T. W. Council, Noblesville, Ind., writes: "I wish to inquire of the 
Club why it is that, while they are engaged in the very praiseworthy effort 
to enlighten and elevate the producing class of the conmiunity, they have 
failed to notice that most destructive pest, the rat ? The connoisseur will 
spend hours, with microscope in hand, to forestall the ravages of some 
diminutive insect, while the gentleman rat is holding carnival in his larder, 
destroying more in an hour than the insect could possibly do in a year. 
Why is it that this pest of humanity is let go scot free ? The Government 
does not deign to levy a tax upon him, though he is a most incorrigible 
consumer. All the traps, cats, and dogs, with the pretended rat-extermi- 
iiators with which the country abounds, have proved successful failures. 
AVill you keep this subject before the Farmers' Club till, by concert of 
action, a universal rat-exterminator be found to clear the country of this 
voracious and most destructive pest, by which the sensitive nerves may 
be quieted and night not made hideous by his constant gnawing. All of 
which, I conceive, will prove a blessing to mankind, and save to the Gov- 
ernment 81,000,000 annually. Rat-ology needs to be studied." 

Mr. II. J. Dodge said he had always found it easy to get rid of rats by 
using a trap of the most simple and least costly kind. It is merely the 
old-fashioned figure 4, which almost every farmer's boy knows how to 
make. This, set under a flat stone, or heavy piece of plank, does not look 
'to the cunning rat like a trap, and he runs under to nibble the bait of 
cheese or meat, or a nubbin of corn, and down it comes upon him. Perse- 
verance with this kind of trap will either catch them all, or frighten the 
rascals away from any rat-infested place. 

Dr. Crowell recommends pieces of cork about as large as the end of one's 
finger, to be fried in fat, which are entirely indigestible, and would soon 
produce death. But as the animals suffer from thirst, they generally run 
out of the house to obtain drink. 

Prof. J. V. C. Smith recommends mixing plaster of Paris with meal or 
lard, and placing it where it will be eaten by the rats. This, as soon as 
moistened in the stomach, adheres, producing inflammation and death. 

312 transactions of the american institute. 

Cistern Filters. 

Mr. Z. Breed, Ware, N. H,, recommends the following cheap and easy 
nieth(Kl of forming" a filter for a cistern: 

"Make a box three bricks long, three bricks high, and narrow ei.ough 
for one brick to reach across; lay firmly in its place witli cement, and fit 
the pipe tightlj'' into the top. Although this nin^'- appear to be a water- 
tiarht box, it is not so. It will always remain full of water as lono- as the 
cistern is full, as the water will pass through the bod}' of the brick " 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — This is cheaper, and probably equally as effectual 
as the division wall of brick heretofore recommended. 

How TO Build a Cheap House. 

Air. J. H. Osborne, Amesbury, Mass., writes: "I would like the opinion 
of the Club upon the following method of constructing the walls of farm 
buildings. Take unburned bricks, molded larger than ordinary, sa}' 6x6x12 
inches, for a foot wall, laying them up in the usual way, using the plastic 
slate cement for the first course, to prevent the ascension of moisture by 
capillary attraction. Cover the walls thus laid, first with a coat of coal- 
tar, after which plaster them with the slate mastic, which I have thought 
applicable to a variety of purposes of immense interest to the farmers of 
this country. Would the mastic adhere firmly to clay walls thus treated? 
I propose to try the experiment, unless the Club thinks I have got plastic 
slate on the brain, and advise to the contrary." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — The Club certainly will not advise to the contrary, 
since the members, or some of them, at least, believe with Mr. Osborne, 
that this newly-discovered material is one of immense importance to 
American farmers. There is not the least doubt that Mi\ 0, may make 
buildings such as he proposes cheaper than by any other known mode of 
construction. The mastic will adhere firmly to the clay, and so it will to 
common lime-mortar plastering, and will enable those who desire it to 
build houses lathed and plastered upon the outside. The plastering may 
then be covered with the slate mastic, and painted to represent any kind 
of stone, and will be impervious to water. 

Rev. M. M. Ransom, pastor of a church at Odessa, Schuyler county, N. 
Y., sa3''S, "the Club will confer a still greater favor to tlie farming com- 
munity by informing us whether this new material will be good for roofing 
sheds which we wish to build for our church. The principal point is the 
comparative cost, and where to obtain the material." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — He is answered that, at present, roofs are put on 
by contract, in different sections of the country, at $7 to $12 per square. 

Mr. James D. Mather, Marcellus, Onondaga county, N. Y., writes: "Will 
not water-lime answer as well as slate ? If so, it can be had at a good 
deal less than $5 a barrel. I believe in paying a 'i-oyalty' when it is for 
a new invention, but not where it is an old one with a 'new hand at the 
bellows.' " 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — All we have to say is, if j^ou think water-lime, or 
sand, or any other material, will answer as well as the slate-fluur, you can 
use it and pay no royalty. Mr. Potter, the discoverer of this new material. 


has tried every tbin<j that his fertile imagination could call up, but having 
found nothing else that Avould reconstruct itself into stone, with the ap- 
pearance of enduring forever, thought himself entitled to a patent. So 
thought the Patent Otfice at Washington; so tliought the Farmers' Club at 
New York, and, as it thought the discover}'' of vast importance to farmers, 
it felt proud to be the first to make it known to them. If any other person 
can discover a cheaper and better mode of roofing, or improving farm 
buildings, we shall be glad to make that process also known. 

Horse Blindness — Is it Hereditary? 

Mr. James A. Shield, Denmark, Lee county, Iowa, asks: " Is it wise for 
farmers to raise colts from blind mares? Do wolf-te(^th in colts have an 
injurious effect upon the eyes? and what is the remedy? ^^^estern farmers 
are in the habit of giving m-uch more corn to colts than eastern, and as 
blind horses are more numerous here than there, it is thought by some to 
be caused by the corn. What is the opinion of the Club?" 

Some of the members think that blindness is hereditary, and that it is 
unsafe to breed from mares out of such a family. And some of us think 
that blindness upon the prairies is more likely to be caused by exposure to 
the cold winds, storms, dust of pollen and glare of snow, than to eating 

Barren Peach Trees. 

Mr. Daniel B. Hadley, Wyandot, Kansas, wants a remedy for barren 
peach trees — not seedlings, but those which have been budded: " We have 
such trees all about this country, some of which have been planted eight 
years, and none of them are prolific. The general complaint is, tliat budded 
peach trees will not bear, while seedlings yield abundant crops. Some 
have root pruned, but that does not seem to furnish a remedy. A neigh- 
bor of mine planted five pits in the spring of 1859, and in 1861, when the 
trees were two years old, they bore him quite a handsome crop; and in 
1862 they were loaded down with bushels on each tree. They had not 
been removed from the spot where they came up, neither had the}'' been 
budded. I had trees which were budded in 1858 which did not yield a 
peach in 1861, and have never borne more than half a dozen each in one 
year since that. This is the experience of this whole neighborhood; so, 
if you can afford any light on this matter, it will be gratefully received by 
a large number of lovers of Crawford's Early and Old Mixon Free." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — This statement furnishes one more aigument in 
favor of our theory — that we have sadl}^ departed from common sense, 
while growing all of our pea-jhes from buds instead of seeds. We cannot 
afford to pursue tin's foolish system an}' longer. It is time enough to graft 
a tree when we have proved the natural tree worthless. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter thought the superior fruitful ness of the seedling- 
trees over those that were budded was owing to a difference in the time of 
blossoming, as sometimes a single day is sufficient to produce this differ- 
ence. A gentleman who has had some experience in fruit growing at the 
west, thinks it is more than likely that the barrenness is occasioned by 
taking the scions or buds from unfruitful trees. 

314 transactions of the american institute. 

Peppermint Oil. 

Mr. Chas. Bctts, St. Joseph county, Michigan. This county is known 
the woild over for its production of peppermint oil. It ma}', I think, be 
safely said, that this county alone produces seven-tenths of the entire pro- 
duct of the world. It is mainly shipped to New York from here, and is 
then sent abroad to Europe, Asia and other points. We have exported this 
year from this county, 29,000 pounds, averaging over 83 per pound. I 
cannot take up your space with an account of its culture and preparation 
for market. 

Sorrel in Soils. 

Some time ago I stated that stable-manure would drive out sorrel. Some 
of your niembers thought it doubtful. It may not do it chemically; that I 
don't assert, though it has something to do with " reconstruction;" but it 
induces a heavier growth of grains and grasses, and this encourages better 
culture. It stimulates native grasses to gain a foothold, and, altogether, 
the sorrel stands a poor chance, and gradually gives up the ground. 


January 16, 1866. 
Mr. Natpian C. Ely in the chair ; Mr. John AV. Chambers, Secretary. 

Death of Professor James J. Mapes. 

Mr "Wm. S. Carpenter. — Since the last meeting we have heard with great 
regret the death of Prof. James J. Mapes, one of our active members, and 
a member of the Committee on Agriculture of the American Institute. 
We have with us to-day a gentleman who has for many years been inti- 
mately connected with the late Professor. I hope he will speak on the 

Mr. P. T. Quinn. — I had hoped some other member would have performed 
this melancholy duty, having been so lately from his sick chamber. I feel 
at the present time unable to make any extended remarks. 

"Prof James J. Mapes was born in New York, May 29, 1806, and died 
in the same city Jan. 10, 1866. By his death not onl}^ this Club loses a 
useful member, but the country one of its leading scientific men, and agri- 
culture one of the most earnest advocates of its improvement. Few men 
have written and spoken more in promotion of agricultural science. He 
was extensively read in chemistr}^, geology, and in all that appertains to 
the arts and manufactures of the world. It may be said he was born a 
chemist, having evinced an aptitude for its study and practice at a very 
early age. When only eight 3'ears old, he produced illuminating gas, a 
substance then almost unknown and wholly unused. At twelve he entered 
the classical school of the Rev. Timothy Clowes, Hempstead, Long Island, 
where he lived two years in the family of the celebrated William Cobbett, 
who did much to incline the bent of his mind toward agriculture as a 
science. Tliese teachings of Cobbett were never forgotten. At the age 
of seventeen he delivered a course of lectures upon Military Tactics, 
which were highly approved. His inventive faculties were always upon 


tlic alert. He made great improvements in refining sngar, which are now 
generally adopted. He was the first person who ever established an office 
in New York as Counsel in the Science of Civil Engineering, in wliich he 
was an adept. As a student and Avriter upon natural history he was made 
a member of the New York Lyceum, the Scientific Institutes of Brussels, 
St. Petersburg, and Paris, and was honored with titles by several State 
Universities. His writings in TJie American Repertory of Arts, Sciences, 
and Manufactures, of which he was editor, and also The Working Farmer, 
have attracted mucli attention, and, in some cases, strong opposition and 
derision from minds too weak to comprehend the workings of a stronger 
one. His great object was to teach agriculture as a science, and he con- 
ducted his farm successfully upon that principle. In 1848, when ho pur- 
chased it, the land was so worn out by injudicious management that five 
acres, sown with oats onl}^, produced thirty-five bushels; tlie same land is 
now the most productive in the State. It has lately yielded as follows: 
250 bushels of potatoes, 650 bushels of carrots, 1,000 bushels of Rutaba- 
gas, or 8,000 Fall cabbages, to the acre. On part of the same sterile 
field now stands a pear-orchard, which will compare favorably with any 
in the countr3^ This great improvement has been produced by under- 
draining, deep-plowing, and the use of the subsoil-lifting plow, of which 
Prof. Mapcs was the inventor. Of course, fertilizers have not been neg- 
lected, for it was his rule to apply all that could be profitably converted 
into crops. The great idea which he has ever inculcated for the permanent 
improvement of land was here practically applied in under draining- not 
only for the purpose of freeing the surface from water, but to aerify, disin- 
tegrate, and ameliorate the soil. « 

Tiie labors of Prof. Mapes in the American and Mechanics' Institutes 

in the latter of which he established a school of design — will ever be 
appreciated by all thinking minds. Of the great advantages that would 
flow out to the country from this Farmers' Club he was always sanguine. 

His title of Professor comes from 25 years' service as Professor of 
Chemistry and Natural History in the American Institute; also, in the 
National Academy of Design, where he gave a course of lectures on the 
Chemietry of Colors, more than 20 years ago. 

Socially, Prof. Mapes was highly gifted, possessing great conversational 
powers, and an inexhaustible fund of anecdote and stories, by which he 
illustrated his subject and instructed his hearers. His benevolence and 
good will were unbounded. His skill as an expert caused him to be 
frequently called upon as a witness in the most important patent cases 
that have been adjudicated. His love of the beautiful and knowledge of 
colors made him a successful amateur artist. One of the greatest delights 
of his life appeared to be instructing the young. He was patient with 
ignorance, and untiring in answering questions. His loss will be deeply 
appreciated by those who were most intimately acquainted with him, and 
by many a young man who has derived great advantages from his 

Mr. Wra. S. Carpenter. — In the death of Prof. Mapes the American 
Institute and this Club have met with a severe loss; indeed, the country 
has lost a public benefactor. His knowledge of Agriculture was exten- 


sive. I made the acquaintance of Prof. Mapes some ten years ag^o, and 
alwa^^s found him ready to impart information. The Professor was the 
inventor of the sub-soiler, an implement now extensively used by pro- 
gressive farmers. 

Mr. C. C. Savage. — I did not intend to say a word to-day, but the 
remarks of Mr. Quinn bring me back to my earlj' youth. The information 
gained from attending the conversational meetings presided over by the 
Professor, who was the master-spirit, has been of invaluable benefit to me 
througli life. I knew him well and loved him, and hope that the remarks 
of Mr. Quinn will be inserted at length in our transactions. 


Mr. C. II. Weidner, Shokan, Ulster county, N. Y., wants advice as to 
how to get poor land into clover: "Farming in this neighborliood is yet 
carried on in the old way of the last century; hence I come to you for 
advice. I have a couple of lots, the soil of which is dry, sand^^ and, from 
long neglect, very poor — not an exception to the land hereabout. I wish 
to get such land into clover. Last year I sowed buckwheat on one lot 
and plowed it under for manure, and in the- fall sowed rye. The other I 
propose to plow up in the spring and sow clover on both. Which is the 
most economical — guano or bone dust? and how much of either would you 
advise to sow to the acre, to give the clover a good start? I cannot close 
without giving my testimony of your high worth, in my esteem, for your 
zealous labors to advance agricultural science." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — We shall reiterate the advice to you to first sow 
corn upon both fields, and plow that in as a foundation for your clover 
crop. You must of necessity use bone dust (flour of bone), because Peru- 
vian guano is entirely too high to be used upon any crop that does not 
pay a large profit. AVe would not advise you to harvest the rye, but to 
plow that under some time in June, drilling corn in every furrow. Plow 
that in the latter part of September, and upon that sow clover, which, at 
one or two years old, without mowing or pasturing, plow under, and your 
land will then be fit for any crop which you wish to grow. Remember 
that it is cheaper to grow manure upon the soil than to apply it in any 
other way. To restore worn-out land you must give up cropping it for thei 
one or two j^ears which are necessar}^ to recoat it with a sod; that is worth 
more, when rotted, than any ordinary dressing of manure. 

Mr. W. S Carpenter rscommended the use of plaster, not only upon the 
manure crops, but upon the clover when first sown — say two bushels pep 

Unproductive Bees. 

Mr. Samuel T. Duffell, Yardville, Mercer county, N. J., wants to know 
how he shall induce bees to store honey in cap-boxes. He says: " I have 
a score of hives, and not 20 pounds of honey can I obtain unless I kill the 
bees, which I am unwilling to do. I can get plent}^ of swarms, eight and 
ten a season — fine, large swarms. I make hives of inch boards one foot 
square, 16 inches higli, and about May place caps on, and find them empty 
in fall; but the hive will be full of honey, with none in the caps. Now, is 


it because of the oli-fashioiicd hives? Will the gentlemen of the Club give 
me their experience in bee-culture? Shall I try the new, movable comb- 
hives, and, if so, whose shall it b(;? Will the ' non-swarming ' hive answer?" 
Mr. Solon Robinson. — I have suffered the same difficult}-, and have failed 
to find a remedy. 1 have tried the non-swarming hive, and various patent 
hives, and have fallen back upon the very one which you describe; and I 
now have several hives in the same condition as yours. I can get swarms, 
but I cannot coax them to m.ake honey in boxes. I have watched thefn 
day and iiight, to kill the worms, and associated with them freely to keep 
them gentle, but have despaired of getting any profit out of them by gentle 
persuasion. My opinion is, that some localities will not produce honey; 
at least it fails in some seasons, and I have come to the conclusion that 
bee-keeping in my locality is an unprofitable business. 

Codling Moth — How to Destroy. 

Mr. Henry Turner, Pulaski, Jackson county, Michigan, writes: "I wish 
to tell the Farmers' Club how I destroy the codling moth. When my trees 
are in full bloom I select a warm evening, and, about early candle light, 
build blazing fires of the limbs pi'uned from the trees. The result is, my 
apples are much less wormy than formerly. I only kept the fire burning 
one evening, about an hour." 

The Benefit of Birds. 

Mr. Jared P. Kirtland, East Rockport, Cuyahoga county, Ohio, writes: 
"The mere talk about preventive means against the ravages of insects 
amounts to little — no more than the prayers of the wagoner to Jupiter. 
The shoulder must be applied to the wheel. Vigilance is the only secret 
of success. There is no patent nostrum or secret in the matter. We must 
encourage the birds to work for us. What does the Farmers' Club say on 
the subject of the house-sparrow? What would be the result of importing 
and setting loose in gardens and lawns, in the northern, middle and west- 
ern States, numerous colonies of the European house-sparrow? As this 
bird would be a winter resident, it would prove a valuable aid in attack- 
ing this depredating insect in the moth state, at a period when very few 
insectivorous birds visit our premises. At other seasons it is said to be 
extremely active and vigilant in capturing larvae and motl;s. Mudie, in 
his ' British Birds,' says: 'But for them,' the house-sparrow, 'the house 
flies would, in some situations, multiply to such an extent as to be intoler- 
able; and were they not incessant in the destruction of the cabbage but- 
terflies, it is doubtful whether one plant of the tribe could be reared in the 
market garden.' This sparrow, together with the English skylark, has 
already become localized to some extent, and is breeding successfully on 
Staten Island. Why do not enterprising farmers and gentlemen of wealth 
import and diffuse it extensiA^ely?" 

Black Knots. 

A correspondent at Franklin, N. Y., asks : "Are the black knots which 
infest the plum and the cherry trees the same in kind? Thirty years ago 


we had a number of large and thrifty plum trees which bore an abundance 
of fruit everj^ year. AVhen the black knot appeared, the plum trees rapidly 
disappeared. We then set out cherry trees, which thrived for a dozen 
years or more, when the black knot attacked tbem also, and this year, for 
the first time, they yielded no fruit, and may be considered dead, as the 
black knots upon the few that yet remain are more numerous than the 
leaves were the last summer. In the meantime several plum trees have 
started up, and more are appearing- every year, and all of them are appa- 
rently health}^; scarcel}' a black knot is to be found upon any of them, and 
upon some none at all. And yet all of these trees stand less than two rods 
from infected cherry trees. The plum trees first fruited three years ago. 
The following year the circulio appeared, and no plums matured. The last 
year I undertook to cut out the curculio eggs with a knife, but every plum 
thus treated generally had two or more eggs deposited in it the next day. 
I then adopted the plan of jarring tlie trees once or twice a day, or week, 
as I had occasion to pass them. The result was several quarts of ripe 

Mr. John G. Bergen. — My theory about the young plum trees not being 
attacked b}'' the black knot is simply this: I find all young trees less liable 
to that disease than older ones. The cause of the disease has never yet 
been ascertained. If you cut off and destroy all the knots upon your place, 
it will not prove a sovereign remedy, though the young shoots for several 
years will be less liable to attack, owing to their more vigorous growth, 
but will eventually be again affected. 

Mr. R. 11. Williams thinks the knot is caused by insects. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter says entomologists decide it is not: A neighbor 
of his cut off all the affected limbs, and the new growth has remained seve- 
ral 5'ears free and fruitful. 

Mr. R H. Williams said he had found knots growing upon sprouts of his 
trees. Some varieties are much more liable to be affected than others. 

Mr, R. J. Dodge thought it very clear that the knots of the plum and 
cherry were produced by the same cause, whatever that may be. 


The above correspondent saj^s: " On one of the highest hills in this town 
is a large swamp of 20 or 30 acres, covered chiefly with moss, cranberry- 
vines, pitcher-plants, and a low kind of laurel. This swamp w^as once, no 
doubt, a pond of water ; but in process of time it has become completely 
filled up and grown over with aquatic vegetation of unknown depth. 
Could this swamp be drained, it would probably becon^e in time a peat-bed 
of great thickness, composed almost exclusively of vegetable matter. 

" In our lowland swamps, after removing the surface of bogs, Ave find a 
black earth which we call muck, comoosed of clay, sand and vegetable 
matter, in perhaps equal quantities. Is this peat, and will it burn? If so, 
can ordinary farmers utilize it for heating purposes without an expensive 
outlay for machinery and implements for its preparation, and will it pay — 
wood being worth $3 and $4 per cord?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — We think the matter described as muck is not peat, 
which is wholly a vegetable growth and unmixed with sand, and is not 


general!}^ found in situations where sand has been washed in upon it. Its 
most natural location is in basins without any outlet. It is frequently 
mixed with decayed leaves and other vegetable mold, to such an extent as 
to diniinisli its value as fuel. Where it is found tolerably pure, it needs 
no machinery to make it available for domestic use. Cut it out in blocks 
and dry it, and it will be economical fuel wherever wood is $3 or $4 per 
cord. It will not cost as much to prepare a cord of peat for the stove as a 
cord of wood. It will probably give out twice as much heat. The ques- 
tion of utilizing the peat beds of this country shonld be generally discussed, 
and efforts made to make them available. We should think it was highly 
important to our correspondent to have cheap fuel, as he states that " the 
thermometer, January 8, was 24 degrees below zero. Tuesday, the 9th, 
15 degrees. We call it cold weather here jifst now." 

Grape Grafting. 

Mr. J. Fullonton, New Hampton, N. H., writes : "Last spring I grafted 
Concord scions on native stocks of grapevines, some on branches four or 
five inches above the ground, others on the root some two or three inches 
below the surface. The buds swelled, and some even put forth leaves; but 
ultimately all died. Does grape-grafting require any special provision or 
care to insure success ? A hint from some member of the Club might set 
me and others in the same predicament right in this matter. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — We see no reason why grafts set below ground 
should not have succeeded, unless it was owing to the severe drouth which 
prevailed last summer. To obviate this, we suggest banking up the graft 
as fast as the wood hardens, and keeping it well watered. Grape-grafts 
should always be set below the surface, either in autumn or very early in 
the spring, or the stock will bleed so as to destroy the scion. 

Training Vines upon Trees. 

Mr. J. H. Sandborn, Vaudalia, III., reiterates his recommendation to train 
vines upon trees, and, in answer to a Pennsylvania correspondent wdio ob- 
jects on account of the difficulty of gathering the fruit, says : 

" My plan does not propose to train the vines into the tree-tops. On the 
contrary, the tops and top liuibs were to be sawn off as much as possible, 
the design being to form a lasting horizontal trellis with little labor. The 
trees should be half girdled, or more, and the vines can be manured when 
set, and additional dressing, &c., applied yearly upon the surface around 
the trees. The vine roots will feed for j^ears upon the decaying roots and 
leaves of the trees, and run to a great distance. The vines should not be 
taken down in winter. Don't be alarmed about them. Cold weather won't 
kill them as it does those poor, sickly things tied to stakes. Next week I 
will describe my method of growing peaches in cold climates. It is worth 
thousands of dollars to northern farmers." 

Large Black Hamburg Grapis. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — The largest cluster of this variety of grape ever 
recorded, was one recently produced in England by Mr. Meredith of Gar^- 


ton, near Liverpool, which weighed nine pounds eight ounces. It had six 
shoulders, each of which was equal to an ordinary cluster, the whole form- 
ing a magnificent bunch. The judges of the exhibition awarded Mr. 'M. 
the highest medal at their command. 

Vineyards in Palestine — Grapes of Eschol. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — In the Rev. Dr. Newman's late work, "From Dan 
to Beersheba, " he describes vine^^ard culture in the Yale of Hebron, which 
is still famous for the delicious grapes of Eschol: 

"Extending up the valley for more than a mile, and covering the slop- • 
ing hills upon either side, these celebrated vinej^ards are cultivated with 
care. They have no arbors; the vines are planted in rows from eight to 
ten feet apart in each direction. When they attain a height of six feet 
they are attached to a stake, placed in a sloping position, and the shoots 
extend from vine to vine, forming a long and graceful festoon. Occasion- 
ally two opposite rows are purposely inclined toward each other, forming 
with their brandies a natural arbor. After vintage, in late autumn, all the 
shoots are pruned off, and tiie stalks are cut down within a few feet of the 
ground, leaving an ungainly and apparently dead trunk; but the returning 
spring brings forth new shoots and fruits 

"In each vineyard there is a watchman's lodge, and during the vintage, 
the people occupy these lodges, each one sitting beneath his own vine and 
fig-tree, where they enjoy an annual festival. As tlie Moslems cannot use 
wine, they make raisins or concentrate the grape-juice into a delicious syrup. 

"It was here that the spies sent out by Moses cut down a branch with 
one cluster of grapes, 'and the}^ bare it between two upon a staff.' To those 
who live in a northern climates, this story of the enormous size and great 
w^eight of a bunch of grapes, must seem incredible; but the truth is abun- 
dant that in southern latitudes grapes grow to an enormous size. Pliny 
speaks of a bunch of African grapes larger than an infant, and Paul Lucas 
saw bunches at Damascus weighing fort^'^-five pounds each. In this vine- 
yard the simile is perfect of 'a certain householder who planted a vineyard, 
hedged it round about, digged a wine-press in it, built a tower, and let it 
out to husbandmen.' | 

"Within the same vale are groves of olives and orchards of figs, apricots, 
and pomegranates. The latter is sweet, the size of an orange, pale yellow 
color, tinged with a red blush. It grows upon a thorny bush, with a tulip- 
shaped flower of a brilliant red color, and it forms one of the luxuries of 
the East, both to natives^and strangers. 

"The Oak of Abraham stands in the midst of the vineyards. It is an 
evergreen. The bole girts twentj^three feet, which separates, six feet 
from the ground, into four huge branches, which, higher up, turn and 
spread out, covering a circle ninety feet in diameter." 

Dr. J. V.^C. Smith. — This brings recollections of my own travels in Pales- 
tine fresh to the mind. The manner of training grapes at Hebron is an 
exception to the general rule. I do not recollect elsewhere ever to have 
seen stakes. The canes grow from great ctumps, sometimes as big' as my 
lody, and trail over stones or rocks, or down upon the ground. Frequent- 



ly vines ascend fig-trees, so that one literally "sits under a vine and fi^- 
treo" at the same time. I have been very careful in stating- facts of grape- 
growing as I have seen it in that country, lest I should not be believed. 
The vines grow most luxuriantl}^, produce abundantly, and the bunches 
are exceedingly large, and the berries very rich. Only in Italy is frellis- 
ing vineyards practiced. In Germany vines are all trained to stakes. I 
have traveled a good deal in Missouri and Kansas, and, comparing that 
section vrith the great grape-growing regions I have visited in the East, I 
am free to say that I fully believe that those States will become great 
wine producing countries. When wine is abundant, intemperance will 
cease. Italy is full of beggars, but has no drunkards. I was once solici- 
ted for a small coin by a beggar, who gave as his reason for being so un- 
fortunate, that he had not had a drop of wine that da3^ For a cent he 
could buy a tumblerful and a piece of coarse bread moistened v\nth 
snail-broth. Tliat satisfied his appetite, and he could use the nearest 
gentleman's doorstep for a bed, and there sleep soundly, quite as content- 
ed and happy as the owner of the mansion. The lazzaroni of Italy are com- 
posed of wine-drinking beggars. 

Improved Stock Mark. 

Mr. G. W. Devin,Ottumwa, Iowa, has invented a new stock mark. He 
stamps the name and location of the owner upon a circular piece of metal 
half or three-fourths of an inch in diameter, which is fastened to the ear of 
the animal by a broad-headed rivet, made with a shoulder so as not to 

"The holes are made with an ordinary cutting-punch. This will always 
show who is the owner; so that, go where it may, the animal is not liable 
to be 'posted' as an 'estray,' at an expense of S2 or $3 to the owner; for 
any one taking it up reads at once the mark and places a letter in the 
office, notifying him that he has found his horse or cow, as the case may be. 

"At shearing time, the farmer readily identifies his own sheep, and if 
one belonging to neighbor 'Parker,' two or three of neighbor 'Kent's,' and 
perhaps one of 'Mr. Roddy's,' are found among them, he pens them up and 
sends his neighbor word. These metallic cards are also very handy for 
marking bridles, saddles, harness, grain-sacks, tools, &c. 

"Your judgment upon the merits and faults of my stock mark will be 
very thankfully received by me, before I place it before the public for trial. 
I of course, use a metal not liable to create soreness. 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — This is a capital invention. It will promote hu-' 
manity to dumb brutes. It should be gratuitously advertised by all agri- 
cultural papers. If generally introduced, it will do away with the shame- 
ful mutilations now practiced in cutting and hacking the ears by " a square 
crop off the left, with a half-penny out of the under edge; two slits at the 
end of the right ear; two notches on the under side.'' And yet, what does 
it mean ? or what intelligence does it convey to any stranger ? We thank 
Mr. Devin for his improvement, and hope he may be bountifully compen- 

[Am. Inst.] U 


How TO Catch Moles. 

Mr. A. Wickersham, Patoka, Marion county, 111., says he is successful in 
ridding his ground of moles by the following nrieans: 

" Go in the morning and tramp their grounds hard. Go again, in the 
middle of the day, with as little noise as possible, and you will see w^here 
the mole is rooting to open his road. Tramp the earth down behind him, 
and toss him out with the spade. It w^ill beat all mole-traps." 

Feeding Corn-stalks. ^ 

Mr. John Fitch, AYellsburgh, Chemung county, N. Y., writes: "The 
cause of some of the diseases of cows spoken of in the Club is probably 
feeding corn stalks when the}^ are almost as dry and hard as hoop-poles* 
Such food is not fit to feed ^^oung, healthy cows, with good appetites — 
especialh^ where the cows are driven by starvation to eat too much of the 
dried stalks. The same rule holds good in feeding cattle on maple, or any 
other browse. Cattle are sometimes injured by eating too much good corn- 
fodder, and may sometimes be relieved by giving a sufficient quantity of 
salt immediately, or a pint of melted lard, or butter, well-salted. It is far 
better and safer for the stock alway^ to make it a rule to soak or steam 

Buildings for Storing Vegetables Above Ground. 

Mr. G. W. Shepard, Geneva, Ashtabula county, Ohio, writes: "There 
are places in the \Yest where we cannot obtain cellars under our buildings, 
in consequence of surface water, unless at a heavy cost of cementing, as 
the water percolates all .through the earth. Can I make a building for 
storing vegetables, a double-wall, boarded frame, filled in with sawdust? 
If so, how thick must the wall be to keep out frost ?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — To be safe, the wall should be at least 18 inches 
thick. I have built several cellars above the surface, of wood, brick, and 
stone, and have one now in use that can stand the cold weather of 20 de- 
grees below zero. It is made of a stone wall six and a half feet high, 
covered with red cedar timbers, and earthed in the form of a mound, which, 
being covered with blue grass sod, is rather an ornamental feature of the 
farmery. A parallelogram form is preferable on account of convenience in 
covering. The one described is seven by twenty feet inside. The entrance 
is by a double door at the south end. I commend this style of making a 
cellar to all \Yestern emigrants. 

Beach's Wheel Horse Hay Rake, 

Mr. L. Beach, Montrose, Pa., exhibited a model of his hay rake, which 
he claims is vx^orked with less labor, both to man and horse, than any other 
machine of this class now in use. 



January 23, 1866. 
Mr. Nathan C. Ely in the chair ; Mr. John W. Chambers, Secretary. 

Sweet Corn for Distribution. 

Mr. James B. Olcott writes from East Greenwich, R. I.: "I sent you 
some sweet corn for distribution last year. I have raised more^this year, 
with a view to a wider cjissemination of this seed, and, if desired, will 
send another lot to the Club for distribution. I desire no profit, I am 
.only anxious that such as would like the seed of a peculiarly tender and 
sweet corn should have it. I should be especially glad that all applicants 
from the South, without regard to color, should be supplied. There may, 
of course, be a better kind in existence. If there is, I would gladly pay 
85 for an ear of it." 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — I wish to express my individual thanks to Mr. 
Olcott, and, in doing so, I know I shall express the opinion of many others, 
for his thoughtfulness and kindness in sending a supply'' of this corn last 
year. I believe I have grown about every variety that has been offered, 
and say of this, without hesitation, it is decidedly the best I have ever 
tried. It is better even than that distributed by Dr. Trimble. 

Col. Henry. — I was surprised to find, while at the South, how little there 
is known about sweet corn. Some persons to whom I offered to distribute 
seed were hard to be convinced tliat it would grow, as they thought it had 
been gathered before ripe, and had shriveled. I have been told by a farmer 
that he finished fatting his hogs with sweet corn, and thought it gave a 
peculiarly rich flavor to the pork. 

The Chairman. — I am not surprised at that statement, since we all know 
that the qualit}^ of pork is affected by the food from which it is made. 

Corn Cribs. 

Mr. Thomas Cavenach inquired if any member of the Club could tell 
why farmers built corn cribs narrower at the bottom than at the top? 

Mr. Adrian Bergen thought it was fancy. 

Col. Henry thought it was because it prevented the weight of the corn 
pressing so heavily on that at the bottom. 

Mr. Wm. S. Carpenter thought, as they were generally constructed with 
slats, they were of this form to prevent the storms from beating in. He 
has a different plan of ventilating his corn crib. It is built with upright 
posts, sided horizontally, the lower edge of the boards being raised by in- 
serting blocks about three-quarters an of inch thick. It is made rat-proof by 
elevating the frame upon posts, which are capped with old tin pans bottom 
upward. The floor is made of slats, which gives good ventilation through 
the pile of corn. 

Mr. S. Edwards Todd told us how to get rats or squirrels out of a crib 
of corn. Take a bar of iron and run it through the pile in several places, 
shaking up and down so as to stir the whole mass, and the rats will run as 
surely as from a sinking ship. 

Mr. Solon Robinson said it amused him to hear people talking about 
taking so much pains to shelter corn from the weather. At the West he 


has seen vast quantities of it put up in rail-pens, and, if the ears are dry 
and clean when cribbed, they are not much more liable to damage from rain 
than the rails themselves. 

Lenox's New Potato-Digger. 

Mr. E. S. Lenox, Newcastle, Me., exhibited the model of a new potato- 
dig-g-er, which has a more sensible, practical appearance than any of the 
family which we have heretofore seen, as there is no complication of ma- 
chinery more than there is about an ordinnry plow, and it will not be much 
more expensive. It is constructed of two beams, fastened by cross-bars 
at any given distance apart, say 18 inches. Upon each of these beams 
there is a small plow^share, and between them a concave piece of iron some- 
what resembling an ox-shovel, except that it is open at the back, which is 
about 10 inches higher than the point. Behind this is a set of spring-steel 
rake-teeth similar to those of horse-rakes. A pair of horses or oxen being 
hitched to the machine, straddling the row, the two plowshares turn away 
all the loose dirt outside of the bed which contains the tubers. This is 
lifted bodilj by the scraper, and runs up the inclined plane and drops over 
the hind end, leaving nearly all the potatoes upon the surface. The few 
that ma}^ be covered by the loose earth are broiight to lig'ht by the rake. 
Small stones do not interfere with the working of the machine, nor do the 
dead vines; green ones will have to be pulled out of the way. 

Several of the members remarked that it would not suit some of the 
slovenly farmers of this vicinity, who allow weeds to grow four feet high 
among the vines. 

Mr. Solon Robinson said they could practice what they do now — mow 
the grouiid and clean it with the horse-rake. He thought this new potato- 
digger would prove decidedly advantageous to farmers. 

French System of Weights and Measures. 

Mr. Geo. Bartlett gave an instructive discourse upon the decimal system 
of French weights and measures, which is all based upon four units, as 
follow, with approximate values: 

Meter, 39| inches; gram, 15| grains; liter, 1| pints, or a cube each 
side of which is a decimeter. 

The decimals are: 10 meters, decameter ; 100 meters, hectometer; 1,000 
meters, kilometer; 10,000 meters, myriameters. 

One-tenth meter decimeter; 1-lOOth meter, centimeter ; 1-lOOOth meter, 

Ten grams, decagram; 100 grams, hectogram; 1,000 grams, kilogram — 
2| lbs. Also one-tenth grame, decimeter, etc. - 

Mr. Bartlett said he thought there was some prospect of this system 
beino- adopted this v/inter at Washington, and that when once understood 
by the people, it would be as highly approved as the decimal currency. 

Calvert on Ammonia as a Manure. 

Mr. Geo. Bartlett. — It is a curious fact that plants cannot obtain the 
nitrogen that they need from the atmosphere, but that this element mus 


be supplied by costly manuring. What makes this fact so curious is only 
two and a half per cent of the substance of plants is nitrogen, while this 
element forms the principal portion of tlie atmosphere — 76.9 per cent. Fur- 
thermore, plants obtain their carbon, which forms about half of tiieir sub- 
stance, principally from the atmosphere, although the proportion of carbon 
in the atmosphere is not more than one-seventh of one per ceiit. The ex- 
planation of this is of course to be found in the relation of the chemical 

Of all the eighty elements at present known, nitrogen has the feeblest 
affinities. It has no desire to enter into union or combination with other 
substances. It is the old bachelor, the recluse, the solitary among ele- 
ments. It prefers to exist in its free uncombined state, rather than in 
combination or union with any others; and if, in exceptional circumstances, 
it is induced to combine with other elements, the slightest cause is suffi- 
cient to break up the union and restore nitrogen to its free and independent 
existence. In the atmosphere it exists in company with other hubstances, 
but though with tliem it is not of them; the association is a mechanical 
mingling, not the close union of chemical combination. 

Before nitrogen can enter into the constitution of a plant, it must be in* 
duced to combine with some other element which will carr}^ it in. A plant 
may be perishing for want of a few grains of nitrogen, and though three- 
fourths of the wind that fans its leaves is constituted of this element, not 
a single particle can it drink in to save its existence. This was long in 
dispute, but now seems to be settled. Dr. F. Grace Calvert, in a recent 
lecture before thQ Society of Arts, England, after a very learned summary 
of the investigations on the subject, remarks: 

" An animated discussion, based upon a long series of researches, ensued 
between Boussingault andVille, the latter contending that plants could ab- 
sorb nitrogen from the atmosphere aud fix it as a part of their organism ; 
the former contending that the nitrogen contained in plants was derived 
either from ammonia or nitric acid. This discussion was still proceeding 
when Mr. Lawes and Drs. Gilbert and Pugh published, in the " Memoirs of 
the Chemical Society of London," 18C3, such a complete and elaborate 
series of researches that chemists came to the conclusion that the nitrocren 
existing in plants was not derived'from the atmosphere as nitrogen. There 
can be no doubt that the general tendency of scientific as well as practical 
investigation, as above stated, proves that it is most probably under the 
form of nitric acid, or more so in a. state of nitrates, that nitrogen pene- 
trates into plants, and becomes one of the essential elements of the forma- 
tion of albumen, fibrine, legumine, or other nitrogenated substances which 
are found existing in vegetables." 

An atom of ammonia is composed of three atoms of hydrogen and one of 
nitrogen, N H3, and as an atom of nitrogen is fourteen times as heavy as 
an atom of hydrogen, the proportion by weight is three pounds of hydro- 
gen to fourteen of nitrogen. Ammonia contains more nitrogen in propor- 
tion to its weight than any other compound. Nitric acid is composed of 
nitrogen and oxygen in the atomic proportion of N O5, and as the atomic 
weight of oxygen is 8, the proportion by weight is forty pounds of oxygen 
to fourteen of nitrogen. Dr. Calvert concludes that the nitrogen is first 


taken from ammonia to form nitric acid before it enters into the combina- 
tion of plants. He says: 

"If tlie conversion of nitrogen into nitric acid, under the influence of cer- 
tain mineral substances, has been known by its results for a long period 
in what is called the nitrification in the walls of our dwellings, still the 
demonstration of the conversion of ammonia into nitric acid is the result of 
comparatively recent researches. 

The most interesting series of researches published on this subject are 
those due to M. Millon, which you will find in the " Comptes Rendus de 
VAcademie de Sciences, 1864," in which he has shown that the production 
of nitre is in ratio with the quantity of vegetable matter, especially humic 
acid, that a soil contains, and that the most favorable land for the produc- 
tion of nitre is that which is called mold by gardeners. He further ascer- 
tained that if he had made a mixture composed of ordinary earth 20 parts, 
ashes 4, mold three, the production of nitre was most active, and also that 
the oxygen of the air had a great influence on its production, converting 
the ammonia resulting from the decay of the organic matter into nitric acid. 

These facts are well illustrated in the following table quoted from his 
researches: — 

Nitrification. Parts, 

f Earth 20 

Soil ^ Ashes 4 

[ Decayed manure 3 

Quantity of Nitre. 

Upper la3'er 440 

Middle layer 441 

Bottom layer 009 

From the above you will gather that in the upper part of a bed (one 
meter in depth, and composed as above shown) there is far more nitre than 
in the lower portions of it. These researches of M. Millon threw much 
light on those published some years since by M. Boussingault, who ascer- 
tained the rate of proportions of nitre that existed in various qualities of 
soils, and also the influence of manured land on the production of nitre in 
soils. Thus, M. Boussingault found that" the quantity of nitre in non- 
manured land was a mere trace; in uncultivated land there were from 1 to 
0.5 in 1,000 parts of soil, while in cultivated land, and in higlily manured 
ground, 18 parts in 1,000. He further observed that if he nuxnured a piece 
of land, after seven days there were 12 parts of nitre per 1,000; in 17 days, 
81 parts; in 15 da^^s more, 233; in 15 da3^s more, 280; and in 15 days 
further, 260; and then the quantity decreased rapidly." 

Peach Trees. 

Mr. Joseph P. Harvey, Uniontown, Ohio, writes: " I cultivate fruit trees, 
berries, &c., on a small lot in this place, and have a seedling peach tree 
which was planted in 1827, making the age of the tree 29 years; circum- 
ference of trunk at bottom, three feet five inches; circumference near first 
branches, three feet two inches; hight of trunk, four feet. This tree is a 
vigorous grower, and produces an abundance of sound, healthy fruit, which 
is large, bright red on the sunny side, flesh rich, melting and juicy, ripen- 


mg at the end of August. The pits produce the same kind of fruit. This 
tree bore two bushels of good peaches last season, when almost all the 
trees in this locality failed. We had a good supply from other trees which 
were j^ounger. Peaches sold for $6 per bushel. I use coal ashes plenti- 
fully, and sometimes remove the earth and fill in with fresh earth, bones, 
&c. I believe coal ashes to be beneficial to fruit trees, small fruits and 


Mr. Ilarve}'' asks the following question: "Will the Club please inform 
me of the mode of cultivating and propagating ginseng?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — In answer, the Club would say that all efforts to 
cultivate ginseng have proved failures. It is a plant that flourishes only 
in a wild condition in rich vegetable moid and shaded locations. 


Mr. John Potter, Worthington, Franklin County, Ohio, writes: 
"I believe we have many hardy bushes or trees that we can make 
hedges of, the main thing being good cultivation while the plants are 
young, and keeping them properly clipped. I am trying honej^-locusts, 
and, so far, am well satisfied. I have no faith in any kind of willow for 
hedges. I am glad to see you stirring up the people to plant trees both 
for shelter and timber, and am sure we ought to be doing it in Ohio, at the 
rate the old forest trees are being used up and dying out. I think most 
all landowners who make any pretense to patriotism ought to grow trees 
of some kind, and in some shape or other. I very often think how com- 
fortable it would be to have two or three nice rows of evergreens to. 
protect us from the cold west winds, and what capital shelter they would 
make for the insect-destroying birds. I am trying to raise some to set out, 
but find it rather a slow process for farmers. I wish the nurserymen 
could furnish them to us at a somewhat cheaper rate, and then that every 
farmer would grow some. I know of nothing that would add so much to 
the appearance and comfort of our homes. I sometimes think that minis- 
ters could do a vast deal of good by urging their hearers to pay more 
attention to making their homes attractive." 

Value of Ashes. 

Mr. C. C. King, Wabash, Tnd., inquires: " What is the worth of a bank 
of wood-ashes that has been accumulating for years, at a steam saw-mill 
where the fuel used is the slabs and sawdust, mostly from poplar, oak and 
black-walnut timber ? Would it be worth hauling two miles to apply to 
clay land ? What crop would you apply it to — wheat or grass ? and when • 
should it be applied ?" 

Mr. Solon Robinson. — I cannot answer what such ashes would be worth ' 
upon the rich lands of the Wabash Valley, but upon the sandy lands of 
Long Island, or the exhausted soil upon the hills around New York, some 
of us would be glad to get it by paying 25 cents a bushel and hauling it 
two miles. We would apply it to grass, wheat, corn, or any other crop, 
in a growing state. 


Mr. John G. Bergen. — I don't know about that statement of the value 
of ashes upon all the lands of Long Island. My brother and I have tried 
it without benefit. 

Mr. AVm. S. Carpenter and Mr. Solon Robinson think it most useful upon 
sandy land. I doubt that, and would recommend to the Wabash gentle- 
man to experiment carefully with the ashes upon corn, potatoes, grass and 
wheat. Put it on in strips through the field, so that he can see exactly 
how much benefit he can derive from the use of ashes. 

Mr. R. H. Williams said it was not potash alone that made ashes valu- 
able; it was the residuum of vegetable matter pulverized by fire. Besides, 
they contained a great deal of charcoal, which would furnish carbonaceous 
matter for plants. 

Mr. George Bartlett thought that unnecessary, because plants draw all 
their carbon from the atmosphere. In answer to the question, what 
quantity of ashes could be obtained from a cord of wood? Mr. Bartlett 
said the estimate was based upon an average of five per cent of the weight 
of seasoned hard wood, 

Mr. P. T. Quinn said he was satisfied by experience that New Jersey 
farmers could afford to pay 40 or 50 cents per bushel for unleached ashes 
to apply upon general crops upon clay lands. He has found them partic- 
ularly valuable, when spread upon the surface, for fruit-trees. 

Reports of the Club. 

Mr. J. F. Duncklee, Girard, Macoupin County, Illinois, writes: 

"As there are a great many valuable things in these reports which I 
should like to preserve for future reference, I want to know if it would not 
be an object for some future publisher to print them in pamphlet form ? 
Cannot the Club have it done ? I tliink it would meet with a large sale." 

Dr. Hexamer, a Westchester county farmer, says: "In the absence of 
any such publication, I recommend to our correspondent to cut out the 
reports weekly and paste them in a scrap-book, keeping an alphabetical 
index of all the subjects. I have practiced this plan for some years, and 
find it highly beneficial. I find the current literature of the day worth 
more than books; but it would be almost useless to preserve all the agri- 
cultural papers for reference. By making a scrap-book, which any 
ingenious person can do by procuring some strong, smooth, thin, buff- 
paper, and arranging it in a convenient form, everything desirable which 
he finds in his daily reading can be preserved for future reference, by 
making a complete index as the work progresses. Sometimes the infor- 
mation to be preserved may be greatly condensed by putting it in a;iew 
form in your own handwriting. Any general reader who practices this 
system for one year will be surprised at the amount of valuable matter 
that he has obtained, and will be very apt to continue this method of cheap 

The Chairman. — There is one way by w4iich any gentleman may obtain 
all of these reports and much more valuable information which is printed 
in the annual volumes of " The Transactions of the American Institute," 
and distributed to members, though they are not for sale. These volumes 
are wcrth much more than the $3 annual fees of members. 

proceedings of the farmers club. 329 

Location of Farm Houses. 

Mr. G. W. Stebbins, Portland, N. Y., urges upon farmers about to build, 
to locate tlieir houses away from the public roads. He says: 

" A grove, an orchard, a field, a stream with a rustic bridge, between 
the highway and the house, all or either will add to the beauty of the loca- 
tion. The first requisite for a house away from the highway is a good 
road. This may best be laid out after a plan of Ik. Marvel's : * Drive a 
loaded wagon the easiest way to your gate, and let the ruts mark the road/ 
Take out the turf lor the compost heap, fill up with small stones, and cover 
with as good gravel as you can get. A tongue should be fixed in a heavy 
beam of wood about six feet long, an old saw or other iron plate should be 
fastened on the bottom for a scraper, and this should be drawn over the 
road to smooth it as often as necessary. There should be rust